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■,,C.oo'^lc. ' 


T. LucRETi Cari 


Wa'^ an Jfntnttruction 






C-ffyrighi, 1SS4, 
By JoHN Allyn. 



In the present volume an attempt has been made to 
explain some portions of Lucrettus' De Rerum Natura. 
The poem is printed in full for the reason that, bcing a work 
of art, it ought to be presented as a wbole. The first, third, 
and fiflh books were chosen for comment because they con- 
taia the gist of the poefs doctrine and a greater number of 
line passages than the others. It is hoped that the reading 
of the remaining books will be facilitated by the analysis of 
the subject-matter given at the end of the introduction. 
/ TTie tert is that of Munro's third edition, from which it 
was reprinted with his authoiization. To justify the adoption 
of this text in a book intended primarily for the use of stu- 
dents, seems hardly necessary ; for Munro's Lucretius marked 
a ncw era in the critical study as well as the interpretation of 
ihe poet. The more important emendations and variations 
of reading in the first, third, and fiflh books are given in the 
notes. It has not been thought advisable to indicate in the 



text or notice in the commentary the numerous transpositiom 
of lines su^ested by Munro, because they are a sonrce of 
confusion to any but the critical scholar. Most stiidents, 
and general readers as well, prefer a text in either prose 
or poetry free from all marks not needful for convenient 

The introduction waa prepared with the design of offering 
some suggestions regarding the personality of Lucretius, his 
mission in philosophy, and his rank as a poet. In the notes 
it has been the editor^s aim not simply to explain the more 
difficult word-forms and constructions, but also to bring out 
the philosophic import of the passages annotated in the 
light of both ancient and modern thought Most classical 
writings have an interest for us mainly because of the general 
human element in them, — because they crystallize in artistic 
form somethlng that appcds to thinking men of all times and 
of all nations. But Lucretius stands in close relation with 
the life of the present, His work is not lacking in the power 
and (iiiish that mark the true poet, — one the duration of 
whose fame is to be measured not by decades, but by 
centuries. At the same time his veise is the vehicle of a 
philosophic system, which, recurring from time to time in 
the speculations of the past, has only in the present genera- 
tion found its fullest development and exposJtion, and its 
widest application. The De Rerum Natura reveals its 
deepest significance only when studied in connection with 
the thought of to-day. ' 



Frequent dtations in the notes and introductJon indicate 
the works which the editor has found occasion to refer to in 
the preparation of this book. Of the cotnmentaries, tbat by 
Munro has been most drawn upon. The changes in this 
second edition are comparatively few aside from the correc- 
tion of some typographical errors. 

Lake Fokett, III., 

Nov., 1838. 







(i.) Philosophy among the Romans in Lacretius* tiine xvl 
(ii.) Epicureanism up to the time of Lucretius . . . xviii 
(iii.) Epicureaniam as set forth by Lucretius .... xxri 

I. Theoiy oi knowlei%e zzvi 

i. Theory oE the universe xxviii 

3. Tlieocj' o£ organic life zxxiii 

4. View of man xnxiv 

(iv.) Lucretius in the light of histOry xxxvii 

I. The mission and influence ot Lucretius in phi- 

losophy xxxvii 

3. Atomisro, ancient and modern xli 

III. LfCKETius As A PoET xlviii 

(i.) LiteraJ7 characteristics of the De Renm Naiura xlriii 

(ii-) Analysis of the i^ Rerum Katura lii 


BooK I I 

BooK II. 34 

BoOK III 68 

BooK IV. 100 

BooK V 137 

BooK VI 179 


To BooK I «i? 

To BooK III 293 

To BoOK V 335 


" LuCRETiDS, nobler than his mood ; 

Who droppij his plummet down the bntd, 

Dcep uuiverse, and said, ' No God,' 
" Finding no bottoni : he denied 

Divinely tbe Divine, and died 

CWef poet on the Tlbei-side." 

Mrs. Browning, 'Vision of Poels.' 

"Lucretins, living moumfullf in tbe moral desert his doubts bad 
scorched into bairenness," — Farrar, 'History of Free Thought.' 

" In Lacrelioa the Roman characler foutid iis most perfcct literaiy 
Incamation." — J. A. Svmonds, 'Forlnighlly Keview/ 

" Lucretius had drunk deeper of Ihe scienlific spirit Ihan any other 
poet of andent or modem times except Goethe." — Huxlev, quoted 
by JoHK FisKB in ' Cosraic Philosophy.' 

" Lucretlus stands alone as the great contemplative poet of antiq- 
uity. Ile has proclaimed with more power than any other Ihe majesty 
of Nature's iaws, and has interpreted with a truer and deeper insight 
the mEaning of her mamfnld life." — SBIXAit, ' Roman Poets of the 

"I admire him as the first of demaniacs; thc irenzy of an earth-bom 
or hell-born inspiration; divinity of slorm-music sweeping aroand us 
in eddies in order to prove that for us there could be nothing divine." 
— Db QuihckV, ' Essay on John Keata.' 




Of the lifc of Titus Lucretius Canis nothing is fcnown with 
certainty. No allusion to it is found in his poem, while in 
the Latin writers tiiere are only two passages l>earing upon it. 
Jerome ' assigns the year o£ his birth to b. c. 94 ; and says of 
him that he became insane by the administration of a love- 
potion, and that ' after he had composed, in tlie intervala of liia 
madness, some Ijooks which Cicero afterwards corrected, he 
killed bimself in his forty-fourth year.' Donatus, in his life o£ 
Vergil, remarlcs that on the day on which Vergil assumed the 
toga virilis {Oci. 15, b. C. 55) 'it happened that the poet Lucre- 
tius died.' Beiween the two statements there is discrepancy. 
Either Lucretius died before he reached his forty-fourth year, 
or the date of his birth must be put earlier than 94. 

The D£ Rerum Natura was evidentiy given to the world in 
an unfinished state.' The completion of it, as io the case o£ 
the Aeneid, was probably prevented by the poet'a death. Now 
£rom one of Clcero's letters to his brother," written in Ihe earlier 
part of S4, it is clear that they were both familiar with the poem. 
Al that time it was likely already published, or being copied for 
circulation. This seems to confimi the statement of Donatus. 
In the absence of further evidence we may suppose that Lucre- 
tius died in tlie year SS-* If Jerome was correct in fixing his 

' In his additions lo the Euaebian ' See Introd. p. nlviii, 
Chtonicle, under Ihe yeai of Abnham ' Ad. Q. Frat. 1, 1 1 (9), % 4. 

I9I3(=B. c. <h). 'ButCf. Bocl:eniiilIer,'J,ucr.'i. p4- 



age at for^-four at the time of death, he was bom late id b. c. 
99 or in the earlier part of 98. 

The name Lucretius was famous In Roman annats from an 

early date. The stoclc, or family, to which it belonged was 

primarily patridan, but in the poet^s day had at least three ple- 

. beian branches, all o( good standing, with the surnames Gallus, 

^ Ofella, and Vespillo. It Is known from coins that there was a 

Lucretius Trio, who was probably of plebeian parentage. The 

patrician Lucretii had the sumame Tricipitini, but gave to 

history no distinguished character after the third century B- c. 

The name Carus is not found elsewhere coupied with Lucretius.' 

But Titua, as Munro has noticed,* was a not infrequent prEeno- 

men among the Lucretii Tricipitini; this slight clue perhaps 

. makes it probable that from them the poet eprung. That his 

/ rank was high is evident frora the poem itself. He was thor- 

youghly imbued witb the culture of the time; and education waa 

then a boon in the reach only of the upper classes. In his dedi- 

cation he addresses the well-known and influential Memmius 

as frieud aud equal ; ° not with the tone of inferior to patron, as 

of Horace to Maecenas. Scenes of luxury are &miliar to him ; 

and he touches on them not with the air of a novice in high Ufe, 

but of one who had alwaya been in the roidst of elegant sur- 

roundings.* Regarding the circumstances of Iiis educalion and 

the moulding influences of his life, as we know absolutely noth- 

ing, it ia idle to speculate. 

. The story of Lucretius' madness has been much enlarged 

' upon, and has surrounded his name with a roroantic halo.' 

' Possibly it is a myth, framed and circulated by those envious 

. of his ability and hostile to bis doctrine. At any rate, no men- 

tion seems to have been made of it before the time of Suelonius, 

from whom doubtlesa Jerome drew his account.* Indeed the 

' HDnm haa foiuid " a vcry danbt- * C{-b4r 7, H-J^ 

ful " ' Lucrctius Canis ' m Mommaen'! > Cfi.^lennyson'^ ' Lucretius ' ; 

Intcr. Reg. Ne»pol. L»t. 1653. LamMii^S^De Vita Lucretii.' 

*J LucTFtiiis,' 4thed.vol. ii. p..2. * It seems well estabnshed that in 

> See notes to 1, 16 and 141. his additionj to thc Eusebiun Chionicls 



poem reveals a grasp of thought, unity of plan, aod power of/ 
consecutive reasoning, such as to precltide the belief that it , 
was composed ■ in lucid intervaJs.' Still, the last books are of . 
unequal splrit and finish. Though a.bouading in magnificent 
passages, unexcelled in the first three boolis, they evince a lack 
of clearness in anaJysis that may \x due to a waning power oi 
co-ordination.* In a few ptaces the lines seem to have been « 
hastily composed, and jotted dowa to bridge over till something- 
better could be written. It appears certain from the realistic . 
powerof several passages that the poet was tormented by horrid ■ 
dTeame and visions in sleep and sickness ; ^ these may well have 
marked the incipient stages of some mental disorder, There is ' 
no indicatiou that Lucretius attempted any other work. Into - 
Ihis one poem all the fervid energy of an earnest life was thrown. ■ 
Jt may be that bts powers, long wrought up to the highest ten- 
sion, after a few premonitioHs suddenly gave way ; ihat, plunged 
into despair at the loss of mental grasp and the inability to 
. finish his work, foUowing the example of one whom he looked 
■ upon as guide and master,* he put an end to a life no longer 
happy or useful. Perhaps, as Sellar su^ests, he "may have 
himself attributed what was either a disorder of his own con- 
stitution, or the result of a prolonged overstraia of mind, to 
the eEEects of some powerful drug taken in ignorance." The 
cold satire with which he treats tbe passion of love may have 
given rise to the traditton that his reason was wrecked by a 
philter given him to stir the slu^ish affections.* In a dis- 
torted way the story probably reflects some tragic &ct of the 
poefs life.* 

JerDme followed the lost ' De Viris n. ; il lo 3, Si. Cf. De Quincey, ■ Es- 

lUiutribus' of Suetoaius. say on John Keata,' note 63. 

< Cf. tm. tt> s, S3--90; 5, iio; ;, * That madness ww thought hn 

511 ; 5, 1091. flie ancients sometimes lo result btm 

° See 1, i3»-s ; 4, 33-S ; 4, 73S-4 ; the taking of love-potions is shown by 

4, 757^1 ; 5,1169-78, etc. Cf. Sellar, Munro,n. toi, 131. 
'Rom. Poetsof theH.ep.'ed.a,p. 177. ' Cf. Lachmsnn, ' Comm. in Luci.* 

3 Demociitus. Sec 3, 1039-41, and xi,\a %,^'; adfi». 



But while Lucretius had no biographer and did not, like 
Horace and Ovid, tell his hfe out in hia verse, his personality is*- 
by no means obscure. No poem, ancient or modern, shows 
more clearly than the Dt Rerum Naiura the impress of a marked * 
individuality. Some poets voice a general teeling, or paint a 
pleasing iancy, or describe an experience, in such a way one 
cannot tell whether they are giving an insight into their own 
hearts and lives or not. But not so Lucretius. In the course 
of his reasoning he speaks in the first person, often with direct 
address bids Memmius heed what he is saying.i His diction is 
characterized by a vehemence and straightforwardness of state — ' 
ment that can have their source only in sincerity and tirm con- 
viction. He never trifles. Wheiher he is reasoning about the 
atom, or explaining natural phenomena, or hurling fierce invec- 
tives against the blind thraldom of men under aujjerstition, he is • 
always terribly in earnest. Between the lines of the poem we 
read the man. 

In Lucretius the fire and graphic power of the poet were 
aptly blended with the calm logic and constructive ability of the 
philosopher. With tbe poet's eye he looked out upon the world, 
and scanned the life of men; with philosophic sweepof thought 
he marshalled in array all the facts that he had gained, and tried 
to track out causes, to know the origin and modes o£ being, to 
fathom fhe mystery of tlie universe.* Few of the ancients lived 
in so close sympathy with nature as he;" yet he loved not 
nature for her own sake. He had what Tyndall calls the 
" scientific imagination."* The perception of beauties of land- ■ 
scape or of tlie sea and the discovery of natvral processes unno- 
liced by the common throng awoke indeed a responsive chord ; i 
but all these forthwith were made to serve in the illustraling or 
enforcing of some truth, took their place in hia philosophic sys- 
tem. In the presence o£ the problem of the universe hc had ' 

' Cf. e. g. 1, 102 i 4, 110. trans. ii. 381-3 ; Schlegel, ' Hisl. ot 

■ See eBpedally the splendid pas- Literafure ' trans. pp. 66-8. 
Mge 5, 1304 et siq. 

' Cf. Humboldt, 'Cosmos,' Eng. 



Do time nor incliaation to indulge the pleasures of taBle. He 
knew the clianges of color in the sea with the passing of clouds t 
and the stonn.* (Jfe had stood vpon a inountain'e height and 
seeo bow, &r away in the distance, tl)e movemeDt aatt tumult 
of the plain seem motionless and still^ He had observed the* 
wearing away with time of ploughshares and finger-ringa;* the 
gatheringof mist in garments by the sea-shore;* the fantastic ' 
shapes of clouds like trees and giants ;* the tints given to snn-' 
light shining through colored canvas.* He had noticed the* 
glint of colors from the plumage of birds;'' the motesdancing in • 
the sunbeam ; ' the myriad forms □£ the shells along the * Ihirsty, 
sand of sorae inwinding shore.'* The presence of power im-'t 
pressed him, whether it was manifest in the disciplined move- 
ment of great bodies of men or of ships,'" or in the conflict o£ 
the elements dashing to niin the results of human toil," or in 
the operation of that mysterious 'unseen force''' that strikes 
even the philosopher with awe. Though wilb full appreciadon of 
their beauty and sublimity, he dwelt on diese and the like con- 
ceptions only for their philosophic bearing and import. 

Lucretius did not write for the mere pleasure ot artislic con- . 
struction. He had an aim outside himself. Seeing that human . 
life is full of cares and troubles, he believed that the cause of > 
Ihese was fearof thegods anddeath."* So he thought that i£ hc . 
could prove there are no gods and life ends with the grave he ' 
woutd be rendering the greatest possible service lo mankind. - 
For his fellow-men he toiled ; perhaps also he wished fully lo 
convlnce himself of the momentous truths he would fain ac- 
cepl, which werc so opposed to the beliefs of the masses and 

' a, 765-;. ' a, 801-7. 

* 2, 313-33; cf. a, yiS-22. Jusl ' 2, 114-10. Aristotle naed the 
tach a gliiDpse the travdter ICHiay same illastratiai]. 

catdies from the tap of The AIIxui * 2, 374-6. 

Mount looking dawn toward Rome. ■" 2, 40 ff iiq. 

* I, 311 it Jtq. " I, 280-9, etc. 

* I, 305-.8. " 5, 1226 et tej. 

* 4, 136-4' ; 6, 134. " See nn. to i, 62, and 3, 37. Cf. 

* 4» 75-83. »1*0, Bibbeck, 'Geschichle der Riinii- 

scben Dichtung,' I.p.276. 



the deepfest instincts of the heart. Composilion was not easy for ■ 
him;' and he wrote in verse siniply to make hts doctrine more 
palatable to those whotn it was intended to deliver,'^ Here then 
is a character of singular moral strength, that for the good ot 
men set before himself the great task o£ revealing the truth, — 
'the way of life.'* 

Nevertheless Lucretius was not one that moved much among 
men in their daily walks. He does not speak of the Forum, ■ 
the busy streets, the centres of interest in the life and sociely ■ 
of Rome, so often referred to by the Latin poets. He knew - 
vell the pleasures of contemplation. When he speaks of the 
struggle for otfice, the ambitions and passions of the mass of 
mankind,* ic is in the manner of one wlio views these things 
from a distance, who in a life of retirement grieves at the folly-f 
of those that never find Irue happiness.' Slill jie was by no 
means ignorant of human nature nor indiilerent to the issues of 
his time. With milder irony he touches upon the little weak- 
nesses of men ; • but he lashes with stinging satire the mad race 
after wealth and honors, the misguided search for pleasure, the^_ 
religious conceptions of the masses, the social degeneracy of the 
day.' Yet he had a sympathy witli suffering, which a glimpse 
of tendemess now and then reveals.* A hater of cant," the 
. Carlyle of his age, he had no patience with shara, and rebukes 
the blind restlessness of men that are ever seeking they know 
not what.'" He was an eamest patriot ; " little doubt that in his - 
stem censure of contentions about position we may trace a re- 
action agaiast the ferment and turmoil in political life that he 
must have witnessed in the years just preceding his death." 
He finds the only hope of peace and abiding joy in 'philosophy, 
guide of life.' / 

' See 1, 141-5,1011 D. io 137-9; 3, ' S«e 2, 109J-1104 ; 6, 3S7 rf nj. ; 

419-ZO. 5, ioo;-io and n. ; 2, 48-53, it ai. 

' ', gss-so- ■ 2, 349 rf «f. 

' 1, 10. ' 3, 41-58- 

* 3, 59 «'J^-; 3> 995-"»'' ** "'- "■ 5. "™-35; 3. "53-9- 
' 3,1-19. " 'Mo-S- 

* 1,641-4; 3, ioi4rf«?.; 4.594- " See nn. to 3, 59 ; 5, iiao. 



Yet the poet had litlle &ith that his eSoiis lo Iree men from , 
their bondage would ever reacb or ^d them. Gloomily he came ' 
to think that they do not wish to know thc Irue reason. They , 
wiU ever wander in error. An undertone of sadness runs like a 
ninor chord through the entirc fwem. LucrelJus has been 
called, with a certain fitnesa, the poet of death.' Eut he is not ' 
a pessimist; he ia the poet of progress.* He sees indeed a dc- ' 
dine in nature's powers ; ' but in civilization he thought his day ' 
marked the highest goal yet reached.* The sense of the misery ' 
and the folly of humanity seemed ever presenl with him, a dark ' 
cloud brooding over his life.* Indeed it may be doubted whelher 
Epicureanism, with all its boasted delights, is even at the best a 
happy syslem. The keen, reflective mind that woutd grapple 
with the fundamental realities of being can hardly find much to 
cheer or comfort in the doctrine of a world without a divine will, < 
duty with no guide but self-centred pleasure,» death everlasting ; 
and it sees that Ibose who profess belief in theae things show a 
marked tendency to fall into revolting self-indulgences. Then, 
too, Lucrettus was lo the core a Roman. He represented a ' 
fb1k>character that in its view of life and duty was stern, un- 
yielding, the very opposite of all that is light and joyous. To 
him, with no hope ia the hereafter, the wail of helpless infancy 
b a fitting prelude to life's miseries.' All things are ever the 
same.' There is only a circumscril>ed round of joys ; when this 
is completed, belter die and return to etemal slumber than live 
a life with no new pleasure.» 

In Lucretius we find an eamest seeker after truth. He 
paused before the facts of being lo question why, whence, 
whither. Having found what he thought the true theory of • 
things, he devoted himself to it with all the enthusiasm of an 
ardent and refined nature, clothed it with the poetic forms of a - 

' C1. 3, 830 to end. ' Cf. Prov. liv. iJ-13 ; Tennyson, 

• See n. lo 5, 332-5. ' Palace of Att' 

' ir "50-741 51797-836- ' Sees, 32»-7andn. 

' 5. '4+8-57- ' See 3, 545 and n. 

' a,S*9-3o;3, 7S-9i 5i '95"«?- ' SiioTfi-tfJ*?- 



powerful imaginatioD, gave liimself to settiag it forth in nobie ' 
language for the enlightenment of his fellow-countrymen. ■ 
Whalever tlie defects or inconsistencies of his philosopby, we . 
may well pay homage to the ejtalted purpose of the raan, the 
high geaius o£ the poet. 


(i.) Philosophy among thr Romans in Ldcrbtius' Time. 

The genius of the Ronians nas adapted to practical rather 
than ariistic constniction. They wrought out the greatest re- 
sulfs and made the most valuable contributions to huraanity in 
the domain of politics and law. For the arts, literalure, and 
philosophy, for all that has to do with the culture of tife as dis- 
tinguisbed from ils bare nccessities, Ihey were indebted to the 
Greeks. The Greek maslerpieces and verse-forins fumished 
them models for literary composition. Greek artists and sculp- 
tors painted and carved for them. Greek teachers gave theni 
instruction in music and the liberal arts. Finally, the imitatioa 
of the Greeks in many of the ways of common life became the 
fashion. In the contact of the two diverse forms of civilization, 
the one characlerized bypower of military and civil organization, 
the olher by the pre-eminent influence of the individual mind 
and the development of taste, that founded upon force prevailed 
over the other only to be shaped by it. 'Greece, conquered, 
took capfive her nide conqueror, and brought the arta to rustic 

When the Romans first began to have leisure and a taste for 
speculation, the Greek systems had already reached their fuTIest 
expansion. The rapid extension of Roman lerritory under the 
old Republican fbrm of government was then placing before 
young men new political prizes to be won by personal power. 

' Hor, Ep. 2, 1, 156-7. 




A great inipulse was given to education, especially that part of 
it concemed witli the Iraining of Ihe orator. With pr(^;ressive 
enlightenment the old religion lost its hold on the higher classes. 
Somelhing was needed to take its place as a guide to duty. 
Shalcing off the shackles of a confused and cormpting poly- 
theism, the best minds of Rome awoke to a fuU realizalion of 
the mysteries of existence, and sought a Iheory of things in 
which they could find reat. The Greek philosophy seemed to 
meet all needs. To it the Romans turned, partly indeed as 
fitling for a public career by training ihe mind nnd broadening 
the culture, but also as furnishing a ralional explanation of the 
universe, and a rule of life in Ihe place of discarded superslilions. 
The Crceks loved speculation for its own sake ; the Romans 
only for its praclical bearing. The Greeks made systems ; the 
Romans put them to the test by hving ihem out in daily life. 
From the tirae of Socrates the tendency of (he Creek philoso- 
phy had been to become more and raore ethical and practical; 
among the Romans this tendency was intensified because of the 
trend of the national character. It was the mission of thg 
Greeks to originate a philo sophv : p f thp Rnrnan';, tc fjnd fir t^ji' 

mon y with hjs e nvironment. Knowledge was of courae con- 
finedToTHehiglier classes. It was only by the precepts and 
the ei:amples of ihe lives of these that philosophy had influence 
upon the masses. 

In Lucretius' time all the principal Greek schools were repre- 
aented at Rome. There were only four of special prominence, 
the Stoic , the P eripate tic, the I^qw ^^cqde mic. and the Epic u- 
yean . The Stoic doctrine, from the significance it gave to natu- 
ral law, and Irbm its rigid code of duty, was especially adapled 
to the Roman character, and Iiad the grealest foilowing. Tbe 
Peripatetic differed from the Stoic mainly in the poaition that 
in comparison with virtpe. other things are entitled to considera- 
tion, while the Sloic held that they are not. The adherents of 
the New Academy, accepting probability as the basis of their 
specuUtion, were ecjectic, and gleaned from every source ; gen- 



eiully they were in sympathy wkh the teachings of the Stoics and 
Peripaieiica. The Peripatetica and Acadetnics were not many, 
but exerted no small influence. The Epicureans were nutnerons 
in Italy;'but they had had only wretched eicpouDders of their 
system,' and were held by Ihe others in contenipt The Aca- . 
demics sneered at their self-satisfied doginatism. The Sloics 
and Peripaietics assailed in particular their doctrine of pleasure 
as the source of duty and their rejection of the argnment from 
design, lieaping ridicule upon their 'do-nothing gods.'* The 
common crowd shrunk back from them* because, instead of 
adapting their system lo the popular faith, as the others dld, 
they denounced this as the prolific source of ills. Under such 
circumstances Lucretius stood forth boldly as Ihe champion of 
the Epicurean philosophy, which even then was beginning lo 
number among its disciples some of the most famous men of 


Epicurus was not a great originator in philosopby. The 
doctrines lo which he left his name were mainly borrowed from 
the Atomists and the Cyrenaica. He added little of his own, 
but gave to tenets drawn from otliers the impress of unity and a 
systematic exposilion. In order therefore to understand the 
genesis, conlent and relations of ihe prs-Lucretian Epicurean- 
ism it will be necessary to louch briefly upon several phasea of 
the earjy Greek speculalion. 

The Greck philosophers, before the time of Socrates, con- 
cerned themselves chiefly with ihe universe, The early lonians 
looked upon matter as endowed with life. Starting with a single 
form of matter, they thought the present order of thinga has 
resulted from progressive changes, the simple of itself going 
over into the complex. Thales supposed that this primilive auti- 

' Seen. lo 5, ao. ' Cic N. D.quoted in n. to 5,149. 



strale was water; Anaximenes, air; Anaximander, an infinite, 
indefinite subatance. The Pythagoreans grasped at the idea of 
the essenlial difference between spirrt and matter, but yet were 
not able in their thinking to purge matter of psychical qualities; 
hence tbeir doctrine of tlie world-soul. The Eleatics recognised 
more cleariy than they the antagonism between matter and 
spirit, but reJegated the former to the domain of pure phenom- 
ena, denying the reality of change and malting being and 
thought identical; to them the universe was one vast, change- 
less thought. Heraclilus' assumed fire as the 
matter.and attribuled lo it psychical properlies, taking it as both 
cause and symbo! or change, the reality of which he maintained 
in epposition to the Ele/tlc doctrine. The Atomists rank wlih 
Eropedocles* and Anaxagoras' as the first who made complete 
severance of the physical and the psychical, — matter and mov- 
ing cause ; and who, in order to explain changes and the on-going 
of the universe, assumed the operation of sonie principle entirely 
outside of malter and above it. Empedocles taught that there 
are four ultimate forms of matter, or elementa ; and Iwo influ- 
ences, or directing forces,' acting upon tliem. Anaxagoras as- 
aumed an indefinlte numt)er o£ primitive subalances, infinilely 
divisible, and a rational force as final cause. Midway between 
the two came the Atomisls, wlio made an advance npon Empe- 
docles in posilinga single ultimate matter, made upof indivisible 
panicles, the difEerent shapes of which explaioed the possibiiity 
of all combinations ; but they adopted a less philosophic con- 
ceptiou of moving cause Ihan Anaiagoras, appealing to the 
inadequafe law of necessity, 

The Atomists were two, Leucippus and Democritus. Of the 
former liitle is known save that he fumished the basis o£ the 
theory of the latter. Democritus* was born about 460 B. c. Ac- 
cording to him there is matter, or ihe "full;" and there is 
"void," or space devoid o£ matter. The iatter must be consid- 

■i^ , 



ered as having existence equally witli Ihe former.' MaKer is 
Tnade up of particles which are invisible, underived, indivisible, 
impenetrable, imperishable, — the atoms. These are all allke 
in nature, and of the same specific gravity. They differ in 
form, being of numberless shapes ; hence also in size and 
weight. They are distinguished, moreover, by difierences in 
arrangement, or order, and posilion. They are the changeless 
substrale underlying everything. The atoras are dJways mov- 
ing ; their natural movement is downward in straight lines, be- 
cause of their weight. AII things are made up of combinations 
of atoms; In every combinalion there is void, as only the 
aloms are perfectly solid. Things undergo change by the shift- 
ing about of atoms in di£Eerent order and relative positions. 
The various qualiiies that are perceived in things are not prop- 
erties of Ihe atom, but accidental properties of the combination. 
Life thus is an accident of certain atom groups. There are four 
combinations of special permanency and importance, inasmuch 
as they are wrought into many others, — fire, air, water, and 

As space is unlimited and atoms are numberless, there is an 
infinite number of worlds. These are all the lime coming into 
existence, dissolving back into atoms. As the atoms fall in 
infinite space the heavier go fasier than the lighter, impinging 
upon them ; these are forced upward and sidewise, get entangled 
because of the different shapes, and form thus a mass to which 
tlie composition of molions gives a rotary movement. The mass 
receives constant additions as It goes whirling through the 
cloud of falling particles, and in time a worlc! is produced. This 
result happens by the law of necessity. From such a combina- 
tion our world came. As tlie atoms settled together Ihe lighter 
were forced oiit. The lightest formcd a close enveloping cir- 
cumference, or sphere; those of more weight, the heavenly 
bodies, which caught fire from moving in the air, itself composed 

' In oppositicn to the Elealic doc- ° In this the inlluence of En\pedi>- 



of atams of medium weight. The heaviest of tbemselvea drew 
together, giving rise to the carih ; as this became compact, light, 
round particles were squeezed out into the hollow places, making 
the sea. The earth, formerly raoving about, is now stalionary, 
at the centre of the norld ; it has the shape of a flat cylinilcr. 
From it, when fresh and moist, plants and animals arose. 

For the gods the system of Democritus left no room. Bnt in 
the course of nature he recogniied something that he called 
divine, and he seems to bave been inclined to an allegorical inter- 
pretation o£ the popular beliefs, Man he revered as nature's 
highest work, dwelling at length upon the symmetry of the human 
form, the adaptaiion of part to function, the unily and perfection 
of the whole. The soul, he taught, is composed of the flnest 
and roundest atoms, and it is dislributed through the body as 
tbe animating force and source of movement. The body is sus- 
t^uned by food and drink ; but the atoms that nourish the soul 
are taken in with the breath from the air. With exhalation 
soul-atoms pass oS.'' In certain parts there is as it were a con- 
centration of soul ; thougbt originates in the brain, anger in tbe 
heart, desire in ihe liver. (Sense-perception arises from the 
constant passing ofF of thin films from the surface of things. 
These strike upon the air, which acts on the senses ; thought is 
immediately produced A Thought is thus due merely to a change 
among the soul-atoms, brought about by the impact of Bome- 
thing outside the body. Siill, the senses do not reveal traly the 
cxteraal world. By some process, which the philosopher as- 
sumes but does not expl^n, the thought is able in the midst 
ol change to seize upon the changeless, the atom, which is far 
below the ken of sense; and to know the void, which the senses 
cannot; and to rise to the conception of a fixed order in the 
universe, (he law of necessity. 

The soul, said Democritus, is the noblest part of man. The 
body ia merely its vessel,* and shoujd be made subject to it. 
The best thing in life is a cheerful contentment. Action should 

' Cf. n. lo 3, 936-7. * Cf. n. 10^440- 



aim at happiness ; yet this sliould be sought in pleasure Dot of 
the body but o£ the aoul. Wisdom brings self-mastery ; without 
it life lacks enjoyments, death's terrors appall. Ignorance is 
the source of all faults.' For hira that wants little a litlle 
suffices; but greed begets greed and wrecks all happiness.' It 
Is the almost universal testimony of antiquily that the philoso- 
pher well lived out the maxims he laid down.> 

With Socrales came a change in Ihe trend of Greek thought. 
Cicero saysof him that 'hecalled philosophydownfrom heaven, 
and made her to dwell in cities, and brought her even to men's 
houses, and eaused her to make inquiry about life and characler 
and things good and evil.'* The atlention of philosophers was 
now direcled not so much to the problem of Ihe universe as to 
that of man, lo settling the vexed questions of human life. But 
Socrates was too broad a man to be fully comprehended by his 
generation. Most of the schools that owed their onginative 
impulse to his teachings reflecled these only parlially and im- 
perfectly. Two in particular, the Cynic and the Cyrenaic, 
grasped each but a single phase of doctrine, and made it alone 
the basis of a system of morals ; hence were developed two 
ethical theories diametrically opposed to each other. Socrates 
taught the intimate relalion between virlue and happiness. He 
enjoined the life of virtue, which he made lo consist in aetions 
directed solely by reason under all circumstances ; but he clearly 
conceived as an aitn to this only the happiness resulting there- 
from. Antisthenes and the Cynics expanded the virtue-aspect 
of the teaching, and laid down a harsh rule of actions, choking 
out utterly the influence of tlie feelings, and^at the same time 
imitating all that nas rigid and repulsive in the Socratic life. 
But Aristippus and the Cyrenaics emphasized the doctrine of 
happiness, making happiness the sole aim of life, pleasure the 

■ Seen. to 3, 15. espedally Zeller, *Prae-Socratii Phil.' 

' Cf. 5, Tiigandn. Tol. ji. ; Lange, ' Hist. of MaterlaHsm,' 

' For fuller discusaon of the Ato- vol, i. ; and Btueker, ' Hisloria Critica 

mists se« the iiislorles of phil. b; Fhilosophiae,' Vol. i. 

Uetierweg, KiUet, Schw^ler, Lewes; ' ' Tusc. Disp.' 5, ^, lo. 



Gupreme good. According to them the enjoyment of the 
present moment is man'a higheat duty. The wise man wiU 
avoid all things causii^ pain ; he will fill each tnoment with 
agreeable sensations, for in this true pieasure consists. Still, 
the searcb after happiness must he guided by reason. The 
«ise man will govem his pieasures, not be govemed by them. 
The hi^est bappiness can bc gained only by rationai pursuit 
of it 

By the iatter part of the third centpry b. C. the Greek civili- 
zation had reached the highest point of its development aiid 
was sinlcing in deciine. The products it had matured were no 
longer the posaession merely of the Hellenic peoples, but were 
being disseminaled over the whpie ancient world. The old free- 
dom and independence of the political life had given piace lo 
stagnation under a foreign sway. The energy and versatiiily 
that had been wont to find exercise in public affairs were now 
turned to channeis of private life. A higher significance Ihan 
before was attached to friendship and the amenities of society; 
the virtues of priviite iife were more discussed and extolled. 
The result of the reflection of the generalions since Socrates' 
death upon the moral nature — reflection inlensified by Ihe in- 
creasing degeneracy of the times — was to force upon the 
thoughtful the belief that there is somebow a lack of hannony 
between man and hls envtronment. AIl agreed that man is 
fitted for the enjoyment of life ; yet none are happy, none are 
truly wise. Perfect happinesa can arise only from a perfect 
adjustment of the individual with his surroundings. How can 
thia be brought about? Three schools of philosophy arose, 
with three different answers. The Sloic, enlai^ng upon the 
Cynic principle, sought to make the mind supreme over the body, 
the man aupreme over his surroundings ; and found the source 
of happiness in an unswerving obedience to ihe laws of being, 
in an attitude of absolute indifference to all things outside one's 
self, and even to the states of the body. With exactly opposite 
tendency the Epicureans tried to reach the same end by making 
the exteraal world, one's surroandings, satisfy all possible de- 



sjres, by a life ofrational indulgeoce. The Sceptic, on the coo- 
trary, believing that the truth about things cannot be known, 
and that a!t the troubles of humanity come from adherence to 
unfounded optnions, endeavored to attain happiness in peace of 
mind g^ned bvyuthholding judgment regarding all matters, by 
maintainiog ah absoluCe imperturbability. Thus the philosophy 
or Epicurus, like the doctrines of the Atomists and Cyrenaics, 
from which it was so iargely derived, by no means stands alone, 
but forms a part of a genfval movement, and can be studied to 
advantage only in connection with the thought and life of tbe 

Epicums was of Athenian dcscenl, bom at Samos about 342 
B. c. When thirly-six years of age, it is said, he came to Athens, 
and founded a school of philosophy, -which met in his garden. 
For tbirty-six years he conversed and taught, gathering about 
him a. band of earnest foKowers that admired his ability, rever- 
enced his character, and drank in his doctrines. Notwithstand- 
ing the sjanders heaped upon him, hls life seems to have been, if 
not altogether above reproach, at better than that of most 
. of his contemporaries. His system was practical, being con- 
: cerned with physical speculation and dialectic only as a means 
of establishing etljical principles. In this he differed from the 
Atomists, who sought knowledge of the universe foHts own sake. 
In accordance with the division of philosophy current' in his 
tjme, he divided his system into ethics, physics, and dlalectic, 
considering the two latter as entirely andllary to the first. Dia- 
leclic (or logic) he restricted to onc part, tbe canonic, or test- 
science of truth. His theory of knowing was dr^wn principally 
from the Cyrenaics. For a few distinctions he jtnis indebted to 
Aristotle.^ Sense-perception in his systera belonged under the 
head of physics. He agreed with the AtOmists except tn sup- 
posing that the Alms from the surface of things, instead of acting 
on the senses by means of the air, strike upon them directly, 
aod cven penelrate to the mind, The old physics and ctliics in 



his hands both underwent expansioo, and ivere somewhat tnodi- 
fied. He saw that if atoms are assumed to be of an infinlte 
number of shapes, some may be infinitely large, which would be 
inconsistent wilh the l^elieE thal the atoma are iavisible. He 
heid, therefore, that the shapea of atoms are fioite in number, 
but that the atoms of each form are numberless. Observing, 
moreover, tbat in a vacuum all bodies must Sali equally fast 
in parallel lines, he rejected the teaching that in the void the 
heavier atoms falling gtrilce the lighter ; he supposed that the 
smaller atoms swerve a little from a straight downward course, 
and that thus by mutual entanglement a world oucleus is fonned.* 
The cause of the swerving to one side he assigned DOt to ibe 
operation of the law of necessity, but to a sort of inbereut 
power, an originalive impulse of motioo in the atoms theot 
selves; in this he found the origin of the power of free move- 
ment, and the source of the freedom of the human wili. 
Epicurus, moreover, believed in gods ; l)ut he denied them all 
concern in the changes of things.^ In ethics he differed from 
the Cyrenaics regarding the nature of happiness. He did not 
limit it to a continuance or succession of pleasurable sensations, 
but found it also in perfect freedom of the body from pain and 
the soul from care or anxiety. He thus recognized a negative 
as well as positive side of happiness. He enlarged upon the 
Cyrenaics' doctrine of pleasure as the supreme good, and empha- 
sized as much as they the ratjonal pursuit of il. The sage will 
be a careful reckoner of'pa.ins and pleasures. All actions in 
which the pains are going to predominate he wilt refrain from; 
all which involve the more pleasure be will engage in. The 
remaining doctrines of Epicurus may be best considered in 
discussing the preseniation of his philosophy by Lucretius.* 

' Ct, Cic. de Fin. t, op. 6. BockemUlIer, ' Studlen lu Lucrei und 

' Ssen.toj, iSandrefaeiiceslbere. Epicui;' ReiBacker, ' Epicuii de ani- 

'Cf. Wolt)er,'Luc«UiPhilosoplua morum natura doctrina > Lucretio 

cum Fontlbua Comparata ; ' Brtin.t, tractata;' Keisacker, 'Der Todesge- 

' Locrez-stiidien ; ' Schwen, ' U*er danlie bei den Griechen,' written with 

griediischen und liiinischen EpilLuie- spedal lefeience to £[ncurus and 

ismus' (progiani) ; Briegei, ' Epiliuis Lucietius. 
Brief an Herodot,' $68-8] (pioE-)) 



(iii.) Epicureanism as set forth by Lucretius. 

Lucretius followed Epicunis as unerring guide.' In bis poem, 
howei-er, he did not attempt to espound the whole Epicu- 
rean philosophy. Ha.ving in view a defiQite aim,^ he set forth 
only ihose portions of Epicurus' teachinga necessary to the 
attainment of iL He treats in detail only the views on Da.ture, 
striving by hia theory of ihe universe and the development of 
civilization* to banish all fear of Ihe gods^and by his proof of 
the mortality of Jhe sou l to diapel the dread of death. Inter- 
spersed with hia physical doctrines,~however, there ^e many 
ethical reflections* that give an insight into his views of life and 
duty. If the lost work of Epicur js ' On Nature ' * were CKtant, 
doubtjess Lucretius' poem throughout would be fouud to bear, 
close resemblance fo it, Whatever the poet teaches may 
accepted as also the doctrine of his master ; only when carrle 
away wilh poetic inspiration doea he step out of the beaten 
track of the schoo! to which he belonged.' Lucretius' exposi- 
tion may be conveniently treated under four heads, — theory 
knowiedge, theory of the universe, theory of oiganic life, view 
Of man.' 

I. Lucretiiis' Theory of Knowledge. 

Knowledge of thiags ia gained through the senses. These 
never err ; upon them depends alt reasoning.* From the surface 
of things films of matter, the idols or images, are continnally 
thrown o£E. They are exceedingly Ihin, o£ ejcactly Ihe same 

' See n. to 3, 3. lo tieat those parls of the Epicurean 

' See p. Kiii. philosophy not taken up by Lueretius. 

' Cf. n. lo 5, 915. For full diseuBsion reference shoilld be 

' Cf. 5,1117 anda made lo Cic 'N. D.' bk. 1 ; Cit 'De 

* Seen. (01,15. Fin.'bks, i andi; Diog. Laert ' Vit. 

' Cf. n. to 5, 402, etc Phll.'bk. lOithetreatisesonanc. phil. 

' It has not l-een thought necessarr espec. Zellei, 'Stoin, Ep. and Scep.' 
dther in the preceding scclion oi heie ^ i, 693-4; 4i 379! 4i 4^5^'- 

of 1 



shape as the bodies from which they come, of movement incon- 
ceivably swift,' From the Contact o£ these with the eyes vislon 
results. A square tower in the distance appears round, because 
the idois iti passing thraugh the air are blunted, and have the 
sharp corncrs wvm down. From polished surfaces the idols 
rebound ; hence the reflection of mirrors. But they pass 
through certain substances, as glass, -go that the sight is not 
bindered. ■ To men with the jaundice things look greenish be- 
cause of the greenish particles throwu off from the eyea, which 
meet the comtng idojs and tinge them with that hue. The eyes 
cannot bear to look at the sun because of the impinging force of 
its idols and the seeds of fiTe in Ihem.^ The sense of hearing 
distinguishes different sounds accordingto the difierent kinds of 
atoms in them ; for that sound is of material nature is made 
clear by the hoarseness following much use of the voice, which 
results from the friction of sound-atoms as they pass out of 
the throaL The penetrating power of sounds shbws how 
tninute the sound-atoiqs must be.* The senses of smell and 
taste experiencG pleasure from the contact of smooih atOms, dis- 
comfort from the presence of tliose rough or jagged.* 

The finest idols even penetrate di^ectly to the mind, which 
is fitted thus to receive imprcssions irom its physical nature. 
Sometimes there is a mingling and coofusion of idols in the air, 
and mongrel forms seem to bc pereeived to which there is no 
bodily reality correspondingi from such originated the concep- 
tions of Ceotaurs, Scyllas, and the like.' As idols innumerable, 
of things past as well as present, are ever thronging before the 
mind, it admita in waking hours only those that it wishes to 
receivc; hcDce the power of memory,* In slumber too the 
idols come, and then men have dreams, sometimes even horrid 
visions of monsters and humau figures larger than life, and the 
forms of the dead.' In the relation of the senses to the things 
perceived and the phenomena of sensation no evidence of design 


, *1 " wj. 

' *.i 


> 4, 5a4-6M- 

, 615-70S. 

' 4- 7 


» 4, 777-8"7- 

^ A<9 



can be Ibund.' The processes of generalization from the pro- 
ducts of sense-perception and the formatioD of judginents the 
poet does not touch upon. Tbus in comnion wilh his school, he 
assumed tmmediate knowledge of thii^^ and found the only 
source of knowledge in experience. 

2. Lucretius' Theoiy of the Universe. 

There are two elemental parts of the universe, matter and 
void. All things are made up ol these. Void is everywhere 
nhere matter is not; matler and void are mutually exclusive." 
Matter is composed of atoms. These are perfectly sohd, wlth- 
out beginning or end or any possibility of change in nature, 
mlnute beyond the limit of vision, and known only by the mind.* 
The atoms diSer in form; thcy are rough, smooth, hooked, 
round, lar^er, smaller ; bu^t the various shapes are limited in 
number, though there is an infinite number of atoms of each 
shape. They differ also in weight. The movement of atoms is 
immeasurably swift, and always downward, because of their 
gravity, unless impeded. Everything that exists contains void 
as well as atoms, since only these are devoid of empty space.* 
Color, heat, cold, moisture, dryness, all the properties that can be 
detected in things, are accidents of the combinations of aloms; the 
atoms themselves have no properties save extension, hardness, 
weight, and motion. All combiaations are unstable, continually 
ch^nglng. Dissolutlon awaits everythlng.* 

\rhe universe is without llmit in any of its dimensions, and 
bas no centre. There is no end to space, and atoms are nnm- 
berless. There is an infinite number of worlds.* As the aloms 
fall in infinite space, some by their own power swerve to one 
side.' These become involved with others, forming a whirling 

'4>8'3-57- »3,730-8641 J, iios-74- 

' 1, 26s tl ttf. * I, 951-1113 { a,to^ollMf. 

' 1, 600 i 1, 165-328 , ' 1, 116-93. 



vortex, the beginning of a world. Thus the world in vhich we 
are, originated. At first there wns a chaos of clashing and en- 
tangled atoms. Then gradually came a diflerentiation into parts, 
like gathertng wlth lilie. The heaviest particles settled in a mass. 
Out of this the lightest and smoothest were prcssed, fbrced to 
tlie outermost bounds, and there united in a close-woven, envel- 
oping sphere, the aether. Beneath th!s the air spread out. 
Midway between the aether and the earth the atoms heavier 
than the one, yet lighter than the other, galhered, fonning the 
sun and moon ; some passing higher still raade the stars. The 
earth as it settled together grew rough in ridges and plains, 
mountains and valleys, as the parts of its surface being of 
uncqual density could not give way the same. Into the hollow 
places the smoother atoms were press^d, making the sea.^ The 
earth is in tlie mid-region of the world. Underneath it lies a 
nature with which it is closely united, akin to ihe air above. 
Its weight diminishes below, so that it rests in calm poise.* 
Around it with unequal speed the heavenly bodies revoive in 
lateral orbiis.» The sun and the moon are of the same size that 
they seem to us to be.* Our world, like all things else, is 
doomed to destruction.'j 

In the explanation of natural phenomena it is idle to assign 
but one cause, and declare that this must be the correct one ; 
for the truth cannot be known. . He tliat is wise will give sev- 
eral causes, any one of which will be adequate to aceount for 
tlie plienomenon under consideratioa wiihout the aid of Ihe 
gods.' Eclipses may be brought about by the interposilion of 
some body that cuts off the stream of light, or by ihe going out 
of Ihe fires of the sun and moon, or in other ways.' Day and 
night may result from the sun running his courses under the 
earth and above, or frora the waning o£ its light through lack o£ 

' 5, «i rf «?, • 5, 564 H K?. 

* 5> S34' For the thape of the * 5, 91 ti itf. 

lh see n. to 5, 53«. « Se« 5, 526-33 ai 

• s. s^^s-sa- ' S. ?5'-7°- 



fuel al fixed times.> Thuader is produced hy the collision o( 
clouds, or by the bursting of clouds from pent-up wind, or the 
blowing of the wind violently through them, or the conflict of 
inharmonious elements in them. Flashes of liglitning are seen 
when the clouds for some re^on hxve siruck forth seeds of fire. 
Thunderbolts are forged by the wind compressing tbe clouds, 
and forcing the elements of heat into a fiery mass ; this falls 
with so great violencc partly because of the impuise giveo it by 
the condensed cloud driving it forth, partly by reason of its owa 
weight and the eKCeeding fineness of tlie particles of which it is 
composed.' Water-spouls are made by ihe confinement of wind 
in a cioud, when the power of the biast, not bcing sufBcienl to 
bursl it, forces it down to the surface of sea or land.* Volca- 
noes are formed when the wind, imprisoned in vast earth-cavems, 
by its pressure melts portians ot rock, and forces forth the mol- 
ten mass, together with much sand brought in its way by under- 
ground chanoels from the sea.^ The vlolence of these winds, 
and sometimes the falling in of ihe cavern roofs, are causes of 
earthquakes.' The altemate warmlh and coolness in some 
wells and hot spriiigs may be explained by the sUifting of p^irti- 
cles oE heat from earth lo water, or from water to earth, with ihe 
alternale contraction and expansion of the earth by day and by 
night or at different seasons.' The fwwerof the magnet re.iults 
from Ihis ; that the atoms in it by their blows continually force 
Ihe air away from it on every side ; into Ihe vacuum thus pro- 
duced rush all other bodies not for some reason held back.'' 
Disease and pestilence have their origin in the talnting of the 
air by elements baneful to life.' 'In this way purely natural 
causes can be assigned for everything that happens. If it were 
not for the groundless fears that burden ihe souls of raen (here 
would be no need of studying the processes of nature.* ''*■ 

' 5, 6sorfttj. '6,840-935. 

■ 6, 96-413. ' 6, 906-10S9. 

* 6, 413-50. ' 6, 1090 it stq. For other nat. 

* 6,635-JM. •phen. consolt analjaiaof boot 6. 
' 6, 53S-60?. 1 5, \\^iclitq.iaAn, 



In the spaces between the worlds ihe gods dwell. Their 
bodiea are of the most subtile matter. They have Dothicg to do 
wilh the on-going of ihings or the iife of men ; they enjoy 
peace that can never be disturbed, bliss incapable of increaae, 
and unending.' The present order of things is too fuU of im- 
perfection to admit of divine workmanship ; and the gods, even 
if able to make the world, could have had no motive to trouble 
themselves with creatiag, nor model to work from. There is no 
divine power in the universe, no shaping and directing mind.' 
There is no design ia the present order of things. AU results 
front the chance concurrence of atoms moving frotn elernily in 
infinite space.* ^ Nothing exists but something exactly like it iu 
the past was, or in tlie present is, or in the future shall be ; for 
in the intinity o( time and spice like conditions will be repeated, 
like results follow. Perhaps tlie matter that now makes up our 
body and soul in far distant time may just as now be gathered 
and united in a breathing form ; yct that will not be Ihe pres- 
ent self, since the tfaread of personal identity will have been 
broken.' ■»• 

Nevertheless, the chance that presides over the genesls and 
dissolution of all things is not mere accident. There is a fixed 
order in thlngs, Lucretius well illustrates the legal trend of tlie 
Roman mind ; he grasped the unity and harmony that underlie 
all natural processes much more clearly than his master. No 
one ever held more firmly that nothing can happen without 
cause. Behind the proximate he is ever seeking the ultimale. 
To him the universe is the manifestation of eternal change 
under the reign of law, This is why he rejects with so bilter 
scom ihe paltry gods of the mythology. Pitiable creatures tliey 
were, each with his circumscribed sphere of activity, dividing 
the universe up into so many parts, and all the time wrangling 
about trenching on each olher's prerogatives, sporting with 
natural forces, full of jeaiousies and bickerings ! To Lucretius, 



with thoiight fixed on ttie order and regularity manifest on every 
hand, such a doctrine of natural c^uses seemed mean and low 
enough. So not seeing that behind law there must be a hw- 
giver, he stopped with the conception of law itself. Tliis saiis- 
fied the groping of hia mind for a nnifying principle that should 
explain the mysteries of natural phenomena. To it he con- 
stantly appeals in setting forth causes. By means of it he 
accouDts for the regularily of the seasons,^ the alternation of 
day and night,' and manifold other things in which a certain 
order is clearjy to be seen. Yet Lucretius was no fatalist. He 
spums the old law of necessity to which tlie Alomists appealed. 
By the swerving of the atoms as they fall in space, the etemal 
chain of cause and effect is broken ; momentous results foHow." 
Herein he is justty charged with inconsisteucy. He tried to 
pursue a middle course between inexorable fate and chaolic 
polytheism. He found the beginning of a world in a fortuitou» 
awirl of atoms brought alxiut by tbe unreflective self-movement 
oE some atoms out of their course. But the atoms were moving 
straight downwards, because the law of naiure causes bodies to 
fall uidess hindered. They settled to different places for the 
same reason. Thus in accordauce with natural law the world 
yias evolved, its changes go on, its end is fixed. Fixed barriers 
too hem in organic exislence with the invariability of types and 
the survival of the fillest. In the presence of the iaws of nature 
even man stands absoiutety powerless ; sometimes they seem 3 
hidden force dashing to nought his mightiest works, foiling hjs 
most gigantic efforts.* Thua to Lucretius there seemed but ' 
one break in the causal relations of the universe. This ex- 
cepted, he held consistentiy and emphaiicaliy to the reign of law. 
Nature as the incarnation of law, as the tangible reality through 
which its operations are manifest, in his thought took on *the 
attributes of personality; seemed a veritable being energizing 
upon matter in space and time, directing the processes of pro- 

' 'l '74-98. ' 5. 669-79. ' I, J51 tt stg. 



duction and decay, tmviog ia hand the mystery of mysteries, 
life.i At times Lacretius seems almost a panlheist. He 
rejected the divine; UQCOosciously he deified nature. 

3. Lucretius' Theory of Organic Lite. 

Life is spootaneously produced. It is a property of certain 
combinadons of atoms.' Decaying clods net by the rain bring 
forth vermin ; and worms raake their appearaace in dead bod- 
ies.* Many animate objeets are generated by the sunlight sh[n- 
ing upon moist dirt.' When the earth was in her prime she 
produced from heraelf all manner of living things, First grass 
came forth, clothing hill and plain ; then trees pushed their way 
out, vying with one another in growing; all these came out on 
the surface just as bristles upon animals. Afterwards birds 
came into existencei breaking out of eggs. Finally babes were 
to be seen creeping from cavities near the surface. The earth, 
'i^gorous and full of abundance with unexhausted powers, sup- 
plied to them a milk-Iike liquid, warmth, and a soft bed of 
grass,' Rightly then is she named mother ; but now, weak 
with declining years, she has ceased to bear such forms of 
life, and even in the products of the field, gajned only with 
severest toil and frequent dJsappointment, gives indications of 
approaching doom.° 

There were monsters too 10 the earth'8 youth-time, — her- 
maphrodites, and bodies footless, mouthless, wiihout hands, 
sighdess, with limbs all massed together. These at once per- 
ished, since they could neither get food for themselves nor con- 
tinue their kind. But even then there were no such impossible 
beings as Scyllas aod Chimaeras ; they and the like have never 
existed save in men's imaginations, and are cause of needless 
fears.' Many kiods of well-formed creatures also perished, and 

' Cf. n. to I, a, ' 5, 783 et seq. 

' 3,865-1011. 6 i, 150; 2, 5S6-99; 5, 8ai-36; 3, 

' 3r7'J-4o; seeo. 10713. iiSo-74- 

' 5. m-^- ' S. 837-54 and £78-934. 



did QOt leave ptt^ny ; for ooly the fittest to snrvive snrvived. 
(Craft or courage or speed of flight or usef ulness to tnaii has pra- 
served those animals that remaia. All tbe rest, unable to meet 
the conditions of «ristence, have been swept off by ruthless 
destructiou.' In men and bmtes alike, moreover, there is a 
fixed law of dcscent. The oSspiHng repeat tbe characleristics 
of the parents in both body and temper.* Thus atnoag the 
living things, as well as ia tiie reahn of tbe iaoi^;aiuc, natural 
law is supreme.^ 

4, Lucretius' View of Man. 

In roan, as iu all thiogs else, there is nothing but matter and 
void. The human orgaaism comprises three distinct parts, the 
body, the sou! or life-principle, and Ihe mind, Theae origtnate, 
develop, decline, and perish together, for the miod and soul are 
inseparably uniied with each other wid with the body.* The 
mind is situated in the mid-re^on of the breaat, while the soiil 
is distributed througbout the form ; but the mind aod soul are 
so closely connected that they may be coasidered as one nature. 
They are composed of the finest round atoms, — not of simple 
eletnents, however, but of four separate combinations of atoms 
mingled together, wind, heat, air, and a subtle, nameless some* 
thing that makes the fourth.* Volitional impulse arises in this 
last element, which imparts motion to the hcat-por^oa; that in 
turn to the wind, the wind to the air-essence ; thence move- 
meitt is aroused in the organism. The mind and soul of tnan 
diSer very little from those of animals. Lucretius does not 
directly assert that the mind is the noblest part, but this was 
clearly his opinion. Once at least he identifies personality 
with it.« 

Notwitbstanding his material nature, man is not an automatoiL 

' 5. 855-77- * 3, 161-311. 

" 3i 741-75 ; 4, 1109-3*. * I. 275- 

' 3, 94'i6q. 



The power of voluutary movenient and free-will are due to that 
swerving of atoms io the void. Had Ihis not occuired he would 
have beea bound and controUed by iaexorable neceasity.^ But 
siDce there is freedom of will, man has in his own haads the 
shaping of his character and the directing of his life.' The 
supreme good is happiness ; which may he found indeed in 
pleasures of the body under proper restraint, but principally in 
perfect peace of mind, like that of the gofls. Life is short and 
ought to be enjoyed.* The greatest ills are those corroding 
fears of the supernatural and the hereafter which religion haa 
inspired, and which vex men aod weigh them down under a bur- 
den of dread. These the philosopher will entirely overcome.* 
Deatb ends alL For the wise it has no terrors ; indeed, when 
the pains of life prevail over its pleasures one may rightly take 
refuge la it,* He will make the most of existence who ministers 
frugally to ihe body's simple needs, and free from the mad am- 
biliODS and feverish passions of the masses, oever disturbed by 
anythiDg, bolds to tbe last the 'higb and serene places well for~ 
tified by the learning of the nise,' * and meets his end witb 
untroubted breast. 

The history of the race reveals a coatinual progressioa from 
X lower to a higher stage. The primitive men were ulterly 
savage. They were of larger and sturdier frame tban those of, and lived like brutes. Their food was acorns and berries, 
their drink the runnlag water. DwelliDgs they bad not ; they 
took refiige from the elements ia woods and caves. Sometiraes 
they followed wild beasts with clubs, sometimes were pursued 
in tun», and ofteo in the night were driven in terror from their 
leaf-strewn beds. Still, tbe death-rate was not greater than 
now; for tbere were no wars, none fell victims to tbe dangers of 
the sea, and tnen were innoceat of the use of poisoas.' The 

' 1, 151-93. * 1,63 andn.; 3,37 andn.^d/. ; 

* 3.319-13- t,letseq. 

' 'i 7S-9i », "7"-4i I, 173 »nd ' 3,417-1094. 
»5«- « ". 7-8- 

' S> 925-'oio. 



beginnings of a better Kfe came with the diacovery trf fire. 
Men learned the nature of this from the igniting of tbings by 
lightning or from the flames produced by tlie rubbingtogetherof 
the branches of trees. They could now warm their sfaiveriDg 
bodies, aad the sun taught them how to cook their food. Tben 
came the use of ciothing of sliins, the building of huts, aod the 
instilution of marriage wilh its softening influences.'' 

Language originated not by inveniion but by nature. Certain 
sounds came oaturally to express certain feelings or desiguate 
particular objects, just as the untaught gestures of infants and 
the cries of animals convey a meaning that can be understood.' 
Men more gifted Ihan their fellows found out better waya of doing 
things, and taught the others, Kings arose, who began to build 
cities and citadels. There was a division of lands aud of cattle, 
according to beauty of person, physical powers, and pre-eminence 
of ability. But soon men discovered what wealth is ; and it 
brought in its train a throng of baneful ambitions, wrenching 
well-deserved honors from the natural leaders. The kings were 
overthrown, and society went back to utter anarchy. Finalf ' 
weary of constant strife men agreed to keep the peace with one 
another, holding the weak in mutual protectiou, and forcing 
wrong-doers to respect fair laws.* The origin of religion Is to 
be found partly in visions in which forms larger tliaii life and 
images of the dead seem to be present, partly in the wondering 
awe with whiCh men looked upon the phenomena of the heavens, 
the sun, mooo, stars, meleors, lightnlng, hail, snow, and rain. 
Ignorant of the causes of things they attributed the mysterious 
processes o( naturc to the gods, and made for themselves cruel 
masters ; hence all manner of degrading rites, tbe greatest 
crimes, and evils innumerable. There is no piety in complying 
with the observances required by religion.* 

The metals were discovered in the burning of forests, for 
thereby veins of ore were melted, and ran into hollow places 

1 ;, loii-ij; J,i09i-ii04aiidmi. * ;, 1018-90. * 5, 1105-60. 



on the snrface. At first copper was used for all parposes, be- 
cause it was easier to irork ; the nature of iron was found out 

in the effort to get the most effective weapons for warfare.' In 
pursuanoe of the same end they trained horsea and elephants 
for militaiy purposes. Bulls, boars, and lions too they tried; but 
the fierce nature of these was stirred by the fray and thcy 
brought destruction on friend and foe aliite. It is likely that 
these were fflade use of only by the vanquished, to whom every 
Other resoarce had failed.' As men advanced in civilizattOD 
weaTing was invented, at first carried on by men, afterwards 
given over to the women.' Planting and grafting men leamed 
from observing the processes of nature, singingfrom the attempt 
to imilate the notes of birds; while the blowing of the wiad 
through hollow reeds gave the first idea of Ihe pipe.* Later 
the alpbabet was invented ; towns and fortifications were made ; 
ships covered the sea ; cities bound themselves together by fair 
treaties ; and the poets began to lell of decds in verse. Com- 
merce and tbc improvement of agricutlure, the butlding of roads, 
the making of better laws, and other things of the kind, prepared 
, the way for the refinements of life. Men now became acquainled 
with paintings, fine statues, and various forms of luxury. Thus 
step by step man progressed from the lowest stage, learning one 
thing after another. In his own age, thought Lucretius, tlie 
wts liad reached their highest point." 


I. The Mission and Influence of Lucretius in 


The sul^cct-matter of the Dt Rcrum Nalura in ils leading 
arguments and ideas is Greek, but the spirit is thoroughly 
Rocnan, T%e teniper of the Romans was "too siubbom to 



acquiesce in the absolute anthority of the Greek philosophy, 
Ihough Iheir mlnds were not inventive enough to estaUish a 
rival by its side."' Lucretius ought not to be considered a ser- 
vile imitator of Epicurus. The doctrines which he accepted he 
ardently betieved in ; and he fully assimilated them tn both 
their general range and minor details. When, therefore, fbr Ihe 
saice of his countrymen he began to expound them, they camc 
forth glowing from the depths of his heart and soul, and bore 
Bot simply ^ individual bnt a cUstinctively Roman slamp. No 
work of tbe entire literatnre shows more clearly the bent of the 
national character. The eamestness of purpose, the freedom 
from quibbling or sophistry and the straightforward grappling 
with leading questions, the emphasiiing of the simpler modes 
of life and the homelter virtues, the steru and solemn, even 
gloomy view of existence, — all point to Iraits not merely of the 
man but alao of the nation. 

The poem alao indicates clearly the tendencies of the i^ 
It is a protest against the degrading influences of impure super- 
Stitions; agaiust the sham and increasingdegeneracyof society; 
against the reckless, mad ambitioua and ceaseless ferment of 
political lifc. In a period grossly material in tastes and enjoy- 
ments, when great fortunes were being rapidly made and were - 
ever bringing new luxuries in their train, it bids men take refuge 
and find true happiness in higher thinga, in pleaaures of the 
soui rather than the body.' The mission of Lucretius was to set 
forth the atomic Materialism as it appeared acceptable to ihe 
Roman mind and adapted to meet the needs of the Roman 
character for a pbilosophy of life and rule of duty.»' Just so it 
was the mission of Seneca to expound Pantheism to his country- 
men ; and in the almosl religious fervor of his utterancea about 
virtue and right living there is manifested the same spirit that 
stirred our poet. 

The infiueoce of Lucretius' poem as a philosophic work can- 
not be easily traced or readily estimated. The Latin writers o( 

> WheweD, ' Hisl. of ihe Inductive Sdenwa,' Bt. la, ch. j. 



his onn and the foUowing generalioa borrowed from it freely 
both ideas and expresMons, but seem rarely to have made men- 
tion of the author.^ Lucretius fs several times noticed in the 
writings of the Silver Age, but principally in regard to his slyle.* 
Seneca, however, quotes hira not infrequently, lometimes with 
approval, ntore oflen with refutation.* In the occasional dta- 
tions of the poem by the later grammarians and men of letters, 
no reierence is made to its doctrines.* The Latin nriters of the 
eariy Cburch looke^ upon Lucrelius as a deadiy foe, and seem 
to have foand his infiuence hurtful. They frequently assail the 
Epicnrean philosophy, and sometimes attack him by name.' 
Several of them, however, were not abovc tmitating his atyle, 
and occasionally they made free use of portlons of bis work not 
inconsistent with their creed.* 

Wiih the complete victory of the Christian doctrine over the 
Pagan philosophies and Gnostic tendencies, Lucretius and his 
system were lost sight of. But soon afier the revival of letters 
he came into prominence as a popularizer of Epicureanism, 
The lirst striking illustration of his influence is met with in the 
half-poetic phyaical philosophy of Giordano Bruno, wlio com- 
bined his doctrine of the infinity of the universe and numberless 
worlds with the Copemican system, thus rendering great service 
to physical speculation and forming a theory which, >'as against 
ihe old assumption of limited space, is of aimost as much im- 

1 5een.tos,40o: Nep. 'Vlt. Att' St. Hieron. 'Ep.' 131, and 'Contn 

11,4; Pater. 'Hisl. Rom.' a, 361 Ruf .' 3, 19 ; etc, 

ViH. ' De Atch.' 9, 3 ; 0«. ' Tiist.' x, * Am. ' Adir. Gont.' is full of imi- 

435; Prop.' EL' 1,15, S9- talions; thcre are many in Drac. 

■ Cf. Tac. 'De Or.' 23; Quin. ' Cann. de Deo' and Pmd.'Contr. 

'Inst.Or.'i,4andio,i; SUfSU.' Sym.'; cf. also 5 141 of the Proleg. 

a, 7, 76. to the blter in Migne^s Palrology. 

' See 'DeTran. An.'a; ' Ep.' 9; Bede drew f rom Luer. in his 'DeNat. 

and iio, etc. Renim;' cf . e g. cap. aS with Lucr. 

' Macr, 'Sat.',/ojri>ii. 6, 96-13' ; V W"th 1090-1113. Cf. 

' Cf. Clem. 'Recog.' 17-19; Ter- also Isid. Hisp. Epis. ' EtymoL' 8, 

tnl. ' De An,' 5 ; Lacl. ' Div. Inst.' 7, 3. 6-7- 
3,etc.[ Aug.'De UtlL Cred.' 4, 10 j 



portance as the doctrine of the revolution of the earth." Bnino 
qooted Lucretius frequently, and took his work as model ia a 
didactic poem ' On the Univerae and the Worlds.' ' 

Bacoa went back to Democritus' conception of the atom, 
reckoning the atom-swerving introduced by Epicurus as 'a veiy 
simple device,'' and hardly refers to Lucretius' work; but Gas- 
sendi, a little later, revived Epicureanism as a yrhole, and made 
much use of it.' From the beginning o£ the seventeenlh century 
Lucretius has received increasing recognition. Men of letters, 
like Montaigne and the quaint Burton, the English deists, 
Jeremy Taylor, Archbishop Ussher, and other leamed divines, 
and writers on philosophy, politics, science, and religion, ever 
since the time of Gassendi, have found in the De Rerum Natura 
much that was suggestive, much that could be uaed to illustrate 
and enforce what they wished to ejtpress. Once at least the 
work drew forth a most elaborate and leamed refutation, the 
' Anti-Lucretius'* of Cardinal Polignac; and several have crit- 
icaliy taken up diSercnt poriions of the argument.* The influ- 
ence of Lucretius has never been greater than in France during 
the latter part of the last ceutury. The sceptical unrest of the 
age found in him a congenial spirit; and the French rational- 
istic works that then appeared are fuU of imitations, para- 
phrases, translated passages, and quotations from his poem.* 
To-day, wilh the revival of Materialism, the rapid advances in 
physical science, and the tendency, so characteristic of our age, 
to study every conception through its history, Lucretius is 
receiving marked attention on every hand, Taking thc range 

"De Uriverso et Mundis.' See were translaled into English verse by 

Lange, ' Hist. oC Matetialisni,' i. tyi \ Geor^e Canning and published at Lon- 

Ueberweg,'Hist.ofPhil.,'iL25-7;Bar- doninije?. Cf. also Patry, 'I.'Anti- 

tholmfcss, ' Jordano Bruno,'i. 337, etc. Liicricedu Cardinal Polignac(' Patin, 

' ' Med. Sac.,' Di Haeresibus. ' fitudes sur la Po^e Latine,' vol. 1. 

* See especiaily Gas5endi*s * Philo- chap. 7. 

jophiae Epicuri Syntagroa,' ' l)e Vita ' Cf. James Baxtet, ' An Inquiry 

et Moribus Epicuri,' and 'In Ijb. x Inlo thenatiire of the Humaji Soiil;' 

Diogenis Lagrtii Aniniadversationes.' Bayle, ' Dictionnaire,' art. Lucrici. 

' In nine boolcs of Latin hexameters, ^ As Ihe ' Syst^e de la Natute,' 

pnblishedin 174S. l^heliret Rve books the worlca of De la Metlrie, elc. 



of literary aad sdentific works together, we shall find that feir 
aadent writers are so frequently quoted or so oftea appealed to 

2. Atomism, AncieDt and Modem. 

The Atomic theory of the constitulion of matter has a. history 
full ofiDterest and importance. It formed the groundwork of 
a Hindu system of philosophy. Introduced into Creek thought 
by Leucippus and developed by Demoeritus, it was made by the 
Epicureans the physicat basis of an ethics of pleasure. Bacon 
brought it into modem science, and Boyle applied it to Chem- 
islry ; ' while Gassendi attracled attention lo its relation to the 
problem of the universe. To-day the atomic theory of matter 
is the dominant onc among both scientific investigators and 
phiiosophers, accepted often as unquestionable truth allke by 
chemists and physicists, atheists and divines. It still remains, 
as in the time of Democritus, an unveritied hypothesis. But 
while it is no longer wedded to any one theory of tbe universe, 
it is often without good reason distinctively associated with the 
doctrines of tnateriaiistic evolution. In tracing the hiatory of 
atomism, the two most important things to be considered are, 
the nature of the atom, and the means by which ihe relations 
of aloms with one another are tbought to be adjusted. 

Tlie early Greek atomisls conceived of the atoms as perfectly 
hard and eternally enistent, with a tendency lo move downward 
hecause of inherent weight, the heavier going faster than the 
lighter. For a causal principle they adopted the law of neces- 
sity (doubtless taken from tbe old religion) ; and £or a priDciple 

' Cf . e.g. TjTidall, ' The Belfast Royer, ' Essal mr lea argumenls da 

Addresa ' ; Tait and Stewart, ' The niatfaialisnie dan» Lucrfece.' 

Unseen Unlvetse • ; and Flint, ' Anti- ' See Ijnge. • Hist. of Materialism,' 

Theisfic Theories.' See also Veiteh, vol. i. This authoi's 

' LucTEtius and the Atomic Theory ' ; evet, shouid be acc^ted wilh caulioo, 

Masson, ' The Alomic Theory ot Dalton is the liist who gave the doc- 

Lncrctius contiastol with Modem trine of the atom > scieniific Ireatment 

Uoctiines of Aloms aad Evolutiou ' ; through cliemical expeiiment. 



of combinatton they assumed manifold shapes of atoms, bj 
means of whkh these could become entangled and united in 
all kinds of things. The Epicureans rejected the la.w of neces- 
sity and all finat cause, supposed tha.t atoms move downward in 
etnpty space at the same rate, and ^signed thc occasion of 
atoms the self-movement o£ some from their course. 
In this, without Knowing it, they were really attributing psychic 
properties to the atom, and showed the intluence of the M 
hylozoistic conception of matter. Although they utilized this 
voluntary power of the atom only in explaining the freedom of 
the will, believing that everything in nature goes on rigidly in 
obedience to law, the principle thus introduced was not lost 
sight of, but was carried to its fullest application in the gradual 
Bpiritualizalion o£ the atom. It was enlat^ed upon by Bruno, 
in the doctrine that " the elementary parts of all that exists are 
the minima or monads, which are to be considered as pointa, 
not absolutely unextended, but spherical ; they are at once 
psycliical and material." It permeates the system of Gas- 
sendi, who, though lie claimed simply to rcvive Epicureanism, 
" ascribed to the atoms force and even sensation."i It found a. 
complete and flnal realization in the monadologyof Leibnitz. For 
in opposition to Spinoza's doctrine of one universal substance 
with the attribules o£ thought and extension, Leibnitz assnmed 
a plurality of elementary forms, which he made out lo be in- 
divisible points or particles, "punctual unities," qualitatively 
different, each havlng a soul ol its own and bearing to the sum 
of all a fixed relation in a system of universal harmony. As he 
emphasized the spiritnal side of these psychic atoms or monads, 
his tendency was idealistic ; and his doctrine marfcs a transition 
from Materialism (o Idealism. Bruno, Gassendi, and Leibnitz 
accepted the Christian conception of God, but seem to have 
found it a difficult matter to reconcile this with their phllosophy, 
Bacon, as ithas already been remarked, adopted Democritus' 
conception o£ the atom, whlch was accepted also by Newton. 

> Ueberw^, ' Hbt. of Phil,' ii. 14 ; bul see Lange, i. a66. 



Even Boyle thought tbat the atoms cohere hy reason of their 
jagged shapes. The threc agreed, however, ia lookii^ to the 
power of God as final cause in the building up of things out of 
atoms. [With the discovery of the law of gravitalion the course 
of physical apeoilation was chaDged.^ Gradually the doctrine 
of attraction and repulsion, the conception of forces acling iin- 
mediately in the relations of atoms one with another, was intro- 
duced. The new piinciple seemed so potent and wide-reaching 
in its application, that an all-moving spirit hardly seemed neces- 
aary in accounting for the on-going of the univerae. A tendency 
to the roechanical explanation of nature became manifest. In 
accordance wilh the spiritof this, Locke formulated hia doctrine 
of sensationalism, which so harmoniiied with the trend of tbe 
times that it was most widely adopted as embodying the true 
theoiy of knowledge. The unfolding and application of its doc- 
trines revolutioniied European speculation, leading directly to 
the French " Illumination," wiih the rise of a malerialistic theory 
of ihe universe and a utilitarian theory of moraJs. At present, 
the mechanical explanation of nature under the form of the 
evolution hypothesis is again struggling for the mastery. 

The atom of modem science is the atom of Lucrctius without 
the power of swerving. But Lucretius had no proper concep- 
tion of force. Here at once his physical tlieory breaks down. 
For the doctrine of attraction he had only the poor substitute of 
varied shapcs of atoms to keep them in combination. Repulsion, 
indeed, he fbreshadowed in the importance he atlached to the 
rebounding of aloma and masses after impact: but without the 
assumption of force this rebounding is inconcelvable, because 
the atoms are considered absolutely hard, and hence must be 
inelastic. For the inherent downward tendency of atoms, mod- 
era science substitutes vibratory motion ; it agrees with Lucre- 
tiua in supposlng the movcments of atoms to be inconceivably 
swift. It agrces with him also in believing that all the processes 
of nature take place in accordance with certain lawa of universal 
sway and invariable action. For a final cause the theistic physi- 
cist looks to an all-intelligent, all-potent God, wbo gavc to atoms 



their form, to force its impulse of movement; who impressed 
upon both matter aad force a natural law, in accordance with 
wliich thc universe has been built up and is canied on, in the 
out-working of a comprehensive diviae plan. But the atheistic 
and agnoatic thialcers, with the same inconsistency that charac- 
tcrized Lucretius, slarting with chance and without a lawgiver, 
assume the reign of law, and suppose that with this atoms and 
space and ftM-ce and time are adequate to account for all the 
facts and phenomena of tlie present onJer of things. The doc- 
trine of the atom is just as consistent with a theistic as with an 
ntheistic theory of the universe. Lucretius indeed personlfied, 
deified nature. In thls he is foliowed by some modem mate- 
rialistB, while others seem to put evolution in the ptace of God, 
and deify a process.' In assuming th; eternity of matler and 
Ihe continuity oi motion, the infinily of time and space, and 
numberiese atoms, as essential condiiions to Ihe coming of a 
world iato existence, Lncretius and the modem materialist are 

R^arding the genesis of things, Lucretius foreshadows mod- 

em science in the nebular hypothesis. In his account of the 
beginning of Ihe world, as in the modera doctrine, we have 
the chaolic mingling of clashing and discordant eiemenls ; the 
formation <rf a world-nucleus ; the gradual differentiation of parts 
composed of matter in states of unequal density. Here, how- 
ever, the parallel ends. For the poet was giving range to his 
imngination in a magnidcent conception, adapted lo his pbiloso- 
phy h^om the old mythology, while the nebular hypothesis is 
based upon a careful examination of the properties and relatlons 
of ihe so-called elementary substances, framed in accordance 
with the laws of force, and through experiment receives at least 
a pardal verlficationbyanalogy. Inhis ideasabout the heavenly 
bodies and his explanations of natural phenomena, moreover, 
Lucrclius ii almosl everywhere adrift.^ Wilh a keen interest in 
what is now termed science, but with no true scientific meihod, 

1 Cf. H. lo 1, II and jS. 1 Cf. n. to i, tosS, elc 



ia a tone oE perfect assurance he gives expressioo to mere 
guesses, nientioDiag several posaible causes of aaytbing wben- 
ever he can. His principal concern is always to ahow how 
matters move on without divine poner. Yet in several instances 
he bits upoa theoriea that ^e generally thought to be dis- 
tinctively modera. 

Life, ancient atomism taught, odginated of itself Irom certaio 
corabinatioiis of aloms. In regard to tfais, again, modera atom- 
isU are divided. The theistic believe that above and behind 
the chemical equilibrium of the organism there is an elusive 
sometliiDg «hich presides over it, which can have aa origin in 
no possible combination of matter acted upon by force alone, 
which can coroe only from some higher power, But the niate- 
lialiats hold, with Lucredus, that life is spontaneously produced 
in matter under certain conditions. There is, however, this di£- 
ference. tLucretius assumed that all the present types o£ livmg 
things, witb many others that have died out, came into being 
and sprang directly from crass matter when the earth waa new, 
and liave not changed.) He believed in ihe simultaneous origin 
and invariability of speciea. Scientific invesligalion oow points 
to a common physical basis o£ life in protopjasm. The advo- 
cates of evolution, observing in the scale of being a gradual 
ascent from the lowest to the highest forms, hold that the low- 
est came into existence first ; and that the higher have been 
developed from the lower by gradual and progressive differen- 
tiation, either in unbroken succession from the simplest organic 
existence up to man, or with special creations at certain points. 
The theistic evolutionist finds the origin o£ protoplasm in the 
(Teative act of God, and sees in Ihe development of forms, eiiher 
with or without special crealions at certain points, fhe unfolding 
of a divine plan : the atheisdc and the agnostic eliminate from 
the process everything except matter, force, and time ; make 
protoplasm a spontaneous product, and the ascending scale of 
being an undirected accident widiin the limitation of certain 
natural laws, the existence and operation of which are not 
accouDted £or. Lucretiua makea no attempt to bridge over Ihe 



chasm between dead malter and the highest Mganic existenceB. 
With his miud fuU of the popular hylozoistic conceptions of his 
time, the step from mattcr to life seemed to him natural and 
easy. Modem Materialism sees the difficulty, and obscures but 
does not remove it, by taking refuge in a slow process of devel- 
Opment. Indeed, it makes several unwarrantable assumptiona 
where Lucretius made one. The apontaneous origin of life is 
yet nnproved, with the probabilitles against it from the &ilure 
of repeated experiments to produce protoplaara. There are bar- 
riers between types ihat have not been broken down, and that 
are directly opposed to the present laws of reproduclion. The 
correlation of physical and vital forces is as unproved to-day 
as in the time of Lucretius. Assuming the doctrine of descent 
to be Irue, the adaptation and harmony that run all through it 
profoundly emphasize the conception of design in it. For that 
cannot be taken out of matter which was not previonsly wrapt 
up in it ; and unless an intelligent, directing Fower be assumed 
behind matter this ordcriy unfolding is absolutely unaccountable. 
The chances are infinitely ag^nst it. The general similarity 
of types throughout the organic world points not so much to a 
likeness that might have been impressed upon all living things 
by being left as the wrack of countless ages of existence beat- 
ii^ against the merciless rock-barriers of its environment, as to 
a profound " economy of plan," in accordance with which an 
infinite Wisdom shaped the forms of life, like the crystaia, so 
that they atand lo one another in a relation of marvellous bar- 
mony and beauty. 

While the Materialism o£ our day is an outgrowth, in part, 
o£ the predominant interest now given to the nalural sciences, 
both from the enthusiasm of rapid advances in investigation 
and from their wide-reaching practical applications, and in part, 
of the industrial and material trend of our civilization, the aim 
it professes is not so much to aid Ihe scientist as to furnish a 
rule of duty. The foremost materialists have the same con- 
tempt for religion that Lucretius had, though they are not so 
vehement in their expression; and their philosophic purpose, 



like his, is largely ethicaL' Their psycholt^ agrees wilh his, at 
least Degatively, in deoying the intuitioas. Their theory of the 
supreme good is at bottom the saroe, though amved at in a 
somewhat different way. The view of man's ^evelopment in 
civiliiatioii and the origin of institutions set forth by Lucretins 
anticipated important modem theories, which are by no means 
confined to the doctrines of malerialists, but which, in part 
at least, have been confiTmed by thc late investigations of 
archaeologists, and are geDCrally accepted.' 

AU tfaat is most valuable and suggestlve tn Lucretius' doctrine 
of the atom has its counterpart in modern science ; and the 
atomic Materialism of the day, stripped of what belongs not 
alone to it but to science in general, to theistic as well as to 
alheistic aad agnostic theories of the uiiiverse, is precisely 
LuCFetius' doctrine of the nature of things, less the bluuders in 
fact and method unavoidable in tbe state of knowledge of his 
time. Gieat as is the scientific value of the doctrine of evolu- 
tion as a working hypolhesis in investigation, as a convenient 
system of classification for related facts of the organic world, 
when applied to the explaoation of Che universe witb no God 
it breaks down utterly, The materialistic evolution of our time, 
then, is simply the Materialism of Lucretius, wrought over in 
accordance with the scieotific methods and adapted to the scien- 
lific knowledge of our day. Subjected to the scrutiny of careful 
crilicism, it is found to be not a whit nearer to a seltlement of 
the fundamental questions of existence than tbe system of tbe 
Roman poet. 

■ Cf. e. g. die pi«face to Spencec'! IheorieB, would atend this Intioduo 

'DataoC Ethics.' tioD beyond its propei limits. Cf. tin. 

' A detaited preaentation of Locte. toi, 150; 1,443; '78135 Ii958; 1,996; 

tius' Cheoiy of motals and tlie social i, loii ; ], t6i; 3, 715; 5,429; 5>si6; 

compact aa compared with modetn 5, 915 ; 5, loiS; 5, 1145 ; 5, 1161. 





Before attemptiog to form an estiraate ol Lucretius' poetic 
power it is necessary to inquire, first, whether the poera stands 
to-day as it was left by him ; aud, secondly, whether it passed 
from the author's hands as a linished worli. 

It is well established that all the existing manuscripts of the ^ 
poem come Irom one original manuscript, known as the arche- 
type. This was iost long ago. From the fact that all copies 
are to be traced to one exemplar, it is obvious that wherever 
that was incorrect the error has been perpetuated, and is not to 
be remedied by comparison with other manuscripts. Thus it 
happens that in ali the texts there are certaiu breaks and corrupt 
passages, which have taxed Ihe utmost ingenuity of commenta- 
tors, without any certainty in the end of presenting what the 
poet wrote. Lucretius, moreover, was one whose views the monr 
astery copyists would not be apt to approve of- For this reason, 
there have crept in many interpolations and Iranspositioas of 
passages intended either to refute the argument or show the 
poeI's inconsislency by quoling him against himself. These 
errors, as well as the unavoidable blunders that abound in 
manuscripls, have been mostly corrected by the able critical 
scholars who have given their attention to the text, and now 
"thegreat mass of the poem" is "in a sound and satisfactory 
state ; " but in some places the thought of the poet cannot fae 

As before remarked, there is evidence to prove that at the - 
poefs death his work had not yet received the tinishing touches. 
In the last three books especially there are awkward sentences, •' 
ill-arranged passages, and weak repetitions ; occasionally whole 
paragraphs are met with that ill suit the connection and are 



clearly out of place, probably inserted bj the poet aa a tnake- 
shift till some betler setting could be found for them. The 
allusion to CicerQ's editorsbip ia the passage from Jerome 
quoted above has given rise to much discussion ; some, as Lach- 
mann, thinlt that Quintua Cicero is referred to, while Munro 
and others suppoae Ihat the oralor is meant Of course Jerome 
had the orator in mind, for in hia day as now, when Cicero 
was spokeu of, men thought of the great Cicera. Although 
there is some reason for supposing tbat Quintus acted as editor 
of the poem, it is far more UkeJy that the task fell upon Marcus, 
who "may have spent only a iew hours in looking over it or 
hearing it read to him ; his name rather than his time waa prob- 
ably wanted by the friends of Lucretius." At any rate the 
poem seems to have been "given to the world exactly as it wai 
left by the author, with nothing added or taken from it to all 
appearance." Thus says the highest critical authority upon thc 
tezt, and his statentent ^ay \x sustained by many evidences 
whlch it is not necessary to present. Suffice it to say that not- 
withstanding the uncompleted state of the poem, and the hope- 
less corruptions and lacunie, there is manifest a literary ability 
nnexceiled by that of any Latin writer. In the unfolding and 
treatment of the organic idea, as well as in the manner of ei- 
pression and the music of the verse, poetic genius of a high 
order is revealed. 

The De Rerum Nafura is a didactic poem with an ethical 
purpose. The organic idea is, — without the actlvity or inter- 
vention of any divine power the processes of nature ard of life 
ever go on. The purpose is, — to tree men from the ills of 
superstition. Herein is sounded the key-note of the whole. 
The aim and the organic idea are never lost sight of. Hence 
the poem possesses unity ; the parts ajl fit into a general plan. 
There is something like an epic movement, which does not 
come from the verse alone, but from the onward sweep of 
Ihought. Especially in certain passages about life and death 
and the actions of men, and in some descriptjons of changcs, 
the true epic spirit is felt. 



Any system o£ philosophy is difficult to treat in versc ; it 
involves necessarily the bringing in of many prosaic elements. 
Whelher a materialistic theory o£ the universe in this respecl is 
worse ofE than olhers it is not easy to decide. A theistic or 
pantheistic system haa at least one advantage, — that by appeal- 
ing ditectly lo a divine tntelligence and power it may save itself 
mucb technical and tedious explanation in searching out the 
long train of natural causes, while by dwelling upon a super- 
natural element in life and law it tends to ennoble virtue and 
give to human character a higher dignity. Epicureanism, in its 
grasp on the infinity of space and time and numljer of worlds, 
with the clashingof atoms in the void-, in its recogniljon of the 
tremendous forces operating undirected in the processes of 
nature; and even in its bold denial of the divine and its lierce 
arraignment of religion, was not lacking in elements of sub- 
limity ; while from its sympathy with nature it came close to 
Ihe springs of beauty. Yet the nanlberless dry details which 
characterized all previous expositions of the doctrine were such 
as well-nigh to defy poetic treatment. In his selection of 
materials and his grasp of Ihe organic idea the artistic power of 
the poet is well shown. 

In his unfolding of the organic idea Lucretius takes up tirsl, in 
hoak I., Ihe fundamental doctrines of his sysiem; then in book 
II,, the special treacment of the atom. Book iii is given to 
3 discussion of the soul, with special teference to its mortal- 
iCy; book iv., lo the explanatiou of the phenomena of sensa- 
tion, In book v. the poet sets forth ihe formation of the world, 
with the beginnings of organic life; and traces the development 
of man in civilization. Book vi. is devoted to the explanalion 
of the most striking natural phenomena. In the logical order 
of eKposition the (ifth and sixth books would naturally fallow 
the second. But so eager was the poet to dispel the fears 
inspired by the thought of death, that before complecing his 
theory of the uni^erse he hastened to give his doctrine of the 
soul and sense-perception, in order to disprove the soul's immor- 
tality. In this arrangement there is consummate skill. It is a 



recognttion o( the same principle that leads the epic poets to 
rush 1« medias res, leaving the less important or preceding 

. maiters lo be presented iater by narration. The details, like 
the genera! plan, are frequently ananged by the poet with the 
aame sense of poetic fitness. The points tliat go to establlsh 
an argument are arlistically put in array. While the form oi 
Statement is so varied as not to give the impression of a logi- 
cal series, they ascend with cumulative force, often coming to 
an end with a sharp appeal to commoo sense or an ironical 
illustration to silence the unconvinced. At times, however, 
cold lc^c dominates, and tbe poet sinks almost to the level of 

Lucretius' manner of expression is plain, direct, and forcible. 
The poets in whom he seems most to have delighted were 
Hfimor, piirip;fli.g •FmpjHi-u-l..e^ £»ij.l»fl Homeric by Aristotle) 
a nd EnDiu s, He had also read much Cicero's 'Aratea,' — a 
work in places exceedingly spirited and apt in expression. Bnl 
while Lucretius occasionally shonrs the influence of other 
writers, his style has a marked individuality. There is litlle of 
the ' highest art that conceals art ; ' there is rather the vigor of 
native genius that cared nothing for beauty of expression for its 
own sake, but merely sought for a form of language that could 
in some degree convey the vividness of conception. Hence he 
did not hesitate to coin new words ; and some of the com- 
pounds he formed are of rare expressiveness. Poetic pleon- 
asms, by which he gave prominence to a conception in holding 
it before the tiiought, are common enough ; but while hia range 
of epithets is large, he never lavishes them needlessly. Tech- 
nical terms, considering the character of his subject, are few ; 
and owing to the almost epic simplicity and directness of state- 
ment, the most sublle arguments are set forth with clearness 
and accuracy of expresaion. Yet little obscurities, which some- 
times arise from the use of the same word in difTerent senses 
and from the form of the construction, he passes over without 
heed. Tlie epic tonc of thc poem is heightened by the oot 
infrequent use of archaisms. 


la his collocatioQ of words Lucretius somctimes shovs a 
striving after effect The fondnesa for alliteration and asso- 
nance, so common among the early Latin writers, is displayed in 
no small degree. Yet the ear does not sate with the results of 
it; often fais arrangemeats ofwords, especially in the adaptation 
of verse-movement to sense, are peeuliar and highly effective. 
The versijicatiou of Lucretius is a vast improvement upon that 
of Ennius in regularity and ease of movement. There is a ten- 
dency toward Che monotonous; but it is always a monotony 
suggestive rather o( majestic How thaa inslpid rippling. Its 
rhythm is on the whole more pleasant to the ear Ihan that of 
Horace's hexameters, though it lacks the subtle variety and 
artistic finish of Vergirs. As a philosopher Lucretius was 
surpassed by no Roman in the power of grasping a systeni of 
thought, or in cogency of reasoning ; as a poet he was un- 
equalled by any Roman in originality aad power of expression. 
The De Rerum Natura is by many regarded, not nnjustly, as 
the greatest didactic poem of all literature. 

ii. Analysis of the De Reruh Natura. 


Introductory : 

Invocation to Venus I-43 

Unfolding of the purpose and the subject of the 

poem 50~i45 

i. Fundamental Principles ; 

1. Froro notbing nothing is produced .... 146-214 

2. To nothing nought returns 215-264 

ii. Elemental parts of the universe, Matter and Void : 

I. Matter exists, composed of minute particles, 

theatoms 265-338 

3. There is void, in which atoms move and are 
actedon . . : 329-417 

3. Matter and void aloDc make up the universe . 418-482 



. The Nature of Matter : 

A. The Epicurean view: 

1. Atoms, of which matter is made up, are 

Bolid, without void 483-527 

2. Atoms are indestructible and eteroal . . 528-634 

B. Refutation of other views : •, . 

1. Matter is not made up of the diSerent 
fornls and states of a. stngle elemeot, — of 

fire, or air, or water, or earth .... 635-711 

2. Nor is matter made up of two or four . 
simple elements combined 712^29 

3. Nor is matter made up of a number of .^_ 
homogeneous primitive elemcnts . . . 830-920 ' 

Tke pott pauies in tke unfolding of kis argitment 
to tell the glad inspiration ef his theme, tkat 
bids him tread new paths and stek new wreaths 
itt trying to free meH's souls from religion's 
ctose bonds, and lo reveal true reason under tkt 

eharm o/verse^ 921-950 

■, The Eilenl of the Universe : 

1. The universe is wilhout limit 9S'-987 

2. Space is infinite 988-1007 

3. Matter is infinite in quantity 1008-105 1 

4. The universe has no centre 1052-1 1 13 

If you shall knovi thoroughly tkese trutks fire- 

sented, fact will lead lo fact, and ere long not 

ene o/nature's secrets skali be hid from you 1 1 14- 1 1 1 7 


Introductory : 

The pteace of mind found only in the knowledge 

of things i-6i 

Statement of the subject of Book it., the aloms 62-79 



i. The Atoms themsctves : 

1. Themovementofatoms, — continuous, Immeas- 
urably swift, wilhout divine impulse, downward, 
with a.toms someCimes swerving to one side, 
keeping ever the same space belween the 
portions of matter, so that, whiie the atoms 

are invisible, the sum of things seems at rest So-jja 

2. The shapes of aComs, — manifold, but of lim- 
ited number, with the atoms of each shape 
infinitely numerous 333-58o 

ii. The Combinations of Atoms ; 

1. Everything is made up of atoms of unlike 

sbapes 581-699 

2. The combinations of atoms of unlike shapes 

are limited ia number 700-729 

3. The various qualities by which things are 
known to us are not properties of the atom 

but accidents of the combtnation .... 730-864 

4. The capacity of feeling is produced by the 
coming togeCher, in certain ways, of atoms of 
certain shapes 865-1022 

;. All things, even the world iiself, are exactly 
reproduced elsewhere in infinite time by the 
dashing of atoms under like conditions In 
infinite space, without divine power . - . 1023-^104 

6. All combinations of atoms are continually 

changing, dissolution awaits all things . . 1 105-1 174 

600K III, 
Introductory : 

Praise of Epicurus 1-30 

Snbject of Book in., the soul ; the purpose, to 

banish the fear of death 31-93 

i. The nature of the Mind and Soul: 

I. The mind and soul are an essential part of 

™^ 94-135 



2. The mmd and soul are inseparably united . . 136-160 
2- The mind and soul are material in oature, being 

composed oE the finest atoms 161-330 

4. The mind and soul are complex ; and by the 
different proportion and mixture of the £our 
parts, different characters are produced . . 231-322 
ii. The relation of the Mind and Soul to the Body: 

1. The mind and soul exist in vital connection 

with the body 333-369 

2. The atoms of soul are mucb finer and fewer 

than those of the body 370-39S 

3. The mind is more vitally bound up with life 

than the soul 396-416 

iii. The Mortality of the Soul : 

!. Arguments against the soufs immortality ' . 417-829 
2. Conclusions based upon the soufs mortality . 830-1094 

BooK IV. 
Introductory : 

The poet tells the glad inspiration of his theme, 

that bids him in hope of praise tread paths yet 

untrod, and touch with the Muse's charm a 

doctrine before unknown to verse * . . . . i-zs 

The subject of Book iv., the idols or images of 

things and seose-perception 26-41 

i. The nature of Idols : 

1. From the surface of all things films of maiter, 

the Idols, are thrown oiT 42-109 

2. The idols are exceedingly thin, sometimes 
spontaneously generated in the air, continu- 
ously thrown off, of movement inconceivably 
swift, of exactly the same shape as the things 
from which they come, and essential to sense- 
perception 110-268 

1 Twenty-seven in number; see ' 1-25 aie repeated ilmosl word 
nates p. 311, liitf. for wordfroni i, 911-946. 



ii. Applicalion of the doclrine of Idols to explain : 

1. Tlie reflection from polished surfaces . . ■ 269-323 

2. Tbe phenomena of sense-perception, — sight, 
the certainty of Icnowledge gained from the 
senses, hearing, taste, smell 314-721 

3. Certain mental processes, as dreams, inemory 722-S22 
iii. The at>sence of Evidence of Design: 

1. In the adaptation of the senses and otherparts 

of the body to their functions 833-S57 

2. In the relation of food and drink to hunger and 

thirst 858-876 

iv. Discussion of certain phenomena connected witb 
Sensation and Sense-perceplion : 

1. Walking 877-906 

2. Sleep 907-1036 

3. Love 1037-1287 

Introductory : 

Laudation of Epicurus 1-54 

SubjecC and purpose of the lx>ok' 55-9^ 

i. The Destiny of fhe Worid : 

The norld is doomed to destruction ■ . . . 91-415 

ii. The Formation of Ihe World : 

1. The evolution of tbe world 416-508 

2. The explanation of astronomical phenomeoa 509-770 
iii. Tbe Origin of Life ; 

Life in the beginning was spontaneously gener- 
aled from the earth itself; but only the 

fittest to survive survived 771-924 

iv. The Development of Man in Civilization : 

1. The condition of primitive man .... 925-1010 

2. The beginnings of civilization .... taii-1027 

1 See p. 338. * Seven reasoos m ^na ; ste pp, 340-3JO. 



3. The origin of langtu^ 1028-1090 

4. The discovery of fire 1091-1104 

5. The beginnings of political life .... 1 to;-i 160 

6. The origin of religion 1161-1240 

7. The discovery of the metala 1241-1280 

8. The methods of early warfare 1281-1349 

9. The invention of weaving 1350-1360 

10- The beginnings of agriculture .... 1361-1378 

II. The invention of music I379~i435 

13. Progress in knonledge and tbe aits . . . 1436-1457 

BooK vr. 
latrodactory : 

Pniise of Epicunis I-42 

The subject of Book vi., the explanation of the 
phenoraena of nature at which men tremble, 
that it may be seen how they take place 

without the aid of the gods 43-95 

[. Thunder and Lightning 96-422 

ii. Water-spouls 423-450 

iii. The formation of clouds, rain. snow, and the 

like 45I-S34 

iv. Earthqaakes S35-607 

V. Thefisedsiieoftheaea ....... 608-6^ 

vl. The eruptions of Aetna 639-711 

vli. The rising of the Nile 712-737 

viii. Noisome exhalations from the earth .... 738-839 
ix. Alternate warmth and coolness of wells and 

springs 840-90J 

X. The power of the magnet 906-1089 

xL Disease and pestileoce, as the plague at Athens 1090-1286 





Aeneadum genetm, homiiium divomque voluptas, 

alma Venus, caeli subter tabentia signa 

quae maie navigerum, quae teiras frugiferentis 

concelebras, per te quoniam genus otnne animantum 

concipituT visitque exortum lumina solis : 5 

te, dea, te fugiunt venti, te nubila caeli 

adventumque tuum, libi suavis daedala tellus 

summjttit flores, tibi rident aequora ponti 

placatumque nitet dilfuso luroine caelum. 

nam simul ac species patefactast vema diei 10 

et reserata viget genitabilis aura (avoni, 

aeriae primum volucres te, diva, tuumque 

aignificant initum perculsae corda tua vi. 

inde ferae pecudes persultant pabula laeta 

et rapidos traoant amuis : ita capta lepore 15 

te sequituT cupide quo quamque inducere pergis. 

denique per maria ac montis fluviosque rapacis 

frondiferasque domos avium camposque virentis 

omnibus incutiens blandum per pectora amorem 

efficis ut cupide generatim saecla propagent. 20 

quae quoniam rerum naturam sola gubemas 

nec sine te quicquam dias in luminis oras 

exoritur neque fit laetum neque amabile quicquam, 

I Gooi^lc 


te sociam studeo scribendis versibus esse 

quos ego de rerum natura pangere conor 

Memmiadae notitro, quem tu, dea, tempore in OQini 

omnibus omatum voluisti excellere rebus. 

quo magis aetemum da dictis, diva, leporem. 

effice ut interea fera moenera militiai 

per maria ac terras omnis sopita quiescanL 

nam tu sola poles tranquilla pace iuvare 

niortalis, quoniam belli fera moenera Mavors 

armipotens regit, in gremium qui saepe tuum se 

reicit aeterao devictus vulnere amoris, 

atque ita suspiciens tereti cervlce reposta 

pascit amore avidos inhians in te, dea, visus, 

eque tuo pendet resupini spiritus ore. 

hunc tu, diva, tuo recubantem corpore sancto 

circumfusa super, suavis ex ore loquellas 

funde petens placidam Romanis, incluta, pacem. 

nam neque nos agere hoc patriai tempore iniquo 

possumus aequo animo nec Memmi clara propago 

talibus in rebus communi desse saluti. 

quod superest, vacuas auris animumque sagacem 
semotum a curis adhibe veram ad rationem, 
ne mea dona tibi studio disposta fideli, 
intellecta prius quam sint, contempta relinquas. 
nam tibi de summa caeli ratione deumque 
disserere incipiam et rerum primordia pandam, 
unde omnis natura creet res auctet alatque 
quove eadem mrsum natura perempta resolvat, 
quae nos materiem et genitalia corpora rebus 
reddunda in ratione vocare et semina remm 
appellare suemus et haec eadem usurpare 
corpora priraa, quod ex illis sunt orania primis. 

Humana ante oculos foede cum vita iaceret 
in terris oppressa gravi sub religione 



quae caput a caeli regionJbus ostendebat 

horribili super aspectu mortalibus instans, 6j 

primum Graius homo mortalis toUere contra 

est oculoa ausus primusque obsistere contra, 

quem neque fama deum nec rulmlaa nec minitanti 

raumiure compressit caelum, sed eo magis acrem 

inritat animt virtutem, eflringere ut arta 70 

naturae primus portarum claustia cupiret 

ergo vivida vis animl pervicit, et extra 

processit longe flammantia moenia mundi 

atque omne immensura peragravit mente anirooque, 

unde rcfert nobis victor quid possit oriri, 75 

quid nequeat, linita potestas denique cuique 

quanam sit ratione atque alte terromus haerens. 

quare religio pedibus subiecta vicissim 

opteritur, nos exaequat victoria cafelo. 

Illud in his rebos vereor, ne forte rearis 80 

inpia le rationis inire elementa viamque 
indugredi sceleris. quod contra saepius illa 
religio peperit scelerosa atque impia facta. 
AuUde quo pacto Triviai viipnis aram 
Iphianassai turparunt sanguine foede 85 

ductores Danaum delecti, prima vironim. 
cui simul infula virgineos circumdata comptus 
ex utraque pari malarum parte profusast, 
et maestum simul ante aras adstare parentem 
sensit et hunc propter ferrum ceiare ministros 90 

aspectuque suo lacrimas effundere civis, 
muta metu teiram genibus summissa petebat. 
nec miscrae prodesse io tali tempore quibat 
quod patrio princeps donarat nomine regem ; 
nam sublata vinim manibus tremibundaque ad aias 95 
deductast, non ut soliemni more sacronim 
perfecto posset claro comitari Hymenaeo, 
sed casta inceste nubendi tempore in ipso 



hostia concideret mactatii maesta parentis, 

exitus ut claasi felix faustusque daretur. 1« 

tantuci religio potuit suadere malorum. 

Tutemet a nobis iam quovis tempore vatum 
lerriloquis viclus dictis desciscere quaeres. 
quippe etenim quam multa tibi iam fingere possunt 
somnia quae vitae rationes vertere possint 10; 

fortunasque tuas omnis lurbare timore ! 
et merito ; nam si certani finem esse viderent 
aerumnarum homines, aliqua ratione valerent 
religionibus atque minis obsistere vatum. 
nunc ratio nulla est restandi, nulia facultas, iu 

aetemas quoniam poenas in morte timendumst. 
ignoratur enim quae sit natura animai, 
nata sit an contra nascentibus insinuetur, 
et simul intereat nobiscum motte dirempta 
an tenebras Orci vjsat vastasque lacunas 11; 

an pecudes alias divinitus insinuet se, 
Ennius ut noster cecinit qui primus amoeno 
detulit ex Helicone perenni fronde coronam, 
per gentis Italas hominum quae clara clueret ; 
etsi praeterea tamen esse Acherusia templa ik 

Ennius aeteniis exponit versibus edens, 
quo neque permaneant animae neque corpora nostra, 
sed quaedam simulacra modis pallentia miris ; 
unde sibi exortam semper florentis Homeri 
commemorat speciem lacrimas efFundere saJsas 125 
coepisse et rerum naturam expandere dictis. 
quapropter bene cum superis de rebus habenda 
nobis est ratio, solis lunaeque meatus 
qua fiant ratjone, et qua vi quaeque gerantur 
in terris, tum cum primis ratione sagaci 130 

unde anima atque animi constet natura videndum ; 
et quae res nobis, vigilantibus obvia, mentes 
tenificet morbo adfectis somnoque sepultis. 



ceraere uti videamur eos audireque coram, 
morte obita quorutn tellus amplectitur ossa. 
Dec me animi fallit Graiorum obscura reperta 
difficile inlustrare Latinis versibus esse, 
multa novis verbis praesertim cum sit agendum 
propter egestatem iinguae et rerum novitatem ; 
sed tua me virtus tamen et sperata volupUs 
suavis amicitiae quemvis sufferre laborem 
suadet et inducit noctes vigilare serenas 
quaerentem dictis quibus et quo carmine demum 
clara tuae possim praepandere lumina menti, 
rcs quibus occultas penitus convisere possis. 

Hunc igitur terrorem animi tenebrasque D':cessest 
non radii solis neque lucida tela diei 
discutiant, sed naturae species ratioque. 
principium cuius hinc nobis exordia sumet, 
nuUam rem e nilo gigni divinitus umquam. 
quippe ita formido mortalis continet omnis, 
quod multa in terris fieri caeloque tuentur 
quonim operum causas nulla ratione videre 
possunt ac fieri divino oumine rentur. 
quas ob res ubi viderimus nil posse creari 
de nito, tum quod sequimur iam rectius inde 
perspiciemus, et unde queat res quaeque creari 
et quo quaeque modo fiant opera sine divom. 

Nam si de nilo fieteot, ex omnibu' rebus 
omne genus nasci posset, nil semine egeret. 
e mare primum homines, e terra posset oriri 
squamigerum genus et volucres enimpere caelo ; 
armeota atque aliae pecudes, genus omne ferarum, 
incerto partu culta ac deserta tenerent. 
nec fructus idem arboribus coostare solereot, 
sed mutareotur, ferre omnes omnia possent. 
quippe ubi non essent genitaJia corpora cuique, 
qui posset mater rebus consistere certa? 



at nunc seminibus quia certis quaeque creantur, 
inde enascitur atque oras in luminis exit, 
materies ubi inest cuiusque et corpora prima ; 
atque hac re nequeunt ex omnibus omnia gigni, 
quod certis in rebus inest secreta facultas. 
praeterea cur vere rosam, frumenta calore, 
vites aummno fundi suadente videmus, 
si non, certa suo quia tempore semina renim 
cum confluxerunt, patefit quodcumque creatur, 
dum tempestates adsunt et vivida tellus 
tuto res teneras effert in luminis oras? 
quod si de nilo fierent, subito exorerentur 
incerto spatio atque alienis paitibus anni, 
quippe ubi nulla forent primordia quae genitali 
concilio possent arceri tempore iniquo. 
nec pono augendis rebus spatio foret usus 
seminis ad coitum, si e nilo crescere possent ; 
nam fierent iuvenes subito ex infantibu' parvis 
e terraque exorta repente arbusta salirent. 
quorum nil iieri manifestum est, omnia quando 
paulatim crescunt, ut par est, semine certo 
crescentesque genus servant ; ut noscere possis 
quicque sua de materia grandescere alique. 
huc accedit uti sine certis imbribus anni 
laetificos nequeat fetus submittere tellus 
nec porro secreta cibo natura animantum 
propagare genus possit vitamque tueri ; 
ut potius multis communia corpora rebus 
multa putes esse, ut verbis elementa videmus, 
quam sine principiis uUam rem existere posse. 
denique cur homines tantos natura parare 
non potuit, pedibus qui pontum per vada possent 
transire et magnos manibus divellere montis 
multaque vivendo viialia vincere saecla, 
si non, materies quia rebus reddita certast 



^gnundis e qua constat quid posset oriri? 

nil igitur fieri de nilo posse fatendum^t, » 

semine quaodo opus est rebus quo quaeque creatae 

aeris in teneras possint proferrier auras. 

postiemo quoniam iiicultis praestare videmu» 

culta loca et manibus melioris reddere fetus, 

esse videlicet in lerris primordia rerum 3 

quae nos fecundas vertentes vomere glebas 

terraique solum subigentes cimus ad ortus. ^<-'^'- '^ 

quod si nulla forent, nostro sine quaeque labore 

sponte sua multo fieri meliora videres. ' _ 

Huc accedit uti quicque in sua corpora niisum s 
dissoluat natura neque ad nilum interemat rea. 
nam siquid mortale e cuncds partibus esset, 
ex oculis res quaeque repente erepta periret. 
nulla vi fbret usus enim quae partibus eius 
discidium parere et nexus exsolvere posset. 3. 

quod nunc, aetemo quia constant semine quaeque, 
donec vis obiit quae res diverberet ictn 
aut intus penetret per inania dissoluatque, 
nuUius exitium patitur natura videri. 
[«aeterea quaecumque vetustate amovet aetas, 2 

si penitds peremit consumens materiem oranera, 
unde animale genus generaUm in lumina vjtae 
redducit Venus, aut redductum daedata tellua 
unde alit atqae auget generatim pabula praebens? 
unde mare ingenuei fontes extemaque longe 2 

iluroina suppeditant? imde aetber sidera pascit? 
omnia enim debet, mortali corpore quae sunl; 
infinita aetas consumpse anteacta diesque. 
quod si in eo spatio atque anteacta aetate fuere 
e quibus haec rerum consistit summa refecta, 2 

inmoitali sunt nattua praedita certe, 
haut igitur possunt ad nilum quaeque revertL ^ 
denique res omnis eadem vis causaque voigo 



conficeTet, nisi materies aetema tene^t, 
inter se nexu minus aut magis indupedita ; 
tactus enim leti satis esset causa profecto, 
quippe, ubi nulk forent aetemo corpore, quonun 
coDtextum vis deberet dissolvere quaeque. ly 
at nunc, intei se quia nexus principionim 
dissimiles constant aetemaque materies est, 
jncolumi remanent rcs corpore, duro satis acris 
) vis obeat pro textura cuiusque repei^ 
' haud igitur redit ad nilum res ulla, sed omnes 
discidio redeunt in corpora mateiiai. 
postremo pereunt imbres, ubi eos pater aether 
in gremium matris terrai praecipitavlt ; 
at nitidae surgunt fruges ramique virescunt 
arboribus, crescunt ipsae fetuque gravantur; 
hinc alitur porro nostnim genus atque ferarum, 
hinc laetas urbes pueris florere videmus 
frondiferasque novis avibus canere undique silvas ; 
hinc fessae pecudes pingui per pabula laeta 
corpora deponunt et candens lacteus uraor 
uberibus manat distentis \ hinc nova proles < , ^ 

artubus infirmis teneras lasciva per herbas *(' 
ludit lacte mero mentes perculsa novellas. 
haud igitur penitus pereunt quaecumque videntur, 
quando aJid ex alio reficit natura nec ullam 
rem gigni patitur nisi morte adiuta aliena, 

Nunc age, res quoniam docui non posse creari 
de nilo neque item genitas ad nil revocari, 
nequa foite tamen coeptes diffidere dictis, 
quod nequeunt oculis rerum primordia cemi, 
accipe praeterea quae corpora tute necessest 
confiteare esse in rebus nec posse videri. 
~~principio venti vis verberat incita portus 
ingentisque ruit navis et nubila differt, 
interdum rapido percurrens lurbine campos 



arboribus magnis stemit montisque supremos 
silvifragis vexat flabrisf ita perftirit acri 275 

cum fremitu saevitque minaci murmure ventus. 

"^iiEint igitur venti nimirum coipora caeca 
quae mare, quae tenas, quae denique nubila caeli 
vemint ac subito vexantia turbine raptant, ^,', ■ ' 
nec ratione fluunt alia stragemque propagtdit 2S0 

et cum mollis aquae fertur natura repente- 
flumine abundanti, quam largis imbribus auget 
montibus ex altis magnus decursus aquai 
firagmina contciens siivarum arbustaque tota, 
nec validi possunt pontes venientis aquai 285 

vim subitam tolerare : ita magno turbidUs imbri 
molibus incumt validis cum viribus amius : 
dat sonitu raagno stragem volvitque sub undis 
grandia saxa : ruit qua quicquid fluctibus obstat. 

■^c igitur d^beiit venti quoque flamina ferri, -*•■- ' 290 
quae velutt validum cum flumen procubueie 
quamlibet in partem, trudunt res ante ruuntque 
impetibus crebris, interdum vertice torto 
corripiunt rapideque rotanti turbine portant. 
quare etiam atque etiam sunt venti corpora caeca, 295 
quandoqutdem Cactis et moribus aemula m^nis' 
amnibus inveniuntur, aperto corpore qui sunt; 
■^ tum porro varios rerum sentimus odorea 

nec tamen ad naris venientis ceminius umquam, 
nec calidos aestuS tuimur nec frigora quimus 300,^ 

usurpare oculis nec voces cemere suemus ; <' "' 
quae tamenr omnia corporea constare necessest 
natura, quoniam sensus inpellere possunt 
"'tangere enim et tangi, nisi corpus, nulla potest res. 
denique fluctifrago suspensae iu litore vestes 305 

uvescunt, eaedem dispansae in sole serescunt. 
at neque quo pacto persederit umor aquai 
'visumst nec rursum quo pacto fugerit aestu. 



in parvas igitur partis dispergitur umor 

quas oculi nulla possunt ratione videre. '— 310 

quin etiam multis solis redeuotibus annis 

anulus in digito subter tenuatur habendo, 

stilicidi casus lapidera cavat, uncus aratri 

feireus occulte decrescit vomer in arvis, 

strataque iam volgi pedibus detrita viarum 315 

saxea conspicimus ; tum portas propter aena 

signa manus dextras ostendunt adtenuari 

saepe salutantum lactu praeterque meantum. 

haec igitur minui, cum sint detrita, videmus.y 

sed quae corpora decedant in tempore quoque, ^ 3«) 

invida praeclusit speciem natura videndi. 

postremo quaecumque dies naturaque rebus 

paulatim tribuit, moderatim crescere cogens, 

sulla potest oculonim acies contenta tueri ; 

nec porro quaecumque aevo macief^e sen^Kunt, 325 

nec, mare quae inpendent, vesco saJe saxa peresa 

quid quoque amittant in tempore cernere possis. 

corporibus caecia igitur natura gerit res. 

Nec tamen undique corporea stipala tenentur 
omnia natura ; namque est in rebus inane. 330 

quod tibt cognosse in multis erit utile rebus 
nec siaet errantem dubitare et quaerere semper 
de summa renim et nosliis diffidere dictis. 
[quapropter locus est intactus inane vacansqne.] 
quod si non esset, nuUa ratione moveri 335 

res possent ; namque officium qi!6il||tprpori5 exstat, 
officere atque obstare, id in omni tSBj^ adessct 
onmibus ; haud igitur quicquam procflBcre posset, 
principium quoniam ceden^i nuUa daret res. 
at nunc per maria ac terras sublimaque caeli 340 

multa modis multis varia ratione moveri *- . 
cemimus ante oculos, quae, si non esset inane, 
non tam sollicito Aiotu privata carerent 



quam genlta omnino nulla ratione fuissent, 

undique materies quoniam stipata quiesset. 343 

praeterea quamvis solidae res esse putentur, 

hinc tanien esse licet raro cum corpote cernaa. 

in saxis ac speiuncis permimat aquarum 

liquidus umor et uberibus flent omnia gtlUis» 

dissipat in corpus sese cibus omne animant um. , 350 

crescunt arbusta et fetus in tempore fundunt, 

quod cibus in tolas usque ab radicibus irois 

per tnincos ac per ramos diffunditur omnis. 

inter ^r^ta' meant voces et clau^ domorum 

tn^isvolitant, rigidum permanat frigus ad ossa, 355 

quod nisi inania sint, qua possint corpcn-a quaeque 

transire ? haud ulla fieri ratione videres. 

denique cur alias aliis praestare videmus 

pondere res rebus nilo maiore figiira ? 

uam si tantundemst in lanae glomefe quantum 360 

corporis in plumbo est, tsjitundem pendere par est,- 

corporis officiumst quoniam prcqiere omnia deor^um, 

contra autem natura manet sine pondere inanis, 

ergo quod magnumst aequejeviusque videtur, 

nimirum plus esse sibi declarat inanis ; 365 

at contra gravius plus in se corporis esse 

dedicat et multo vacui minus intus habere. 

est igitur nimirum id quod ratione sagaci 

quaerimus, adraixtum rebns, quod inane vocamus^ 

ILud in his rebus ne te deducere vero 370 

possit, quod quidam Angunt, praecurrere cogor. 
cedere squamigeris latices nitentibus aiunt 
et liquidas aperire vias, quia post loca pisces 
linquant, quo possint cedentes coniluere undae j 
sic alias quoque res inter se posse moveri 375 

et mutare locum, quamvis sint omnia plena. 
scilicet id falsa totum ratione receptumst. 
nam quo squamigeri poterunt procedere tandem, 



ni spatium dederint latices? concedere porro 

quo poterunt undae, cum pisces ire neqTiibunt? 380 

aut igitur motu privandumst corpora quaeque 

aut ease admixtum dicundumst rebus inane ^^ 

unde initum primum capiat res quaeque movendiSft 

postremo duo de concursu corpora lat^ 

si cita dissiliant, nempe aer omne necessest, 3S5 

inter corpora quod fiat, possidat inane. 

is porro quamvis circum celeraqtibus auris 

confluat, haud poteric tamen imo tempore totum 

compieri spatium ; nara primum quemque necessest 

occupet ille locum, deinde omnia possideantur. 390 

quod si forte aliquis, cum corpora dissiluere, 

tum putat id fieri quia se condenseat aer, 

errat ; nam vacuum tum fit quod non fiiit ante 

et repletur item vacuum quod conatitit ante, 

nec taJi ratione potest denserier aer, 395 

nec, M iam posset, sine inani posset, opinor, 

ipse in se trahere et partis conducere in unum'. 

Quapropter, quamviscausando multa moreris, 
esse in rebus inane tamen fateare necessest.' 
mullaque praeterea tibi possum commemorando 400 
ai^menta fidem dictis conradere nostris. 
verum animo satis haec vestigia parva sagaci 
sunt per quae possis cognoscere cetera tute. 
namque canes ut montivagae persaepe ferai 
naribus inveniunt intectas fronde quietes, 405 

cum seme! institerunt vestigia certa viai,- 
sic alid ex alio per te tute ipse videre 
talibus in rebus poteris caecasque latebras 
insinuare omnis et verum protrahere inde. 
quod si pigraris paulumve recesseris ab re, 410 

hoc tibi de plano possum promittere, Memmi : 
usque adeo largos haustus e fontibu' magnis 
lingua meo suavis diti de pectore fundet, 

.yCooglc . 


ut verear ne tarda prius per membra senectus 
seqtat et in nobis vitai claustra resolvat, 415 

quam tibi dc quavis una,re versibus omniB 
aipimentbrum sit C(H)ia missa per auris. 

Sed nunc ut repetam coeptom pertexere dictiar 
ompis, Tit est, igitur per se n^tiira duabus 
constitit in rebus ; nam corpora sunt et inane, 4«) 

haec in quo sita sunt et qua diversa moventur. 
corpus enim per se communis dedicat esse 
sensus ; cui nisi prima fides fimdata valebit, 
haut erit occultis de rebus quo referentes 
contimiare animi quicquam ratione queamus. 425 

tum porro locus ac spatium, quodinane vocamus, 
si nuUum foret, haut usquam sjta corpora possent 
esse neque oranino quoquam diversa meare ; 
id quod iam supera tibi paulo ostendimus ante. 
praeterea nil est quod possis dicere ab omni 430 

corpore seiunctum secretumque esse ab ioani, 
quod quasi tertia sit numero natura reperta. 
nam quoflcumque erit, esse aliquid debebit id ipsum ; 
cui si tactus erit quamvis levis exiguusque, 
augmine vel grandi vel parvo denique, dum sit, 435 
coqwris augebit numerum summaoique sequetur. 
sin intactile erit, nuUa de parte quod uHam 
rem prohibere queat per se transire meantem, 
scilicet hoc id erit, vacuum quod inane vocamus. 
praeterea per se quodcumqufe erit, aut feciet quid 440 
aut aliis fungi debebit agentibus ipsum 
aut erit ut possint in eo res esse gerique, 
ac facere et fimgi sine corpore nuUa potest res 
nec praebere locum porro nisi inane vacansque. 
ergo praeter inane et corpora tertia per se 44S 

nuUa potest rerum in numero natura relinqui, 
nec quae sub sensus cadat uUo tempore nostros 
nec ratione animi quam quisquam possit apisci. 



Nam quaecumque cluent, aut his coniuncta doabus 
rebus ea mvenies aut honim eventa videbis. 450 

coniunctum est id quod nusquam sine permitiali 
discidio potis est seiungi seque gregari^ 
pondus uti aaxist, calor ignis, Uquor aquai. 
[tactus corporibus cunctis intactus inani,] 
servitium contra paupertas divitiaeque, 455 

libertas bellum concordia, cetera quorura 
adventu manet incolumis natura abituque, 
haec soliti sumus, ut par est, eventa vocare. 
tempus item per se non est, sed rebus ab ipsis 
consequitur sensus, tranaactum quid sit in aevo, 460 
tum quae res instet, quid porro deinde sequatur. 
nec per ae quemquam tempus seutire fatendumst 
semotum ab rerum motu placidaque quiete, 
denique Tyndaridem n^tam belloque subactas 
Tioiiugenas gentis cum dicunt esse, videndumst 465 
ne forte haec per se cogant nos essc tkterit 
quandoeasaeclahominum, quorumhaeceventafuenint,. 
inrevocabilis abstulerit iam praeterita aetas ; 
namque aliut Teucris, aliut regionibus ipsis 
eventum dici poterit quodcumque erit actum. 470 

denique msUeries si rerum nuUa fiiisset ' 
nec locus ac spatium, res in quo quaeque geruntur, 
numquam T^daridis formae conflatus amore 
ignis, Alexandri Fhiygio sub pectore gliscen|, 
clacs accendisset saevi certamina belli, 475 

nec clam duriteus Troiianis Pei^pina partu , 
inflammasEet equos noctumo Graiiugenarum ; 
perspicere ut possis res gestas funditus omnis 
non ita uti corpus per se constare neque esse, 
nec ratiooe cluere eadem qua constet inane, 480 

sed magis ut merito possis eventa vocare 
corporis atque loci, res in quo quaeque gerantur. 
">>.Coipora sunt porro partim primordia rerum, 



partim condlio quae constant principiorum. 

sed quae simt rerum primordia, nulla potest vis 485 

stinguere ; nam soUdo vincunt ea corpore demum. 

etsi difficile esse videtur credere quicquam 

in rebus solido reperiri corpore posse. 

transit enim fulmen caeli per saepta domonim, 

damor ut ac voces ; ferrum candescit in igni 490 

dissiliuntque fero ferventia saxa vapore ; 

tum labefactatus rigor auri aolvitur aestu ; 

tum glacies aeris flamma devicta liquescic ; 

permanat calor ai^entum penetraleque fngus, 

quando utnimque manu retinentes pocula rite 495 

sensimus infuso lympharum rore supeme. 

usque adeo in rebus solidi nil esse videtur. 

sed quia vera tamen ratio naturaque rerum 

cogit, ades, paucis dum versibus expediamus ■i 

este ea quae solido atque aetemo corpore cotsteiit, 500 

semina quae renim primordiaque esse docemus, 

unde omnis renim nunc constet summa creata. i_ 

Frincipio quoniam duplex natura duamm 
dissimilis renim Jonge constare repertast, 
corporis atque loci, res in quo quaeque gerantur, 505 
esse utramque sibi per se puramque necessesL 
nam quacumque vacat spatium, quod inane vocamns, 
corpus ea nou est ; qua porro cumque tenet se 
corpus, ea vacuum nequaquam constat inane. 
sunt igitur solida ac sine inani corpora prima. 510 

praeterea quoniam genitis in rebus inanest, 
materiem circum solidam constare necessest, 
nec res ulla potest vera ratione probari 
corpore inane suo celare atque intus habere, 
si non, quod cohibet, solidum constare relinquas. 515 
id porro nil esse potest nisi materiai 
concilium, quod inane queat rerum cohibere. 
materies igitur, solido quae corpore constat, 



esse aetema potest, cum cetera dissoluantur. 
tum porro si nil esset quod inane vocaret, ; 

omne foret solidiim ; nisi contra corpora certa 
essent quae loca complerent quaecumque teneient, 
omne quod est, spatium vacuum constaiet inane. 
altemis igitur nimirum corpus inani 
distinctumst, quoniam nec plenum naviter extat ; 
nec porro vacuum. sunt ergo corpora certa 
quae spatiura pleno possint distinguere inane. 
~ haec neque dissolui plagis extrinsecus icta 
possunt nec porro penitus penetrata retexi 
nec ratione queunt alia temptata labare ; ; 

id quod iam supra tibi paulo ostendimus antc. 
nam neque conlidi sine inani posse videtur 
quicquam nec frangi nec Andi in bina secando 
nec capere umorem neque item manabile frigus 
nec penetralem ignem, quibus omnia conficiuntur. ; 
et quo quaeque ma^s cohibet res intus inane, 
tam magis his rebus penitus temptata labascit 
ergo si solida ac sine inani coipora prima 
sunt ita uti docui, sint haec aetema necessest. 
praeterea nisi materies aetema fuisset, ; 

aatehac ad nilum penitus res quaeque redissent 
de niloque renata forent quaecumque videmus. 
at quoniam supra docui nil posse creari 
de nilo neque quod genitum est ad nil revocari, 
esse inmortali primordia corpore debent, ; 

dissoiui quo quaequc supremo tempore possint, 
materies ut subpeditet rebus reparandis. 
sunt ^tur sohda primordia simplicitate 
nec ratione queunt alia servata per aevom 
ex infinito iam tempore res reparare. j, ; 

Denique si nullam finem namra parasset''- n 
ii-at^eDdis rebus, iam corpora materiai 
usque ledacta forent aevo &<ingente priore, 



ut nil ex illis a certo tempore posset 

conceptum summum aetatjs pervadere ad auctum. 555 

nam quidvis citius dissolvi posse videmus 

quam rursus refid ; quapropter longa dieV 

infinita aetas anteacti temporis oronis ' 

quod fregisset adhuc disturbans dissoluensque, 

numquam relicuo reparari tempore posseL 560 

at nunc aimirum &aiigendi reddita finis ■ 

certa manet, quoniam refici rem quamque videmus 

et finita simul generatim tempora rebus 

stare, quibus possint aevi contingere florem. 

huc accedit uti, solidissitna materiai ^65 

corpora cum constant, possit tamen, omnia, reddi, 

mollia quae liunt, aer aqua terra vapores, 

quo pacto fiant et qua vi quaeqne gerantur, 

admixtum quoaiam semei est in rebus inane. 

at contra si moUia sint primordia rerum, 570 

unde queant validi silices ferrumque creari 

non poterit ratio reddi; nam funditus omniB 

principio fundamenti natura carebit. 

sunt igitur solida pollentia simplipitate 

quorum condenso magis omnia cont^iliatu j75 

artari possunt validasque ostenderc viris. 

* Porro si nullast fi^ngendis reddita finis 

corporibus, taraen ex aetemo tempore quaeque 

nunc etiam superare necessest corpora rebus, 

quae nondum clueant ulto temptata periclo, s8o 

at quoniara fiagili natura praedita coDstant, 

discrepat aetemum tempus potuisse manere 

innumerabilibus plagis vexata per aevom. 

denique iam quoniam generatim reddita tinis 

crcscendi rebus constat vitamque tenendi, 585 

et quid qjarfque queant per foedera naturai, 

quid porro nequeant, sancitum quandoquidem extat, 

nec commutatur quicquam, quin omnia constant 



usque adeo, variae volucres ut in ordine cunctae | 

ostendant maculas generalis corpore inesse, 590 

inmutabili' materiae quoque coipus habere '. 

debent ninurum, nam si primordia renim ' 

commutari aliqua possint ratione revicta, ' 

incertum quoque iam constet quid possit oriri, 

quid nequeat, finita potestas denique cuique 595 

quanam sit ratione atque alte terminus haerens, , 

nec totiens possint generatim saecla referre 

naturam.moreSjVictun^motusque parentum. 

Tum porro quoniam est extremum quodque cacumen 
corporis illius quod nostri cemere sensus 600 

iam nequeunt«(id nimirum sine partibus extat 
et minima constat natiira nec fuit nmquam 
per se secretum neque posthac esse valeblt, 
alterius quoniamst ipsum pars, primaque et una 
inde aliae atque aliae similes ex ordine partes 605 

agmine condenso naturam corporis explent, 
quae quoniam per se nequeunt constare, necessest 
haerere unde queant nuUa ratione revelli. 
sunt igitur solida primordia simplicitate 
quae rainimis stipata cohaerent partibus arte, 6ia 

non ex illarum conventu conciliata, 
sed magis aetema pollentia simplicitate, 
unde neque avelli quicquara neque deminui iam 
concedit natura reservans semina rebus. 
praeterea nisi erit minimum, parvissima quaeque 615 
corpora constabunt ex partibus infinitis, 
quippe ubi dimidiae partis pars semper habebit 
dimidiara partem nec res praefiniet uUa," 
ergo rerum inter summam minimamque quid escit? 
nil erit ut distet ; nam quamvis funditus omnis 620 

summa sit infinita, tamen, parvissima quae sunt, 
ex iniinitis constabunt partibus aeque. 
quod quoniam ratio reclamat vera negatque 



credere posse animum, victus fateare necessest 
esse ea quae nullis iam praedita paitibus extent < 
et miDima constent natura. quae quoniam sunt, 
illa quoque esse tibi solida atque aeterna fatendum. 
denique si minimas in partis cuncta resolvi 
cogere consuesset rerum natuia creatrix, 
iam nil ex iUis eadem repaiare valeret 
propterea quia, quae nullis sunt partibus aucta, 
non possunt ea quae debet genitalis habere 
materies, varios conexus pondera plagas 
concursus motus, per quae res quaeque geruntur.ix 

QuapFopter qui materiem reium esse putartmt 
ignem atque ex igni summam consistere solo, 
magno opere a vera lapsi latione videntur. 
Heiaditus init quorum dux proelia primus, 
claius ob obscuram linguam magis inter inanis 
quamde gravis inter Graios qui vera requirunt. 
omnia enim stolidi magis admirantur amantque, 
inversis quae sub verbis latitantia cemunt, 
veraque constituunt quae belle tangere possunt 
auris et lepido quae sunt fitcata sonore. 

Nam cur lam variae res possint esse requiro, 
ex uno si sunt igni puroque creatae ; 
nil prodesset enim calidum denserier ignem 
nec rarefieri, si partes ignis eandem 
natuiam quam totus babet super ignis haberent. 
acrior ardor enim conductis partibus esset, 
languidior poiro disiectis disque supatis : 
amplius hoc fieri nil est quod posse rearis 
taiibus in causis, nedum vaiiantia renim 
tanta queat densis raiisque ex ignibus esse. 
id quoque, si faciant admixtum rebus inane, 
denseri potemnt ignes rarique relinquL 
sed quia multa sibi cemunt contraria nasci 
et fiigitant in rebus inane relinquere puruni. 



ardua dum metuunt, amittunt vera viai, 

nec rursum cemunt exempto rebus inani 660 

orania denseri fierique ex oranibus unum 

corpus, nil ab se quod possit mittere raptim ; 

aestifer ignis uti lumen iacit atque vaporem, 

ut videas oon e stipatis partibus esse. 

quod si forte alia credunt radone potesse 665 

ignis IQ coetu stingui mutareque coipus, 

scilicet ex nulla fecere id si parte reparcent, 

occidet ad nilum nimirum funditus ardor 

omnis et e nilo fient quaecumque creantur. 

nam quodcumque suis mutatum finibus exit, 670 

continuo lioc mors est ilKus quod fuit ante. 

proinde aliquit superare necesse est incolume oDis, 

ne tibi res redeant ad nilum funditus omnes 

de niloque renata vigescat copia reium. 

nunc igitur quoniam certissima corpora quaedam 675 

sunt quae conservant naturam semper eandem, 

quorura abitu aut aditu mutatoque ordine mutant 

naturara res et convertunt corpora sese, 

scire licet non esse haec ignea corpora Temm. 

nil referret enim quaedam decedere, abire, 6S0 

atque alia adtribui, mutarique ordine quaedam, 

si tamen ardoris naturam cuncta teoerent ; 

ignis enira foret omnimodis quodcumque crearent. 

verum, ut opinor, itast : sunt quaedam corpora quorum 

concursus motus ordo positura (igurae 685 

efficiunt ignis, mutatoque ordine mutant 

naturam neque sunt igni simulata neque uQi 

praeterea rei quae corpora mittere possit 

sensibus et nostros adiectu tangere tactus. 

Dicere porro ignem res omnis esse neque ullam 690 
rem veram in numero rerum constare nisi ignem, 
quod facit hic idem, perdelirum esse videturi 
nam contra sensus ab sensibus ipse repugnat 



et labefactat eos, unde omnia credita pendent, 

ande hic o^itus est ipsi quem nominat ignero ; 695 

credit enim sensus ignem cognoscere vere, 

cetera non credit, quae nilo ckra minus sunt 

quod mihi cum vanutn lum delirum esse videtur ; 

quo referemus enim? quid nobia certius ipsis 

sensibus esse potest, qui vera ac falsa notemus ? 700 

praeterea quare quisquam magis omnia tollat 

et velit ardoris naturam linquere solam, 

quam neget esse ignis, quidvis taraen esse relinquat? 

aequa videtur enim dementia dicere utnimque. 

Quapropter qui materiem rerum esse putarunt 705 
ignem atque ex igni summam consistere posse, 
et qui prindpium gignundis aera rebus 
constituere, aut umorem quicumque putanmt 
fingere res ipsum per se, terramve creare 
omnia et in remm naturas vertier dmnis, 710 

magno opere a vero longe derrasse videntur, 
adde etiam qut condupHcant primordia rerum 
aera iungentes igni tenamque liquori, 
et qui quattuor ex rebus posse omnia lentur 
ex igni terra atque anima procrescere et imbri. 71S 

quorum Acragantinus cum primis Empedocles est, 
insula quem triquetris terrarum gessit in oris, 
quani fluitans circum magiiis anfractibus aequor 
lonium g^ucis aspaipt virus ab undis, 
angustoque fi^tu rapidum mare dividit undis 7*0 

Italiae terrarum oras a finibus eius. 
hic est vasta Chaiybdis et hic Aetnaea minantur 
murmura flammanim rursum se colligere iras, 
faucibus eruptos Jterum vis ut vomat ignis 
ad caelumque ferat flammai fiilgura nirsum. 715 

quae cum magna modis multis miranda videtur 
gentibus humanis regio visendaque fertur, 
rebus opima bonis, multa munita virum vi, 



nil tamen hoc habuisse riro praeclarius in se 

nec sanctum magis et minim carumque videtur. 730 

carmina quin etiam divini pectoris eiua 

vociferantur et exponunt praeclara reperta, 

ut vix humana Tide^tur stiipe creatus, 

Hic tamen et supra quos diximus inferiores 
partibus egregie multis multoque minores, 735 

quamquam multa bene ac divinttus invenientcs 
ex adyto tamquam cordis responsa dedere 
sanctius et multo certa ratione magis quam 
Pythia quae tripodi a Phoebi kuroque profatur, 
principiis tamen in lerum fecere ruinas 740 

et graviter magni raagno cecidere ibi casu ; 
primum quod motus exempto lebus inani 
constituunt, et res mollis rarasque relinquont, 
aera solem ignem terras animalia frugis, 
nec tamen admiscent in eorum corpus inane ; 745 

deinde quod omnino linem non esse secandis 
corporibus facinnt neque pausam staie fragori 
nec prorsum in rebus minimum consiatere quicquani ; 
cum videamus id extremum cuiusque cacumen 
esae quod ad sensus nostros minimum esse videtur, 750 
conicere ut possis ex hoc, quae ceinere non quis 
extremum quod habent, minimum consistere in illis. 
huc accedit item, quoniam primordia rerum 
moUia constituunt, quae nos nativa videmus 
esse et mortali cum corpore funditus, utqui 755 

debeat ad nilum iam rerum summa reverti 
de niloque lenata vigescere copia rerum ; 
quorum utrumque quid a vero iam distet habebis. 
deinde immica modis multis sunt atque veneno 
ipsa sibi inter se ; quare aut congressa peribunt j&t 
aut ita difiiigient ut tempestate coacta 
fuhnina difiitgere atque imbris ventosque videmus. 

Denique quattuor ex rebus si cuncta creantur 



atque in eas nirsum res omnra dissoluuntui, 
qui magis illa queunt rerum primordia dici ■} 

quam contra res illorum retroque putari ? 
altemis gignuntur enim mutantque colorem 
et totam inter se naturam tempore ab omni. 
sin ita forte putas ignis terraeque coire ; 

corpus et aerias auras roremque liquoris, 
nil in concilio naturam ut mutet eorum, 
nulla tibi ex iUis poterit res esse creata, 
non animans, non exanimo cum corpore, ut arbos ; 
quippe suam quicque in coetu variantis acervi ; 

naturam ostendet mixtusque videbitur aer 
cum terra simul atque ardor cum rore manere. 
at primordia gignundis in rebus oportet 
naturam clandestinam caecamque adhibere, 
emineat nequid quod contra pugnet et obstet ; 

quominus esse queat proprie quodcumque creatur. 
Quin etiam repetunt a caelo atque ignibus eius 
et primum faciunt ignem se vertere in autas 
aeris, iiinc imbrem gigni terramque creari 
ex imbri retroque a terra cuncta reverti, 7 

umorem primum, post aera, deinde caJorem, 
nec cessare liaec inter se mutare, meare 
a caelo ad terram, de teira ad sidera mundi, 
quod facere iiaud uUo debent primordia pacto ; 
immutabile enim quiddam superare necessest, ; 

ne res ad nilum redigantur funditus omnes, 
nam quodcumque suls mutatum tinibus exit, 
continuo hoc mors est illius quod fuit ante. 
quapropter quoniam quae paulo diximus ante 
in commutatum veniunt, constare necessest ; 

ex aliis ea, quae nequeant convertier usquam, 
ne tibi res redeant ad nilum funditus omnes. 
quin potius tali natura praedita quaedam 
corpora constttuas, ignem si forte crearint. 



posse eadem demptis paucis paudsque tributis, 800 
ordine mutato et motu, facere aeris auras, 
sic alias aJiis lebus mutarier omnis? 

' At manifesta palam res indicat ' inquis ' in auras 
aeris e terra res omnis crescere alique ; 
et oisi tempestas indulget tempore fausto 605 

imbribus, ut tabe nimbonim arbusta vacillent, 
solque sua pro paite fovet tribuitque calorem, 
crescere non possint fruges arbusta animantis.' 
scilicet et nisi nos cibus aridus et tener umor 
adiuvet, amisso iam coqjore vita quoque omnis 810 
omnibus e nervis atque ossibus exsoluaturj 
adiutamur enira dubio procul atque alimur nos 
(£rtis ab rebus, certis aliae atque aliae res. 
nimirum quia multa modls communia multis 
muUanim rerum in rebus primordia mixta 815 

sunt, ideo variis variae res rebus aluntur. 
atque eadem magni refert primordia saepe 
cum quibus et quali positura contineantur 
et quos inter se dent motus accipiaotque ; 
namque eadem caelum mare terras tlumioa solem 810 
constituunt, eadem fruges arbusta animantis, 
verum aliis alioque modo commixta moventur. 
quin etiam passim nostris in versibus ipsis 
multa elementa vides multts commimia verbis, 
cum tamen inter se versus ac verba necessest 825 

confitearc et re et sonitu distare sonanti. 
tantum elementa queunt permutato ordine solo; 
at remm quae sunt piimordia, plura adhibere 
possunt unde queant variae res quaeque creari. / 

Nunc et Anaxagonte scrutemur homoeoraerian' 830 
quam Grai memorant nec nostra dicere lingua 
concedit nobis patrii sermonis egestas, 
sed tamen ipsam rem facilest exponere verbis. 
principio, rerum quom dicit homoeomerian. 



ossa videlicet e pauxillis atque minutis 835 

osstbus hic et de pauxillis atque minutis 

visceribus viscus gigni sanguenque creari 

sanguinis inter se multis coeuntibu' guttis 

ex aurique putat micb consistere posse 

aurum et de terris terram concrescere parvis, 840 

ignibus ex ignis, umorem umoribus esse, 

cetera consiraili fingit ratione putatque. 

nec tamen esse ulla parte idem in rebus inane 

concedit neque corporibus finem esse secandis. 

quare in utraque mihi pariter radone videtur 845 

eTrare atque illi, supra quos diximus ante. 

adde quod inbeciUa nimis primordia fingit ; 

si primordia sunt, simili quae praedita constant 

natura atque ipsae res sunt aequeque laborant 

et pereunt neque ab exitio res ulla refrenaL S50 

nam quid in oppressu valido durabit eorum, 

ut mortem effugiat, leti sub dentibus ipsis? 

ignis an umor an aura? quid horum? sanguen an ossa? 

nil, ut opinor, ubi ex aequo res funditus omnis 

tam mortalis erit quam quae manifesta videmus 8j5 

ex oculis nostris aliqua vi victa perire. 

at neque reccidere ad nilum res posse neque autem 

crescere de nilo testor res ante probatas. 

praeterea quoniam cjbus auget corpus alitque, 

sdre licet nobis venas et sanguen et ossa 86a 

Kve cibos omnis commixto corpore dicent 

esse et habere in se nervorum corpora parva 

ossaque et omnino venas partisque cruoris, 

fiet uti cibus omnis, et aridus et liquor ipse, 

ex alienigenis rebus constare putetur, 86$ 

ossibus et nervis sanieque et sanguine mixto. 

praeterea quaecumque e terra corpora crescunt 

n sunt in tccris, termn constare necessest 



ex alienigenis, quae terris exoriuntur. 

tninsfer Item, totidem verbis utare licebit. J 

in lignis si flamma latet fumusque cinisque, 

ex alienigeQis consbtant ligna necessest. 

pnteterea tellus quae corpora cumque atit, auget 

ex alienigenis, quae lignis his oriuntur. 

Linquitur iiic quaedam latitandi copia tenvis, i 
id quod AuiixagoTas sibi sumit, ut omnibus omnis 
res putet inmixtas rebus latitare, sed illud 
apparere unum cuius sint plurima mixta 
et magis in promptu primaque in fronte locata. 
quod tamen a vera longe ratione repulsumst. 1 

conveniebat enim fhiges quoque saepc, minaci 
robore cum saxi franguntur, mittere signum 
sanguinis auC aliquid, nostro quae corpore aluntur. 
consimili ratione herbis quoque saepe decel>at, 
cum lapidi in lapidem terimus, manare cruorem ; l 
et latices dulcis guttas similique sapore 
mittere, lanigerae quali sunt ubere lactis, 
scilicet et glebis terrarum saepe friatis 
herbarum genera et fruges frondesque videri 
dispertita inter terram latitare minute, l 

postremo in lignis cinerem fumumque videri, 
cum praefracta forent, ignisque latere minutos. 
quorum nil (ieri quoniam manifesta docet res, 
scire licet non esse in rebus res ita mixtas, 
verum semina multimodis inmixta latere ( 

multarum rerum in rebus communia debent. 

' At saepe in magnis fit montibus' inquis ' ut altis 
arboribus vicina cacumina summa terantur 
inter se, validis facere id cogentibus austris, 
donec flammai fulsenint flore coorto.* 9 

scilicet et non est lignis tamen insitus ignis, 
veium semina sunt ardoris multa, tereudo 



quae cum confluxere, creant incendia silvis. 

quod si facta foret silvis abscondita flamma, 

non possent ullum tempus celarier ignes, 9< 

conficerent volgo silvas, arbusta cremarent. 

iamne vides igitur, paulo quod diximus ante, 

permagni referre eadem primordia saepe 

cura quibus et quali positura contineantur 

et quos inter se dent motus accipiantque, 9: 

atque eadem paulo inter se mutata creare 

ignes et lignum ? quo pacto verba quoque ipsa 

inter se paulo mutatis sunt elemenda, 

cum ligna atque ignes distincta voce notemus. 

denique iam quaecumque in rebus cemts apertis 9 

si fieri non posse putas, quin materiai 

corpora consimili natura praedita fingas, 

hac ratione dbi pereunt primordia renim ; 

fiet uti risu tremulo concussa cachinnent 

et lacrimis salsis umectent ora genasque. 9: 

Nunc age quod superest cognosce et clarius audi. 
nec me animi fallit quam sint obscura ; sed acri 
percussit thyrso laudis spes magna raeum cor 
et simul incussit suavem mi in pectus amorem 
musarum, quo nunc instinctus mente vigenti 9: 

avia Pieridum peragro loca nullius ante 
trita solo. iuvat integros accedere fonds 
atque haurire, iuvatque novos decerpere flores 
insigneraque meo capiti petere inde coronam 
imde prius nulli vekrint tempora musae ; 9; 

primum quod raagnis doceo de rebus et artis 
religionum animum nodis exsolvere pergo, 
deinde quod obscura de re tam lucida pango 
carmina, musaeo condngens cuncta lepore. 
id quoque enim non ab nulla rationc videtur ; 9; 

sed veluti pueris absinthia taetra raedentes 
cum dare conantur, prius oras pocula circum 



contingunt meDis dulci flavoque Iiquore, 

ut puerorum aetaa inprovida ludificetur 

labronim teous, interea perpotet amanim 940 

absinthi laticem deceptaque non capiatur, 

sed potius tali pacto recreata valescat, 

sic ergo nunc, quoniam haec ratio plerumque videtur 

tristior esse qulbus non est tractata, retroque 

volgus abhorret ab hac, volui tibi suaviloquenti 9*5 

carmine Kerio rationem exponere nostram 

et quasi musaeo dulci contingere melle, 

si tU)i ibrte animum tali ratlone tenere 

versibus in noslris possem, dum perspicis omnem 

uaturam rerum qua constet compta figura. 950 

Sed quoniam docui solidissima materiaj 
corpora perpetuo volitare invicta per aevom, 
nunc age, summai quaedam sit finis eorum 
necae sit, evolvamus ; item quod inane repertumst 
seu locus ac spatium, res in quo quaeque gerantur, 955 
pervideamus utrum finitum fiinditus omne 
constet an immensum pateat vasteque profimdum. 

Omne quod est igitur nuUa re^one viarum 
finitnmst; namque extremum debcbat habere. 
extremum porro nullius posse videtur 960 

esse, nisi ultra sit quod finiat ; ut videatur 
quo non longius haec sensus natura sequatur. 
nunc extra summam quoniam nil esse ratendum, 
non habet extremura, caret ergo fine modoque. 
nec refert quibus adsistas regionibus eius ; 965 

usque adeo, quem quisque locum possedit, in omnis 
tantundem partJs infinitum omne relinquit. 
praeterea si iam finitum constituatur 
omne quod est spatium, siquis procurrat ad oras 
ubimus extremas iaciatque volatile telum, 970 

id validis utrum contortum viribus ire 
quo fiierit raissum mavis longeque volare, 



an prohibere aJiquid censes obstareque posse? 

aJtenitrum fatearis enim sumasque necessest. 

quorum utrumque tibi effugium praecludit et omne 973 

cogit ut exempta concedas fine patere. 

nam sive est aliquit quod probeat ofliciatque 

quominu' quo missuin est veniat finique locet se, 

sive foraa feitur, non est a fine profectum. 

hoc pacto sequar atque, oras ubicumque tocaris 980 

exttemas, quaenun quid telo denique Jmt. 

fiet uti nusquam possit consistere finis 

effugiumque ftigae prolatet copia semper. 

postremo ante oculos res rem finjre videtur; 

aer dissaepit collis atque aera montes, 985 

terra mare et contra mare terras terminat omnis ; 

omne quidem vero nil est quod finiat extra. 

Fraeterea spatium summai totius omne 
undique si inclusura certis consistere oris 
finitumque foret, iam copia materiai 990 

undique ponderibus soUdis conliuxet ad imum 
nec res ulla geri sub caeli tegmine posset _ 
nec foret omnino caelum neque lumina solit, 
qutppe ubi materies omnis cumulata iaceret 
ex infinito iam tempore subsidendo. 995 

at nunc nimirum requies data principioruni 
corporibus nullast, quia nil est funditus imum 
quo quasi confiuere et sedes ubi ponere possint. 
semper in adsiduo motu res quaeque geruntur 
partibus e cunctis infemaque suppeditantur 1000 

ex infinito cita corpora materiai. 
est igitur natura loci spatiumque profiindi, 
quod neque clara suo percurrere fulmina cursn 
perpetuo possint aevi labentia tractu 
nec prorsum facere ut restet minus ire meando : 1005 
usque adeo passim patet ingens copia rebua 
fiuibus exemptis in cunctas undique partia. 


• 30 LUCRETIUS [r. 

Ipsa modum poTTO sibi rerum summa paiare 
ne possit, natura tenet, quae corpus iimii 
et quod iuane autem est fiDiri corpore cogit, loio 

ut sic alternis infinita omnia leddat, 

aut etiara alterutrum, nisi tenninet altemm, eorum 

simplice natuia pateat tamen inmoderatum. 

nec mare nec tellus neque caeli lucida templa 
nec mortale genus nec divum corpora sancta 1015 

exiguum possent )iOTia sistere tempus ; 
nam dispulsa suo de^oetu materiai 
copia feiretur magaum per inane soluta, 
sive adeo potius rajmquam concreta creasset 
ullam rem, quoniam cogi disiecta nequisset. lozo 

nam certe neque consilio primordia rerum 
ordine se suo quaeque sagaci mente locarunt 
nec quos quaeque darent motus pepigere profecto, 
sed quia multa roodis multis mutata per omne 
ex infinito vexantur percita plagis, 1025 

onrne genus motus et coetus experiundo 
tandem deveniunt in talis disposituras, 
qualibus haec reium consistit summa creata, 
et multos etiam magnos servata per annos 
ut semel in motus coniectast convenientis, 1030 

efficit ut largis avidum mare fluminis undis 
integrent amnes et scJis terra vapwe 
fota novet fetus summissaque gens animantum 
floreat et vivant iabentes aetheris ignes ; 
quod nullo facerent pacto, nisi materiai 1035 

ex intinito suboriri cqpia posset, 
unde amissa solent reparare in tempore quaeque. 
nam veluti privata cibo natura animantum 
diflluit amittens corpus, sic omnia debent 
dissolui siraul ac defecit suppeditare 1040 

materies aliqua ratione aversa viai. 



nec ph^e possunt extrinsecus undique suminam 

conservare omnem quaecumque est conciliata. 

cudere enjm crebro possunt partemque morari, 

dum veniant aliae ac suppleri summa queatur. 1045 

interdum resiliie tamen coguntur et una 

principiis renim spatium tcmpusque fugai 

hiffii, ut possint a coetu libera feni 

quare etiam atque etiam Guboriri multa necessest, 

et tamen ut plagae quoque possint suppetere ipsae, 1050 

infinita opus est vis undique material. 

lUud in his rebus longe fuge credere, Memmi, 
in medium summae, quod dicunt, omnia niti, 
atque ideo mundi naturam stare sine ullis 
ictibus extemis neque quoquam posse resolvi 1055 

summa atque ima, quod in medium sint omnia nixa : 
ipsum si quicquam posse in se sistere credis : 
et quae pondera sunt sub terris omnia sursum 
nitier in terraque retro requiescere posta, 
ut per aquas quae nunc reium simulacra videmus. 1060 
et simili ratione animalia suppa vagari 
contendunt neque posse e terris in loca caeli 
reccidere inferiora magis quam corpora nostra 
sponte sua possint in caeli templa volare ; 
illi cum videant solera, nos sidera noctis 1065 

cemere, et altemis nobiscum teropora caeli 
dividere et noctes parilis agitare diebus. 
sed vanus stolidis haec 
amplexi quod habent perv 

nam medium nil esse potest 1070 

iniinita. neque omnino, si iam medium sit, 
possit ibi quicquam consistere 
quam quavis alia longe ratione 
omnis enim locus ac spatium, quod inane vocamus, 
per medium, per non medium, concedere debet 1075 ' 
aequc ponderibus, motus quacumque femntur. 



nec quisquam locus est, quo corpora ciiiii venenint, 

ponderis amissa vi possJnt stare in inaoi ; 

nec quod inane autem est ulK subsistere debet, 

quin, sua quod natura petit, concedere pergat, loS 

haud igitUT possunt tali ratione teneri 

res in concilio medii cuppedine victae. 

Praeterea quoniam non omnia corpora fingunt 
in medium niti, sed terrarum atque liquoris, 
ct quasi terreno quae corpore contineantur, io8 

umorera ponti magnasque e montibus undas, 
at contra tenuis exponunt aeris auias 
et calidos simul a medio difierrier ignis, 
atque ideo totum circum tremere aethera signis 
et solis flammara per caeli caerula pasci, 109 

quod caior 3 medio fugiens se ibi conligat otnnts, 
nec proisum arboribus summos frondescere ramos 
posse, nisi a terris paulatiro cuique cibatum 

ne volucri ritu ftammarum moenia mundi 
difTugiant subito magnum per inane soluta 
et ne cetera consimili ratione sequantur 
neve ruant caeli penetralia templa snperae 
terraque se pedibus raptim subducat et omnis 
inter permixtas rerum caeliqne ruinas 
corpora solventes abeat per inane profiindum, 
temporis ut puncto nil extet reliquiarum 
desertum praeter spatium et primordia caeca. 
nam quacumque prius de parti corpora desse 



constitues, haec rebus erit pars ianua leti, 
hac se turba fotas dabit omnis materiaL 

Haec sei pcmosces, parva perductus opella 

namque alid ex alio darescet nec tibi caeca 
nox iter eripiet quin ultima natuiai 
pervideas : ita res accendent lumina rebus. 





Suave, mari m^o ttirbantibus siequora veotis, 
e terra magnum aJterius spectare laborem ; 
non quia vexari quemquamst iucunda voluptas, 
sed quibus ipsc maJis careas quia cemere suavc^st 
suavfTttiani belli ceitamiaa magna tueri 
per campos instructa tua sine parte pericli. 
sed nil dulcius est, bene quam munita tenere 
edita doctrina sapientum templa serena, 
despicerenmde queas alios passimque videre 
errarenrttjue riam palantis quaerere vitae, 
certarelngenio, contendere nobilitate, 
noctes atque dies niti praes,taQte labore 
ad ^mtnas emergere~Opes rerumque potiri. 
o miseras hominum mentes, o pectora caeca ! 
qualibus in tenebris vitae quantisque periclis 
degitur hoc aevi quodcumquest ! nonne videre 
nil aliud sibi naturam latiare, nisi„utqui 
corpore seiunctus dolor absit, mente fru^ur 
iucundo sensu cura semota memque? 
ergo carporeztn ad naturam pauca videmus 
esse opus omnino, quae demant cumque dolorem. 
delicias quoqiieTiti multas substemere possint 
gratius interdum, neque naturflpsa requirit. 



si non aurea sunt iuvenum simulacra per aedes 

lampadas igniferas manibus retinentia dextris> 25 

lumina noctumis epulis ut suppeditentur, 

nec domus argento fiilget auroque renidet 

nec citharae reboant laqueata aurataque tecta, 

cum tamen inter se prostrati-in gramioe molli 

propter aquae rivum aub ramis arboris altae 30 

non magnis opibus iucunde corpora curant, 

praesertim cum tempestas adridet et anni 

tempora conspergunt viridantis floribus herbas. 

nec calidae citius decedunt corpore febres, 

textilibus stin picturis ostroque rubenti 35 

iacteris, quam si^lb plebeia veste cubandum est. 

quapropter quoniam nil nostro in corpore gazae 

proficiunt neque nobilitas nec gloria regni, 

quod superest, animo quoque nil prodesse putandum ; 

si non forte tuas legiones per loca campi 40 

fervere cum videas belli simulacra cientis, 

subsidiis magnis et ecum vi constabilitas, 

ornatasquC*3rmis statuas pariterque^animatas, 

his tibi tum rebus timefactae religiones 

effugiunt animo pavide ; mortisque timores 45 

tum vacuum pectus lincunt curaque solutum, 

fervere cum videas classem lateque vagari. 

quod si ridicula haec ludibriaqu^sse videmus, 

re veraque metus homjnum curaeque sequaces 

nec metuunt sonitus armorum nec fera tela 

audacterquelnter reges rerumque potentis jo 

versantur neque fulgorem reverentur ab auro 

nec clarum vestis splendorem purpureai, 

quid dubitas quin omni' sit haec rationi' potestas? 

omnJs cum in tenebris praesertim vita laboret. 

nam veluti pueri trepidant atque^mnia caecis 55 

in tenebris metuunt, sic nos in Iuce timemus 

iaterdum, nilo quae sunt metuenda mag^ quam 



quae pueri in tenebris pavitant fii^untqae fiitura. 
hunc igitur teirorem animi tenebrasque necesseat 
non radii solis neque lucida tela dlei 60 

discutiant, sed naturae species ratioque. 

Nunc age, quo motu genitalia materia! 
corpora res vaiias gignant genitasque resolvant 
et qua vi facere id cogantur quaeque sit oHis 
reddita mobilitas magnum per inane meandi, £5 

expediam : tu te dictis praebere memento. 
nam certe non inter se stipala cohaeret 
materies, quoniam minui rem quamque videmus 
et quasi ionginquo fltiere^mma cemimus aevo 
ex oculisque vetustatem subducere nostris, 70 

cum tamen incolumis videatur summa manere 
propterea quia, quae decedunt corpora cuique, 
unde abeunt minuunt, quo venerOiUgnune doncUit, 
i]]a setiesceie aC hacc contra florescere cogunt, 
nec remorantur ibL sic renim surama novatur 75 

semper, et inter se mortales mutua vivunt 
augescunt aiiae gentes, aJiae minuuntur, 
inque brevi spatio mutantur saecla animantum 
et quasi cursores vitai lampada tradunL 

Si cessare putas remm primordia posse 80 

cessandoque novos rerum progignere motus, 
avius a vera longe ratione vagaris. 
nam quoniam per inane vagantur, cuncta necessest 
aut gravitate sua ferri primordia rerum 
aut ictu forte alterius. nam cum cita saepe 85 

obvia conflixere, fit ut diversa repente 
dissiliant ; neque^nim mirum, durissima quae ^t 
ponderibus solidis neque quicquam a tergtTlbus obstet. 
et quo iactari magis omnia materiai 
corpora pervideas, reminiscere totius imum 90 

nil esse in summa, nequeji3bere.,ubi corpora prima 
consistant, quoniam spatium sine fine modoquest 



inmensumque patere in cunctas undique paitis 

pluribus ostendi et certa ratione probatumst. 

quod quoniam constat, nimirum nulla quies est gj 

reddita corporibus priaiis per inane profundum, . 

sed magis adsiduo varioque exercita motu 

partim intervallis magnis confiilta resultant, 

pars etiam brevibua spatiis vexantur ab ictu. 

et quaecumque m^s condenso conciliatu loo 

exiguis intervallis convecta resultant, 

indupedita suis perplexis ipsa figuris, 

liaec va]idas saxi radices et fera ferri 

corpora constituunt et cetera de genere horum 

paucula quae porro magnum per inane vagantur. 105 

cetera dissiliunt longe longeque recursant 

in magnis intervailis : haec aera rarum 

sufiiciuQt nobis et splendida lumina solis. 

multaque praeterea magnum per inane vagantur, 

conciliis rerum quae sunt reiecta nec usquam 110 

consociare etiam motus potuere recepta. 

cuius, ut! meraoro, rei simulacrum et imago 

ante oculos semper nobis versatur et instat 

contemplator enim, cum solis lumina cumque 

inserti fundunt radii per opaca domorum t 115 

multa minuta modis multis per inane videbis 

corpora misceri radiorum lumine in ipso 

et velut aetemo certamine proelia pugnas 

edere turmatim certantia nec dare pausam, 

conciliis et discidiis exercita crebris ; 120 

conicere ut possis ex hoc, primordia rerunt 

quale sit in magno iactari semper inani. . 

dumtaxat rerum magnarum parva potest res 

exemplare dare et vestlgia notitiai. 

hoc etiam magis haec animum te advertere par est 125 

corptora quae in solis radiis turbare videntur, 

quod tales turbae motus quoque materiai 



significant ckndestinos caecosque subesse. 
multa videbis enim plagis ibi percita caecis 
commutare viam Tetroque repulsa reveiti 
Dunc huc nunc illuc in cunctas undique partis. 
scilicet hic a principiis est omnibus error. 
prima moventur enim per se primordia rerum ; 
inde ea quae parvo sunt corpoia concihatu 
et quasi proxima sunt ad viris principtorum, 
ictibus illonim caecis inpulsa cientur, 
ipsaque proporro paulo maiora lacessunt 
sic a principiis ascendit motus et exit 
paulatim nostros ad sensus, ut moveantur 
illa quoque, in solis quae lumine cemere quimus 
nec quibus id faciant plagis apparet apeite. 

Nunc quae mobilitas sit reddila materiaiv/ — 
corporibus, paucis licet hinc cognosceie, Memmi. 
primum auiora novo cum spargit lumine terras 
et variae volucres nemora avia pervolitantes 
aera per tenerum liquidis loca vocibus opplent, 
quam subito soleat sot oitus tempore tali 
convestire sua perfundens omnia luce, 
omnibus in promptu maQirestumque esse videmus. 
at vapor is quem sol mittit lumenque serenum 
non per inane meat vacuum ; quo tardius ire 
cogitur, aerias quasi dum diverberet undas. 
nec singillatim corpuscula quaeque vaporis 
sed complexa meant inter se conque globata j 
quaproptei simul inter se retrahuntur et extra 
offiduntur, uti cogantur tardius ire. 
at quae sunt solida piimordia simplicitate, 
cum per inane meant vacuum nec res remoratur 
ulla foris atque ipsa, suis e partibus uoa, 
unum in quem coepeie locum conixa feruntur, 
debent nimirum piaecellere mobilitate 
et multo citius feni quam lumina solis 



multiplexqae lod spadum transcmrere eodem 
tempore quo solis pervolgant fulgura caelum. 

[nec persectari primordia singula quaeque, 165 

ut videant qua qutcque geratur cum ratione. 
— ""At quidam contia haec, ignari raateriai, 
naturam non posse deum siae numine credunt 
tanto opere humanis rationibus admoderate 
tempora mutare annorum frugesque creare, 170 

et iam cetera, mortalis quae suadet adire 
ipsaque deducit dux vitae dia voluptas 
et res per Veneris blanditur saecla propagent, 
ne genus occidat humanum. quorum omnia causa 
constituisse deos cura fingnnt, omnibu' rebui 175 

magno opere a vera lapsi ratione videntur. 
oam quamvis renim ignorem primordia quae sint, 
hoc tamen ex jpsis caeli rationibus ausim 
coniirmare aliisque ex rebus reddere multis, 
nequaquara nobis divinitus esse creatam i3o 

naturam mundi : tanta stat praedita culpa. 
quae tibi posterius, Merami, faciemus aperta. 
nunc id quod superest de motibus expediemus.3 

Nunc locus est, ut opinor, in his illud quoque rebus 
confirmare tibi, nullam rem posse sua vi 185 

corpoream sursum ferri sursumque meare ; 
ne ttbi denC in eo tlammanim corpora fraudem. 
sursus enim veisus gignuntur et augmina sumunt 
et sursum nitidae fruges arbustaque creacunt, 
pondera, quantum in se est, cum deorsum cuncta ferantur. 
nec cum subsiliunt ignes ad tecta domorum 191 

et celeri flamma degust^t tigna trabesque, 
sponte sua fecere id sine vi subigente putandum est. 
quod genus e nostro quom missus coipore sanguis 
emicat exultans alte spargitque cmorem. 195 

nonne vides etiam quanta vi tigna trabesque 



respuat umor aquae? nam quo magis uisimus alte 
derecta et magna vi multi pressimus aegre, 
tam cupide suraum revomit magis atque remittit, 
i^lus ut parte foT3B emergant exiliantque. too 

nec tamen haec, quantum est io se, dubitamus, opinw, 
quin vacuum pcr inane deorsum cuncta ferantur. 
sic igitur debent flammae quoque posse per auras 
aeris expressae sursum succedere, quamquam 
noctumasque faces caeli sublime volantis 
nonne vides longos flammarum ducere tractus 
in quascumque dedit partis natura meatum? 
non cadere in terram stellas el sidera cemis? 
sol etiam caeli de vertice dissipat omnis 210 

ardtKem in partis et lumine conserit arva; 
in terras igitur quoque solis vergitur ardor. 
transversosque volare per imbris fulmina cemis : 
nunc hinc nunc illinc abiupti nubibus ignes 
concursant ; cadit in teiras vis flammea volgo. 115 

IUud in tiis quoque te rebus cognoscere avemus, 
corpora cum deorsum rectum per inane fenmtur, 
ponderibus propriis, se incerto temporc ferme 
incertisque loci spatiis depellere paulum, 
tantum quod momen mutatum dicere possis. izo 

quod nisi declinare solerent, omnia deorsum, 
imbris uti guttae, caderent per inane profundum, 
nec foret offensus natus nec plaga creata 
principiis ; ita nil umquam natura creasset 

Quod si forte aliquis credit graviora potesse 225 

corpKira, quo citius rectum per inane feruntur, 
incidere ex supero levioribus atque ita plagas 
gignere quae possint genitaiis reddere motus, 
aviua a vera longe ratione recedit. 
■nam per aquas quaecumque cadunt atque aera lanim, 230 
haec pro ponderibus casus celeraie nccessest 



propterea quia corpus aquae naturaque tenvis 

aeris haut possunt aeque reni quamque morari, 

sed citius cedunt gravioribus exsuperata; 

at coQtra nuUi de nulla paite neque ullo 335 

tempore inane potest vacuum subsistere rei, 

quin, sua quod natura petit, concedere pergat ; 

omnia quapropter debent per inane quietum 

aeque ponderibus non aequb coacita fem. 

haud igitur potenmt levioribus incidere umquam »40 

ex supero graviora neque ictus gignere pec se 

qui varient motus per quos natura gerat res. 

quare etiam atque etiam paulum inclinare necessest 

corpora; nec plus quam minimum, ne fingere motus 

obliquos videamur et id res vera refutet. 245 

namque hoc in promptu manifestumque esse videmus, 

pondera, quantum in sest, non posse obliqua meare, 

ex supero cum praecipitant, quod cemeie possis ; 

sed nil omnino recta regione viai , j , i 

dedinare quis est qui possit cemere sese? ' ' 150 

Denique si semper motus conectitur omnis 
et vetere exoritur semper novus ordine certo 
nec declinando faciunt primordia motus f''-^ . 
principium quoddam quod fati foedera rumpat, 
ex infinito ne causam causa sequatur, 255 

libera per terras unde haec animantibus exstat, 
unde est haec, inquam, iatis avolsa potestas 
per quam progredimur quo ducit quemque vohintas, 
declinamus item motus nec tempore certo 
nec regione loci certa, sed ubi ipsa tulit mens? 260 
nara dubio procul his rebus sua cdique voluntas 
principium dat et tiinc motus per membra rigantur. 
nonne vides etiam patefactis tempore puncto 
carceribus non posse tamen prorumpere equorum 
vimcupidam tam de subito quam mens avet ipsa? 265 
omnis enim totum per corpus materiai 



copia conquiri debet, concita per aitus 
oimiis ut studium mentis conixa sequatur; 

ut videas initum motus a corde creari 
ex animique voluntate id procedere primum, 370 

inde dari poiro pec totum corpus et artus. 
nec similest ut cum impubi procedimus ictu 
viribus alterius magnis raagnoque coactu ; 
nam tum materiem totius corporis omnem 
perspicuumsl nobis invitis ire rapique, 175 

donec eam «frenarit per raembra voluntas. 
iamne vides igitur, quamquam vis extera raoltos 
pellat et invitos cogat procedere saepe 
praecipitesque rapi, tamen esse in pectore nostro 
quiddam quod contra pugnare obstareque possit ? a8o 
ciiius ad arbitrium quoque copia materiai 
cogitur interdum flecti per membra per artus 
et proiecta refrenatur retroque residit. 
quare in seminibus quoque idem fateare necessest, 
esse aliam praeter plagas et pondera cansam iSs 

motibus, unde haec est nobis innata potestas, 
de nilo quoniam fieri nil posse videmus. 
pondus enim prohibet ne plagis omnia fiant 
extema quasi vi ; sed ne mens ipsa necessum 
intestinum habeat cunctis in rebus agendis 190 

et devicta quasi hoc cogatur ferre parique, 
id facit exiguum clinamen principiorum 
nec regione loci certa nec tempore certo. 
Nec stipata magis fiiit nmquam materiai 
copia nec porro mdoribus intervallis ; 295 

nam neque adaugescit quicquam neque deperit inde. 
quapropter quo nunc in motu principiorum 
corpora sunt, in eodem ante acta aetate fuere 
et post haec semper simili ratione ferentur, 
et quae consuerint gigni gignentur eadem 300 

condicione et erunt et crescent vique valebunt, 



quantum cuique datum est per foedera naturai. 
nec rerum summam commutare uUa potest vis ; 
nara neque, quo possit genus ullum materiai 
efTugere ex omni, quicquam est extra, neque in omne 305 
unde coorta queat nova vis inrumpere et omnem 
naturam rerum mutare et vertere motus. 

Illud in his rebus non est mirabile, quare, 
omnia cum rerum primordia sint in motu, 
summa tamen summa videatur stare quiete, 310 

praeterquam siquid proprio dat corpore motus. 
omnis enim longe nostris ab sensibus infra 
primomm natura iacet : quapropter, ubi tpsa 
cemere iam nequeas, motus quoque surpere debent ; 
praesertim cum, quae possimus cemere, celenl 315 

saepe tamen motus spatio diducta locorum, 
nam saepe in colli tondentes pabula laeta 
lanigerae reptant pecudes quo quamque vocantes 
invitant herbae gemmantes rore recenti, 
et satiati agni ludunt blandeque coruscant ; 320 

omnia quae nobis longe confusa videntur 
et velut in viridi candor consistere colU. 
praeterea magnae legiones cum loca cursu 
camporum complent beili simulacra cientes, 
fulgor ibi ad caelum se tollit totaque circum 325 

aere renidescit tellus supterque virum vi_ 
excitur pedibus sonitus clamoreque montes 
icti reiectant voces ad sidera mundi 
et circumvolitant equites mediosque repente 
tramtttunt valido quatientes impete campos. 330 

et tamen est quidam locus altis montibus unde 
stare videntur et in campis consistere fulgor. 

Nunc age iam deinceps cunctarum exordia rerum 
quaUa sint et quam longe distantia formis 
percipe, multigenis quam sint variata figuris ; 335 

noo quo multa parum simili sint praedita forma, 


44 LUCRETIUS [11. 

sed quia non volgo paria omnibus otnnia constant. 
nec mirum ; nam cum sit eonim copia tanta 
ut neque iinis, uti docui, neque summa sit uila, 
debent nimiram non omnibus omnia prorsum 340 

esse pari filo similique adfecta figura. 
praeter eat genus humanum mutaeque natantes 
squamigeram pecudes et laeta araienta feraeque 
et variae volucres, laetantia quae loca aquarum 
concelebrant circum ripas fontisque lacusque, 345 

et quae pervolgant nemora avia pervolilantes ; 
quorum unum quidvis generatim sumere perge, 
invenies tamen inter se diffene figuris. 
''nec ratione alia proles cognoscere matrem 
nec mater posset prolem ; quod posse videmus 350 
nec minus atque homines inter se nota cluere. 
nam saepe ante deum vitulus delubra decora 
turicremas propter mactatus concidit aras 
sanguinis explrans calidum de pectore flumen ; 
at mater viridis saltus orbata peragrans 355 

noscit humi pedibus vestigia pressa bisulcis, 
omnia convisens oculis loca si queat usquam 
conspicere amissum fetum, completque querellis 
firondiferum nemus absistens et crebra revisit 
ad stabulum desiderio perfixa iuvenci, 360 

nec tenerae salices atque herbae rore vigentes 
fluminaque illa queunt suramis labentia ripis 
oblectare animum subitaraque avertere curam, 
nec vitulorum aliae species per pabula laeta 
derivare queunt animum curaque levare : 365 

usque adeo quiddam proprium notumque requirit. 
praeterea teneri tremulis cum vocJbus haedi 
comigeras norunt matres agnique pelulci 
balantum pecudes : ita, quod natura reposcit, 
ad sua quisque fere decumint ubera lactis. 370 

postremo quodvis fiiimentum non tamen omne 



quique suo genere inter se simile esse videbis, 

quin iatercurrat quaedam distantia formis. 

concharumque genus pariU ratione videmus 

pingere telluris gremium, qua moUibus undij 375 

litoris incurvi bibulam pavit aequor harenam. 

quare etiam atque edam simili ratione necessest, 

natura quoniam constant neque facta manu sunt 

unius ad certam formam primordia rerum, 

dissimiU inter se quaedam volitare figura. 380 

Ferfacile est tali ratione exsolvere nobis 
quare fulmineus multo penetraUor ignis 
quam noster fuat e taedis terrestribus ortus ; 
dicere enim possis caelestem fulminis ignem 
BuptUem miagis e parvis constare figuris 3S5 

atque ideo transire foramina quae nequit ignis 
noster hic e Ugnis ortus taedaque creatus. 
praterea lumen per comum transit, at imber 
respuitur. quare ? nisi luminis iUa minora 
corpora sunt quam de quibus est Uquor almus aquaruro. 
et quamvis subito per colum vina videmus 391 

perfiuere ; at contra tardum cunctatur olivom, 
aut quia mmirum maioribus est elementis 
aut magis hamatts inter se perque pUcatis, 
atque ideo iit ud non tam diducta repente 395 

inter se possint primordia singula quaeque 
singula per cuiusque foramina permanare. i__ 

Huc accedit uti meUis lactisque Uquores 
iucundo sensu Unguae tractentur in ore ; 
2!l contra taetia absinthi natura ferique 400 

centauri foedo pertorquent ora sapore ; 
ut facile agnoscas e Jevibus atque rutundis 
esse ea quae sensus tucunde tangere possunt, 
at contra quae amara atque aspera cumque videntur, 
haec magis hamatis inter se nexa teneri 40S 

proptereaque solere vias rescindere nostris 



sensibus introituque suo pemimpcre corpus. 

Omnia postremo bona sensibus et mala tactu 
dissimili inter se pugnant perfecta figura; 
ne tu forte putes senae stridentb acerbum 41 

horrorem constaxe elementis levibus aeque 
ac musaea mele, per chordas organici quae 
mobilibus digitis expergetacta tigurant j 
neu simili penetrare putes primordia forma 
in nares homioum, cum taetra cadavera toireDt, 41 
et cum scena croco Cilici perfusa recens est 
araque Panchaeos exhalat propter odores ; 
neve bonos rcrum siraili constare colores 
semine constituas, oculos qui pascere possunt, 
et qui conpungunt aciem lacrimareque cogunt 41 

aut foeda specie diri turpesque videntur. 
omnis enim, sensus quae mulcet cumque, figura 
haut sine principiali aliquo levore creatast ; 
at contra quaecumque molesta atque aspera constat, 
non aliquo sine mateiiae squalore repertast. 41 

sunt etiam quae iam nec levia iure putantur 
esse neque omnino flexis mucronibus unca, 
sed magis angeUis paulum prostantibus, utqui 
titillare magis sensus quam laedere possint ; 
faecula iam quo de genere est inulaeque sapores. 43 
denique iam caiidos ignis gelidamque pruinam 
dissimiii dentata modo conpungere senstis 
corporis, indicio nobis est tactus uterque. 
tactus enim, tactus, pro divum numina sancta, 
corporis est sensus, vel cum res extera sese 43 

insinuat, vel cum laedit quae in corpore natast 
aut iuvat egrediens genitalis per Veneris res, 
aut ex oifensu cum turbant corpore in ipso 
semina confunduntque inter se concita sensum ; 
ut si forte manu quamvis iam coiporis ipse 44' 

tute tibi partem ferias atque experiare. 



quapropter longe fonnas distare nccessest 
principiis, varios quae possint edere sensus. 
Denique quae nobis durata ac spissa videotur, 
. haec magis hamads inter sese esse necessest 44S 

et quasi ramosis alte cocnpacta teneri. 
in quo iam genere in primis adamantina saxa 
prima acie constant ictus contemnere sueta 
et ralidi silices ac duri robora ferri 
aeraque quae claustris restantia vociferantur. 450 

illa quidem debent e levibus atque rutundis 
esse magis, fluvido quae corpore liquida constant; 
[namque papaveris haustus itemst facilis quod aquarum] 
nec retinentur eoim inter se glomeramina quaeque 
et procursus item proclive volubilis exstat. 455 

omnia postremo quae puncto tempore cemis 
difTugere, ut fumum nebulas flammasque, necessest, 
si minus omnibu' sunt e kvibus atque rutundis, 
at non esse tamen perplexis indupedlta, 
pUDgcre uti posant coipus penetrareque vesca, 460 

nec tamen haerere inter se ; quodcumque videmus 
sensibu' sedatum, facile ut cogooscere possis 
non e peq)lexis sed acutis esse elementis. 
sed quod amara vides eadem quae fluvida constant, 
sudor uti maris est, minime mirabile habeto ; 46S 

nam quod fluvidus est, e levibus atque rutundis 
est, et squalida multa creant admixta doloris 
corpora ; ncc tamen haec reteneri hamata necessumst ; 
scilicet esse globosa tamen, cum squalida constent, 
provolvi simul ut possint et iaedere sensus. 470 

et quo mixta putes magis aspera levibus esse 
principiis, unde est Neptuni corpus acerbum, 
est ratio secemendi ; seorsumque videndi 
umor dulcis, ubi per terras crebrius idem 
percolatur, ut in foveam fiuat ac mansuescat ; 47S 

linquit enim supera taetri primordia viri, 



aspera quom magis in terris haerescere possinL 

Quod quoniam docui, pergam conectere rem quae 
ex hoc apta fidem ducat, primordia renim 
finita variare figurarum ratione. 480 

quod si Don ita sit, rursum iam semiaa quaedam 
esse infinito debebunt corporis auctu. 
namque in eodera, una cuiusvis in brevitate 
corporis inter se multum variare figurae 
noD possunt : fac enim minimis e paitibus esse 4S5 
corpora prima tribus, vel paulo pluribus auge ; 
nempe ubi eas partis unius corporis omnis, 
summa atque ima ]ocans, transmutans dextera laevis, 
omnimodis expertus eris, quam quisque det ordo 
formai speciem totius corporis eius, 490 

quod superest, si forte voles variare figuras, 
addendum partis alias erit, inde sequetur, 
adsimili ratione alias ut postulet ordo, 
st tu foite voles etiam variare iiguras, 
ergo formarum novitatem corporis augmen 495 

Eubsequitur. quare non est ut credere possis 
esse infinttis distantia semina formis, 
ne quaedam cogas inmani maximttate 
esse, supra quod iam docui non posse probari. 
iam tibi barbaricae vestes Meliboeaque fulgens joo 

purpura Thessalico conchaium tacta colore, 

aurea pavonum ridenti imbuta lepore 

saecla, novo rerum superata colore iacerent 

et contemptus odor smymae mellisque sapores 

et cycnea mele Phoebeaque daedala chordis 505 

carmina consimili ratione oppressa silerent ; 

namque aliis aliud praestantius exoreretur, 

cedere item retro possent in deteriores 

onmia sic partis, ut diximus in melioris ; 

namque aliis aliud retro quoque taetrius esset 510 



naribus aiiribus atque oculis orisque sapori. 

quae quoTiia.m non sunt, sed tebus reddita certa 

finis utrimque tenet summam, fateare necessest 

materiem quoque fimtis differre figuris. 

denique ab ignibus ad gelidas iter usque pruinas 515 

finitumst retroque pari ratione remensumst ; 

omnis enim calor ac frigus, mediique tepores 

interutiasque iacent explentes ordine summam, 

ergo finita distant ratione creata, 

ancipiti quoniam mucroni utrimque notantur, 520' 

hinc flammis illinc rigidis infesta pruinis. 

Quod quoniam docui, pergam conectere rem quae 

ex hoc apta iidem ducat, primordia rerum, ^ 

inter sc simili quae sunt perfecta figura, 

inlimta cluere. etenim distantia cum sit 515 

formanim finita, necesse est quae simiJes sint 

esse infinttas aut summam materiai 

finttam constare, id quod non esse probavi 

veraibus ostendens corpuscula materiai 
cx infinito summam rerum usque tenere, 530 

undique protelo plaganim continuato. 
nam quod rara vides magis esse animalia quaedam 
fecundamque minus naturam cemis in illts, 
at regione locoque alio terrisque remotis 
multa licet genere esse in eo numerumque repleri ; 535 
sicut quadripedum cum primis esse videmua 
in genere anguimanus elephantos, India quorum 
milibus e multis vallo munitur ebumo, 
ut penitus nequeat penetiari : tanta ferarum 
vis est, quarum nos perpauca exerapla videmus. 540 
sed tamen id quoque uti concedam, quamlubet csto 
unica res quaedam nativo corpore sola, 
cui similis toto terraium nulla sit orbi ; 
infinita tamen nisi erit vis materiai 
unde ea progigni possit concepta, creari 54S 




non potetit, neque, quod superest, procrescere aliqae. 
quippe eteniro sutnam hoc quoque uti finita per omne 
corpora iactari unius genitalia rei, 
unde ubi qua vi et quo pacto congressa coibunt 
materiae tanto in pelago turbaque aliena? 550 

non, ut opinor, habent rationem conciliandi ; 
sed quasi naufragiis magnis muttisque coortis 
disiectare solet magnum mare transtra gubema 
antemnas proram malos tonsasque natantis, 
per terraium omnis oras fluitantia aplustra 555 

ut videantur et indicium mortalibus edaot, 
infidi maris insidias virisque dolumque 
ut vitare velint, neve uUo tempore credant, 
subdola cum ridet placidi pellacia pontt, 
sic tibi si finita semel primordia quaedam 560 

constitues, aevom debebunt spaisa per omnem 
djsiectare aestus diversi materiaj, 
numquam in concilium ut possint compulsa coire 
nec remorari in conciEo nec crescere adaucta ; 
quoram utramque palam fieri roanifesta docet res, 565 
et res progigni et genitas procrescere posse. 
essc igitur genere in quovis primordia reram 
infinita palam est unde omnia suppeditantur. 
Nec superare queunt motus itaque exitiales 
perpetuo neque in aeternum sepelire salutem, 570 

nec porro rerum genitales auctifictque 
motus perpetuo possunt servare creata. 
sic aequo geritur certamine principiorum 
ex infinito contractum tempore bellum : 
nunc hic nunc illic superant vitalia rerum 575 

et superantur item. miscetur funere vagor 
quem pueri tollunt visentis luminis oras ; 
nec DOx ulla diem neque noctem aurora secutast 
quae non audierit mixtos vagitibus aegris 
ploratus mortis comites et funeris aiii. 5S0 



Illiid in his obsignatum quoque rebus habere 
convenit ct memori tnandatum mente tenere, 
nil essc, in promptu quorum natuia videtur, 
quod genere ex uno consistat principiorura, 
nec quicquam quod non pemixto semine constet. 585 
et quodcumque magis vis multas possidet in se 
atque potestates, ita plurima principiorum 
in sese genera ac varias docet esse figuras. 
principio tellus habet in se corpora prima 
unde mare inmensum volventes fhgora fontes 590 

adsidue renovcnt, habet ignes unde oriantur. 
nam multis succensa locis ardent sola terrae, 
eximiis vero fimt ignibus impetus Aetnae. 
tum poTTO nitidas fhiges arbustaque laetaT 
gentibus humanis habet unde extollere possit, 595 

uude etiam finrios frondes et pabula laeta 
montivago generi possit praebere ferarum. 
quare magna deum mater materque ferarum 
et nostri genetrix hacc dicta est coiporis una, ^. 

Hanc veteres Graium docti cecinere poetae 600 

sedibus in curru biiugos agitare leones, 

aeris in spatio magnam pendere docentes 

tellurem ncque posse in terra sistere terram. 

adiunxere feras, quia quamvis efTera proles 

officiis debet molliri victa parentum, 605 

muralique caput summum cinxere corona, 

eximiis munita locis quia sustinet urbes ; 

quo nunc insigni per magnas praedita teiriis 

hoiritice fertur divinae mattis imago. 

hanc variae gentcs antiquo more sacrorum 6ic 

Idaeam vocitant matrem Phrygiasque catervas 

dant comites, quia primum ex iitis finibus edunt 

per Kirarum orbcm fruges coepisse creari. 

gaHoa attribuunt, quia, numen qui violarint 



matiis et ingrati genitonbus ioveDti sint, 615 

significare volunt indignos esse put^dos, 

vivam piogeniem qui in oras luminis edaut 

fympana tenta tonant palmis et cymbala circum 

concava, raucisonoque minantur comua cantu, 

et Fhiygio stimulat iiumeio cava tibia mentis, 620 

telaque piaeportant violenti signa furoris, 

ingratos animos atque impia pectora volgi 

conteirere metu quae possint numini' divae. 

ergo cum primum magnas invecta per urbis 

munificat tacita mortalis muta salute, 625 

aere atque argento stemuut itei omne viaium 

lai^fica stipe ditantes ninguntque rosarum 

floribus umbranEes matrem comitumque catervas. 

hic armata manus, Curetas nomine Grai 

quos memorant Phiygios, inter se forte quod armis 630 

ludunt in numerumque exultant sanguinolenti 

terrificas capitum quatientes nuinine ciistas, 

Dictaeos lefeiunt Cuietas qui lovis illura 

vagitum in Creta quondam occultasse feruntur, 

cum pueri circum puerum pemice chorea 635 

armatei in numemm pulsarent aeribus aera, . 

ne Satumus eum malis mandaret adeptus 

aelemumque daret matri sub pectoie volnus. 

propterea magnam armati matrem comitantur, 640 

^ut quia significaDt divam praedicere ut armis 

ac virtute velint patriam defendere tenam 

praesidioque parent decorique parentibus esse. 

qtiae bene et eximie quamvis disposta ferantur, 

longe sunt tamen a vera ratione lepulsa, 645 

omnis enim per se divom natura necessest 

inmortali aevo summa cum pace fruatur 

semota ab nostris lebus seiunctaque longe ; 

nam privata doloie omni, privata periclis, 

ipsa suis poUens opibus, nil indiga nostri, 650 



nec bene promeritis capitur neque tangitur ira. 
hic siquis marc Neptnnum Cerercmque vocare 

constituit fniges et Bacchi nomine abuti 
mavolt quam laticis propriura proferre vocamen, 
concedamus ut liic tenaium dictitet orbem 
esse deum tnatrem, dum vera re tamen ipse 
reiigione animum turpi contingere parcat. 
terra quidem vero caret omni tempore sensu, 
et quia multanim potitur primordia rerum, 
multa modis multis effert in lumina solis. 

Saepe itaque ex uno tondentes gramina campo 
lanigeiae pecudes et equorum duellica proles 
buceriaeque greges eodem sub tegmine caeli 
cx unoque sitim sedantes flumine aqu^ 
dissiraili vivont specie retinentque parentum 
naturam et mores generatim quaeque imitantur. 
tanta est in quovis genere herbae materiai 
dissimilis ratio, tanta est in flumine quoque. 
hinc poiTO quamvis animantem ex omnibus unam 
ossa cruor venae calor umor viscera nervi 
constituunt ; quae sunt pono distantia longe, 
dissimili perfecta ligura principiorum. 
tum porro quaecumque igni flammata cremantur, 
si nil praeterea, tamen haec in corpore condunt 
unde ignem iacere et iumen summittere possint 
scintillasque agere ac late differre favillam. 
cetera consimili mentis ratione peragrans 
invenies igitur multarum semina rerum 
corpore celare et varias cohibere figuras. 
denique multa vides quibus et color et sapor una 
reddita sunt cum odore : in primis pleiaque dooa 

haec igitur variis debent constare flguris ; 
nidor enim penetrat qua fiicus non it in artus, 
fucuB item sorstmi, sorstmi sapor insinuatur 



sensibus ; ut noscas primis difTerre figuris. 6S5 

dissimiles igitur fonmae glomeramen in unum 

conveniunt et res permixlo semine constant. 

quin etiam passim nostris in versibus ipsis 

multa elementa vides multis communia verbis, 

cum tamen inter se versus ac verba necesse est 690 

confiteare alia ex aliis constare elementis ; 

non quo multa panira communis litteia currat 

aut nulla inter se duo sint ex omnibus isdem, 

scd quia non votgo paria omnibus omnia constant. 

sic aliis in rebus item communia multa 695 

multarum rerum cum sint primordia, verum 

dissimili tamen inter se consistere summa 

possunt ; ut merito ex aliis constare feratur 

liumanurn genus et fruges arbustaque laeta. 

Nec tamen omnimodis conecti posse putandum est 700 
omnia ; nam volgo fieri portenta videres, 
semiferas hominum species existere et altos 
interdum ramos egigni corpore vivo, 
multaque conecti terrestria membra marints, 
tum fkmmam taetro spiraniis ore Chimaeras 705 

pascere naturam per terras omniparentis. 
quorum nil fieri manifestum est, omnia quando 
seminibus certis certa genctrice creata 
conservare genus crescentia posse videmus. 
scilicet id certa fieri nitione necessust. 710 

nam sua cuique cibis ex omnibus intus in artus 
corpore discedunt conexaque convenientis 
efliciunt motus ; at contra aliena videmus 
reicere in tetras naturam, multaque caecis 
corporibus fugiunt e corpore percita plagis, 715 

quae neqoe conecti quoquam potuere neque intus 
vitalis motus consentire atque imitari. 
sed ne forte putes animalia sola teneri 
legibus hisce, ea res ratio disterminat onmts. 



nam veluti tota natura dissimiles sunt ?■ 

inter se genitae res quaeque, ita quaroquc necesscst 
dissimili constare iigura principiorum ; 
non quo multa paium simili sint praedita forma, 
sed quia non volgo paiia omnibus omnia constant. 
seraina cum poiro distent, differre necessust 7: 

intervalla vias conexus poudera plagas 
concursus motus, quae non animalia soluni 
coqjora seiungunt, sed terras ac mare totum 
secemunt caelumque a teiris omne retentant. 

Nunc age dicta meo dulci quaesila labore 7; 

percipe, ne forte haec albis ex alba rearis 
principiis esse, ante oculos quae candida cemis, 
aut ea quae nigrant nigro de semine nata ; 
nive alium quemvis quae sunt inbuta colorem, 
propterea gerere hunc credas, quod materiai 7; 

corpora consimili sint eiua tincta colore. 
nuUus enim color est omnino materiai 
corporibus, neque par rebus neque denique dispar. 
in quae corpora si nullus tibi forte videtur 
posse animi iniectus tieri, procul avius erras. 71 

nam cum caecigeni, solis qci lumina numquam 
dispexere, tamen cognoscant corpora tactu, 
ex ineunte aevo nullo coniuncta colore, 
scire licet nostrae quoque menti corpora posse 
vorti in notitiam nullo circum lita fuco. 
denique nos ipsi caecis quaecumquc tenebris 7. 

tangimus, haud ullo sentimus tincta colore. 
quod quoniam vinco fieri, nunc esse docebo 

omnis enini color.omnino mutatur in omnis ; 

quod fecere haud ullo debent primordia pacto ; 7. 

immutabile enira quiddam superare necessest, 

ne res ad nilum redigantur funditus omnes. ' 

nam quodcumque suis mutatum tinibus exit, 



continuo hoc mors est iflius quod fiiit ante, 

proinde colore cave contingas sernina renim, 755 

ne tibi res redeant ad nilum fiinditus omnes. 

Praeterea si nulla coloris principiis est 
reddita natura et variis sunt praedita formis, 
e quibus omne genus gignunt variantque colores 
propterea, magni quod refert semina quaeque t^ 

cum quibus et quaJi positura contineantur 
et quos inter se deat motus accipiantque, 
perfacile extemplo rationem reddere possis 
cur ea quae nigro fiierint paulo ante colore, 
marmoreo fieri possint candore repente ; 765 

ut mare, cum magni commorant aequora venti, 
vertitur m canos candenti marmore fluctus ; 
dicere enim possis, nigrum quod saepe videmus, 
materies ubi permixta est itlius et ordo 
principiis mutatus et addita demptaque quaedam, 770 
continuo id fieri ut candens videatur et album. 
quod si caeruleis constarent aequora ponti 
seminibus, nullo possent albescere x>acto ; 
nam quocumque modo perturbes caenila quae sint, 
numquara in marmoreum possunt migrare colcHem. 775 
sin alio atque alio sunt semina tincta colore 
quae maris efiiciunt unum pummque nilorem, 
ut saepe ex aliis formis variisque figuris 
eflicitur quiddam quadratum unaque figura, 
convenicbat, ut in quadrato cemimus esse 780 

dissimiles formas, ita cemere in aequore ponti 
aut alio in quovis uno puroque nitorc 
dissimiles longe inter se variosque colores. 
praeterea nil officiunt obstantque figurae 
dissimiles quo quadratum minus omne sit extra; 785 
at varii rerum inpediuat prohibentque colores 
quominus esse uno possit res tota nitore, 
Tum porro quae ducit et inlicit ut tribuamus 



principiis renim noniiiiniquam causa colores, 
occidit, ex albis quoniam non alba creantur, 
nec quae nigra duent de nigris sed variis ex. 
quippe etenim multo procLvius exorientur 
candida de nullo quam nigro nata colore 
aut alio quovis qui contra pugnet et obsteL 

Praeterea quoniam nequeunt sine luce colores 
esse neque in lucem existunt primordia rerum, 
Gcire licet quam sint nullo velata colore. 
qualis enim caecis poterit color esse tenebris? 
lumine qnin ipso mutatiir propterea quod 
recta aut obliqua percussus luce refiilget ; 
pluma columbarura qno pacto in sole videtur, 
quae sita cervices circum coUumque coronat ; 
nanique alias fit uti claro sit rubra pyropo, 
interdum quodam sensu fit uti videatur 
inter curalium viridis miscere zmaragdos. 
caudaque pavonis, larga cum luce repleta est, 
consimili mutat ratione obversa colores ; 
qui quoniam quodam gignuntur luminis ictu, 
scire licel, sine eo fieri non posse putandum est. 
et quoniam plagae quoddam gcnus excipit in se 
pupula, cum sentire colorem dicitur album, 
atque aliud poiro, nigrum cum et cetera sentit, 
nec refert ea quae tangas quo forte colore 
praedita sint, verum quali magis apta figura, 
scire licet nil principiis opus esse colorea 
sed variis formis vaiiantes edere tactus. 

Praeterea quoniam non certis certa figuris 
eat natura coloris et omnia principiorum 
fbrmamenta queunt in quovis esse nitore, 
cur ea quae constant ex illis non pariter sunt 
omne genus perfusa coloribus in genere omni? 
conveniebat enim corvos quoque saepe volantis 
ex albis album pinnis iactare colorcm 



et nigros fieri nigro de semine cycoos 

aut alio quovis uno varioque colore. 8*5 

' Quin etiam quanto iD paites res quaeque minutaa 

distrahitur magis, hoc magis est ut cemere possis 

evanescere paulatim stinguique colorem ; 

ut fit ubi in parvas partis discerpitur austrum : 

purpura poeniceusque color clarnssimu' routto, 830 

filatim cum distractum est, dispergitur omnis ; 

noscere ut hinc possis prius omnem efUare colorem 

particulas quam discedant ad semina lerum. 

Postremo quoniam non omnia corpora vocem 
mittere concedis neque odorem, propterea fit 835 

ut non omnibus adtribuas sonims et odores. 
sic oculis quoniam non omnia cemere quimus, 
Bcire licet quaedara tam constare orba colore 
quam sine odore ullo quaedam sonituque remota, 
nec minus haec animum cognoacere posse sagacem 840 
quam qtiae suat aliis rebus privata notarc. 

Sed ne forte putes solo spoliata. colore 
coTpora prima manere, etiam secreta teporis 
sunt ac frigoris omnino calidique vaporis, 
et sonitu sterila et suco ieiuna feruntur, S45 

nec iadunt ullum proprium de corpore odorem. 
sicut amaracini blandum stactaeque liquorem 
et nardi florera, nectar qui naribus halat, 
cum facere instituas, cum primis quaerere par est, 
quoad licet ac possis reperire, iooientia olivi Sjo 

naturam, nullam quae mittat naribus auram, 
quam minime ut possit mixtos in coipore odores 
concoctosque suo contractans perdere viro, 
propter eandem rem debent priraordia rerura 
non adhibere suum gignundis rebus odorem 855 

nec sonimm, quoniara nil ab se mittere possunt, 
nec simili ratione saporem denique quemquam 
nec frigus neque item calidura tepidumque vaporero, 



cetera ; quae cunt ita sunt tamen ut mortalia constent, 
moUi lenta, fragosa putri, cava corpore raro, 860 

omnia sint a principiis seiuacta necessest, 
inmortalia si volumus subiungere rebus 
fimdainenta quibus nitatur summa salutis ; 
ne tibi res Tedeant ad nilum funditus omnes. 

Nunc ea quae sentire videmus camque necessest 865 
ex insensilibus tamen omnia confiteare 
piincipiis constare. neque id manufesta refutant 
nec contra pugnant, in promptu cognita quae sunt, 
sed magis ipsa manu ducunt et credere cogunt 
ex insensilibus, quod dico, animaJia gignL 870 

quippe videre licet vivos existere vennes 
stercore de taetro, putorem cum sibi nacta est 
intempestivis ex imbribus umida tellus ; 
praeterea cunctas itidem res veitere sese. 
vertunt se fluvii frondes et pabula laeta 875 

in pecudes, vertunt pecudes in corpora nostra 
naturam, et nostro de corpore saepe ferarum 
augescunt vires et corpora pennipotentum. 
ergo omnes natura cibos in corpora viva 
veitit et hinc sensus animantum procreat omnes, 880 
non alia longe nttione adque arida ligna 
explicat in flammas et in ignis omnia versaL 
iamne vides igitur magni primordia reium 
referre in quali sint ordine quaeque locata 
et commixta quibus dent motus acdpiantque? SSj 

Tum poTTO quid id est, animum quod percutit, ipsum 
quod movet et varios sensus expromere cogit, 
ex insensilibus ne credas scnsile gignip 
nimirum lapides et ligna et teira quod una 
mixta tamen nequeunt vitalem reddere sensum. S90 
illud in his igitur rebus meminisse decebit, 
noQ ex omnibus omnino, quaecumque creant res, 
sensile et extemplo me gigni diceie sensus, 


60 LUCRETIUS [11. 

sed magni refeire ea priraum quantula constent, 

sensile quae iaciunt, et qua sint praedjta fornia, 895 

niotibus ordinibus posituris denique quae sinL 

quarum nil rerum in ligms glaebisque videraus ; 

et tamen haec, cum sunt quasi putrefacta per imbres, 

vermiculos pariunt, quia corpora raateriai 

antiquis ex ordinibus pemiota nova le 900 

conciliantur ita ut debent aninialia gigni. 

deinde e sensilibus qui sensile posse creari 

constituunt, porro ex aliis sentlre sueti 

moUia cum faciunt. nam sensus iungitur onmis 

visceribus nervis venis, quae cuique videmus 905 

mollia mortali consisterc coiporc creta. 

sed tamen esto iam posse haec aetema manere ; 

nempe tamen debent aut sensum partis habere 

aut simlli totis animalibus esse putari. 

at nequeant per se partes sentlre necesse est ; 910 

namque a^ sensus membrontra respicit omnis, 

nec manus a nobis potis est secreta neque ulla 

corporis omnino sensum pats sola tenere. 

linquituT nt totis animantibus adsimulentur. 

sic iCidem quae sentimus sentire necessest, 915 

vitali ut possint consentire undique sensu. 

qui poterunt igitur rerum primordia dici 

et leti vitare vias, animalia cum sint, 

adque ammalia sint mortalibus una eademque ? 

quod tamen ut possint, at coetu concilioque 910 

nQ facient praeter volgum turbamque animantura, 

scilicet ut nequeant homines armenta feraeque 

inter sese uUam rem gignere conveniundo. 

quod si forte suum dimittunt.corpore sCnsura 

atque aijum capiunt, quid opus fuit adtribui id quod 9:15 

detrahitur? tum praeterea, quo fugimus ante, 

quatenus in pullos aniraalis vertier ova 



ceraimus alkuum vermisque efTervere, terram 
intempestivos quom putor cepit ob imbris, 
scire licet gigni posse ex noa sensibu' sensus. 

Quod si forte aliquis dicet dumtaxat oriri 
posse a non sensu sensum mutabiiitate, 
aut aliquo tamquam partu quod proditus extet, 
huic sads illud erit planum facere atque probare 
non fieri paitum nisi conciiio ante coacta 
nec quiqjuam commutan sine coociliatu. 
principto nequeimt ullius carporis esse 
sensus ante ipsam genitam naturam animantis, 
nimirum quia materies disiecta tenetiu' 
aere fluminibus teiris terraque creads, 
nec congressa modo vitalis conveniend 
contulit inter se motus, quibus omnituentes 
accensi sensus animante in quaque cientur. 

Praeterea quamvis animantem grandior ictus, 
quam patitur natura, repente addigit et omnis 
corporis atque animi pergit confundere sensui, 
dissoluuntuT enim positurae principiomm 
et penitus tiiotus vitales inpedJuntur, 
donec materies, omnis concussa per artus, - 
vitalis animae nodos a corpore solvit 
dispersamque foras pcr caulas eiecit omnis. - 
nam quid piaeterea ^ere ictum posse reamur 
oblatum, nisi discutere ac dissolvere quaeque? 
fit quoque ud soleant minus o1:^o acriter ictti 
reliqiii motus vitalis vincere saepe, 
vinceie, et ingends plagae sedare tumultus 
inque auos quicquid rursus revocare meatus 
et quasi iam led dominantem in corpore motum 
discutere ac paene amissos accendere sensus. 
nam qua re potins led iam limiae ab ipso 
ad vitam possit conlecta mente reveiti, 
quam quo decursum piope iam siet iie et abire ? 


62 LUCRETIUS [11. 

Fraeterea quoniam dotor est ubi materiai 
corpora vi quadam per viscera viva per artus 
sollicitata suis trepidant in sedibus intus, 965 

inque locum quando remigrant, iit blanda voluptas, 
scire licet nuUo primordia posse dolore 
temptari nullamque voluptatem capere ex se ; 
quandoquidcm non sunt ex ullis principiorum 
corporibus, quoram motus novitate laborent ^jo 

aut aliguem fhictum capiant dulcedinis almae, 
haut igitur debent esse ullo praedita sensu. 

Denique uti possint sentire animalia quaeque, 
principiis si iam est sensus tribuendus eorum, 
quid,genus humanum propritim de quibu' factumst? 975 
scilicet et risu tremulo concussa cachinnant 
et lacrimis spargunt rorantibus ora genasque 
multaque de rerum mixtura dicere callent 
et sibi proporro quae sint primordia quaerunt ; 
quandoquidem totis mortalibus adsimulata 980 

ipsa quoque ex aliis debent constare elementis, 
jnde alia ex aliis, nusquam consistere ut ausis : 
quippe sequar, quodcumque loqui ridereque dices " 
et sapere, ex aliis eadem haec facientibus ut sit 
quod si delira haec furiosaque cemimus esse 9S5 

et ridere potest non ex ridentibu' factus 
et sapere et doctis rationem reddere dictis 
non ex seminibus sapientibus atque disertis, 
qui minus esse queant ea quae sentire videmus 
seminibus permixta carentibus undique. sensu ? 990 

Denique caelesti sumus omnes semine oriundi ; 
omnibus ille idem pater est, unde alma liquentis 
umoris guttas mater cum terra recepit, 
feta parit nitidas fruges arbuslaque laeta 
et genus humanum, parit omnia saecla ferarutn, 995 
pabula cum praebet quibus omnes corpora pasctmt 
et dulcem ducunt vitam prolemque propagant; 



quapropter merito matemum nomen adepta est. 

cedit item retro, de terra quod fuit ante, 

in teiras, et quod missumst ex aetheris oris, ii 

id rursum caeli rellatum templa receptant 

ncc sic interemit mors res nt materiai 

corpora coniiciat, sed coetum dissupat ollis, 

inde aliis aliud coniungit ; et effit ut omnes 

res ita convertant formas inutentque colores k 

et capiant sensus et puncto tempore reddant ; 

nt noscas referre eadem primordia renim 

cum quibus et quali positura contineantur 

et quos inter se dent motus accipiantque, 

neve putes aetema penes residere potesse i< 

corpora piima quod in summis fluitare videmus 

rebns et interdum nasci subitoque perire. 

quin etiam refert nostris in veisibus ipsis 

cum quibus et quaii sint ordine quaeque locata. 

si non omnia sunt, at multo maxima pars est k 

consimilis ; verum posituia disciepitant res. 

sic ipsis in rebus item iam materiai 

concuisus motus ordo posituia figurae tc 

cum pennutantui, mutari res quoque debent 

Nunc animum nobis adhibe veiam ad rationem. 
nam libi vementer uova les molitur ad auris 
accedere et nova se species ostendere rerum. i< 

sed neque tam fadlis res uUa est quin ea primum 
diflicilis magis ad credendum constet, itemque 
nil adeo magnum neque tam mirabiie quicquam, 
quod non paulatim mittant mirarier omnes. 
suspicito coeli clarum purumque colorem, le 

quaeque in se cohibet, palantia sidera passim, 
lunamque et solis praeclara luce nitorem ; 
omnia quae nunc si primum mortalibus essent, 
ex inproviso si nunc obiecta repente, 
quid magis his rebus poterat mirabile dici ■< 



aiit minus ante quod audereDt fore credere gentes ? 
nil, ut opinor : ita haec species minmda fuisset 
quam tibi iam nemo, fessus satiate videndi, 
suspicere in caeti dignatur lucida templa ! 
desine quapropter novitate extenitus ipsa 1040 

expuere 6x animo lationem, sed magis acri 
iudicio perpende et, si tibi vcra videntur, 
dede manus, aut, si falsum est, accingere contra. 
quaerit enim rationem animus, cum summa loci sit 
inftnita foris haec extra moenia mimdi, 1045 

quid sit ibi porro quo prospicere usque velit mens 
atque animi iactus liber quo peivolet ipse. 

Principio nobis in cunctas undique partis 
et latere ex utroque supra supterque per omne 
nuUa est finis ; uti docui, res ipsaque per se 1050 

vociferatur, et elucet natora profimdi. 
nullo iam pacto veri simile esse putandumst, 
undique cum vorsum spatium vacet infinitum 
seminaque innumero numero sumraaque proiiinda 
multimodis volitent aetemo percita motu, 1055 

hunc unum teiramm orbem caelumque creatum, 
nil agere illa foris tot corpora materiai ; 
cum praesertim hic sit natura &ctus, ut ipsa 
spoDte sua forte offensando semina rerum, 
multimodis temere in cassum frustraque coacta 1060 
tandem colarunt ea quae coniecta repente 
magnarum rerum fierent exordia aemper, 
terrai maris et caeli gencrisque animantum. 
quare etiam atque etiam talis fateare necesse est 
esse alios alibi congressus materiai, 1065 

qualis hic est, avido complexu quem tenet aether. 

Praeterea cum materies est mulca parata, 
cum locus est praesto nec res nec causa moratur 
ulla, geri debent nimirum et confieri res. 
Dunc et seminibus si taola est copia quantam 1070 



enumerare aetas anitnantum non queat omnis, 
visque eadem et natura manet quae semina rerum 
conicere in loca quaeque queat simili ratione 
sUque huc sunt coniecta, necesse est confiteare 
esse alios aliis teirarum in paitibus orbis 1075 

et varias hominum gentis et saecla feranim. 

Huc accedit ut in sumraa res nuKa sit una, 
unica quae gignatur et unica solaque crescat, 
quin aKquoiu' siet saecli permultaque eodem 
sint genere. in primis animalibus, inclute Memmi, 1080 
invenies sic montivagum genus esse feranim, 
sic hominum genitam prolem, sic denique mutas 
squamigerum pecudes et corpora cuncta volantum. • 
quaepropter caelum simili ratione fatendumst 
terramque et solem lunam mare, cetera quae sunt, io8j 
non esse unica, sed numero magis innumerali; 
quandoquidem vitae depactus terminus alte 
tam manet haec et tam nativo corpore constant, 
quam genus omne quod hic generatimst rebus abundans. 

Quae bene cognita si teneas, natura videtur 1090 

libera continuo dominis privata superbis 
ipsa sua per se sponte omnia dis agere expers. 
nam pro sancta deum tranquitla pectora pace 
quae placidum degunt aevom vitamque serenam, 
quls regere immensi summam, quis habere profundi 1095 
tndu manu validas potis est moderanter habenas, 
quis pariter caelos omnis convertere et omnis 
ignibus aetheiiis terras suffire feracis, 
omnibus inve locis esse omni tempore praesto, 
nubibus ut tenebras faciat caelique serena 1100 

concudat sonitu, tum fulmina mittat et aedis 
saepe suas disturbet et in deserta recedens 
saeviat exercens telum quod saepe nocentes 
praeterit exanimatque indignos inque merentes ? 

Multaque post mundi tempus genitale diemque 1105 



primigenum maris et terrae solisque coortum 

addita corpora sunt extrinsecus, addita circum 

semina quae magDum iaculando contulit orane ; 

unde mare et teirae possent augescere et uode 

appareret spatium caeli dorous altaque tecta mo 

toUeret a terria procul et consurgeret aer. 

nam sua cuique locis ex omnibus omnia plagis 

coipora distribuuntur et ad sua saecla recedunt, 

umoi ad umorem, terreno corpore terra 

crescit et ignem ignes procudunt aetheraque aether, 

donique ad extremam crescendi perfica finem 1116 

omnia perduxit rerum natuia creatrix ; 

ut iit ubi nilo iam plus est quod datur intra 

vitalis venas quam quod fluit adque recedit. 

omnibus hic aetas debet consistere rebus, 1 1 20 

hic natura suis refrenat viribus auctum. 

nam quaecumque vides hilaro grandescere adauctu 

paulatimque gradus aetatis scandere adultae, 

plura sibi adsumunt quam de se corpora mittunt, 

dum facile in venas cibus omnis inditur et dum nas 

non ita sunt late dispersa ut multa remittant 

et plus dispendi faciant quam vescitur aetas. 

nam certe fluere adque recedere corpora rebus 

multa mantis dandum est ; sed plura accedere debent, 

donec alescendi summum tetigere cacumen. 1130 

inde minutatim viies et lobui adultum 

frangit et in partem peiorem liquitur aetas. 

quippe etenim quanto est res amplior, augmine adempto, 

et quo latior est, in cunctas undique partis 

plura modo dispargit et ab se coipora mittit, 1135 

nec facile in venas cibus omnis diditur ei 

nec satis est, proquam targos exaestuat aestus, 

unde queat tantum suboriri ac subpyeditaie. 

omnia debet enim cibus integrare novando 

et fiilcire cibus, cibus omnia sustentare, 1140 



nequiquaro, quoniam nec venae perpetiuntur 
quod satis est neque quantum opus est natura mii 
iure igitur pereunt, cuni rarefacta fluendo 
sunt et cum extemis succumbunt omnia plagis, 
quandoquidera grandi cibus aevo denique defit 
nec tuditantia rem cessant extrinsecus ullam 
corpora conficere et plagis infesta domarc. 
sic igitur magni quoque circum moenia mundi 
expugnata dabunt labem putrisque ruinas. 
iamque adeo fVacta est aetas efTetaque tellus 
vix animaiia parva creat quae cuncia creavit 
Saecla deditque ferarum ingentia corpora partu. 
haud, ut opinor, enim mortalia saecla supeme 
aurea de caelo demisit funis in arva 
nec mare nec fluctus plangentis saxa creamnt, 
sed genuit tellus eadem quae nunc alit ex se. 
praeterea niddas frnges vtnetaque laeta 
spoDte sua primum mortalibus ipsa creavit, 
ipsa dedit dulcis fetus et pabula laeta ; 
quae nunc vix nostro giandescunt aucta labore, 
conterimusque boves et viris agricolamm, 
conficimus fermm vix arvis suppeditati : 
usque adeo parcunt fetus augentque labore. 
iamque caput quassans grandis suspirat arator 
crebrius, incassum manuum cecidisse labores, 
et cum tempora temporibus praesentia confert 
praeteritis, laudat fortunas saepe parentis 
et crepat, anticum genus ut pietate repletum 
perfacile angustis toterarit finibus aevom, 
cum minor esset agri multo modus ante viritim. 
tristis item vetulae vitis sator atque vietae 
temporis incusat momen caelumque fatigat 
nec tenet omnia paulatim tabescere et ire 
ad capulum spatio aetatis defessa vetusto. 





E tenebris tantis tam clamm extoltere lumen 

qui primus potuisti inlustrans commoda vitae, 

te sequor, O Graiae gentis decus, inque tuis nunc 

ficta pedum pono pressis vestigia signis, 

non ita certandi cupidus quam propter amorem 

quod te^fhitari-aveo ; quid enim contendat hinindo 

cycnis, aut quidnam tremulis facere artubus haedi 

consimile in cursu possint et fortis equi vis? 

tu, pater, es renim inventor, tu patria nobis 

suppeditas praecepta, tuisque ex, inclute, chaitis, i 

floriferis ut apes Jn saltibus omnia libant, 

omnia nos itidem depascimur aurea dicta, 

aurea, perpetua semper dignissiraa vila, 

nam simul ac ratio tua coepit vociferari 

naturam rerum, divina mente coorta, i 

diflfugiunt animi terrores, moenia mundi 

discedunt, totum video per inane geri res. 

apparel divum numen sedesque quietae 

quas neque concutiunt venti nec nubila nimbis 

aspergunt neque nix acri concreta pruina 

cana cadens violat semperque innubilus aether 

integit, et large diffuso lumine rident. 

omnia suppecjjtat porro natura neque ulla 



res animi pacem delibat tempore in uUo. 

at contra nusquam apparent Achenisia tempk zs 

nec tellus obstat quin omnia dispiciantur, 

sub-pedibus quaecumque infra f>er inane geruntur, 

his ibi me rebus quaedam divina voluptas 

percipit adqug horror, quod sic natura tua vi 

tam manifesCa patens ex omni parte retecta est. 30 

Et quoniam docui, cimctarum exordia rerum 
qualia sint et quam variis distantia fomiis 
sponte sua volitent aeterno percita motu 
quove modo possint res ex his quaeque creari, 
hasce secundum res animi natura videtur 35 

atque animae claranda meis iam versibus ease 
et metus ille foras praeceps Acheruntis a^endus, 
funditus humanam qui vitam turbat ab imo 
omnia suffundens mortis nigrore nequ? ullam 
esse voluptatem liquidam puramque relinquit. 40 

nam quod saepe homines morbos magis esse timendos 
infamcmque ferunt vitam quam Tartara leti 
et se scire animae naturan^ sanguinis esse 
aut etiam venti, si feftStaforte voluntas, 
nec prosum quicquam nostrae rationis egere, 45 

hinc licet advertas animum niagis omnia laudJs 
iactari causa quam quod res ipsa probetur. 
extorres idem patria longeque fugati 
conspectu ex hominum, foedati crimine turpi, 
omnibus aeruranis adfecti denique vivunt, 50 

et quocumque tamen miseri venere parentant 
et nigras mactant pecudes et manibu' divis 
inferias mittunt multoque in rebus acerbis 
acrius advertunt animos ad religionem. 
quo magis in dubiis hominem sp>ectare periclis SS 

convenit adversisque in rebus noscere qui sit ; 
nam verae voces tum demum pectore ab imo 
eiciuntur et eripitur persona, manet res. 



denique avarities et honorum caeca cupido 

quae miseros homines cogunt transcendere fines 60 

iuris et interdum socios scelerum atque mimstros 

noctes atque dies niti praestante labore 

ad summas eraergere opes, haec vulnera vitae 

non minimam partem mortis formidine aluntur, 

tuipis enim ferme contemptus et acris egestas 65 

semota ab dulci vita stabilique videntur 

et quasi iam leti portas cunctarier ante ; 

unde homines dum se falso terrore coacti 

elTugisse volunt longe longeque remosse, 

sanguine civili rem conflant dtvitiasque 70 

conduplicant avidi, caedem caede accumulantes ; 

crudeles gaudent in tristi funere fratris 

et consanguineum mensas odere timentque. 

consimili ratione ab eodem saepe timore 

macerat invjdja. ante oculos iilum esse potentem, 75 

illum aspectari, claro qui incedit honore, 

ipsi se in tenebris volvi caenoque querantur. 

intereunt partim statuarum et norainis eigo. 

et saepe usque adeo, mortis formidine, vitae 

percipit humanos odium lucisque videndae, So 

ut sibi coosciscant maerenti pectore letum 

obliti fpntem curarum hunc esse tiraorem, 

hunc wcxare pudorem, hunc vincula amicitiai 

rumpere et in summa ^etatam evertere suadet^ ' \ 

nam iam saepe homines patriara carosque parentis 85 

prodidenint, vitare Acherusia templa petentes. 

nam veluti pueri trepidant atque omnia caecis 

in tenebris metuunt, sic nos in luce timemus 

interdum, nilo quae sunt metuenda magis quam 

quae pueri in tenebris pavitant finguntque futura. go 

hunc igitur tcirorem animi tenebrasque necessest 

non radii solis neque lucida teta diei 

discutiant, sed naturae species ratioque. 



Primuin animum dico, mentem quam saepe vocamns, 
in quo consilium vitae regimenque locatum cst, 95 

esse honiinis partem nilo minus ac manos et pes 
atque oculei partes animands totius extant 

sensum animi certa non esse in parte locatum, 
venim habitum quendam vitalem corporis esse, 
hannoniam Grai quam dicunt, quod faciat nos 100 
vivere cum sensu, nulla cum in parte siet mens [ * 
ut bona saepe valetudo cum dicitur esse 
corporis, et non est tamen haec pars ulla valentis, 
nc animi sensum non certa paite reponunt ; 
magDO open in quo mi diversi errare videntiir. 105 

taepe it^^ue, in prompta corpus quod cemitiir, aegret, 
aipx tamea ex aBa laetamur parte latend ; 
et retro fit ud cmitra lit soepe vicissin), 
cum miser ex animo laetalur coqxire toto ; 
non alio pacto quam si, pes cum dolet aegri, iio 

in nuUo caput interea sit forte dolore. 
praeterea molli cum somno dedita membra 
efTusumque iacet sine sensu corpus honustum, 
est altud tamen in nobis quod tempore in illo 
multimodis ^tatur et omnb accipit in se 115 

/., laetitiae motus et curas cordis inanis. 

nunc animam quoque ut in membiis cognoscere possis 
esse neque haimoni^corpus sentire solere, 
principio fit uti dctiacto corpore multo 
saepe tamen nobis in membris vita moretur ; izo 

atque eadem rursum, cum corpora pauca caloris 
diffugere forasque per os est editus aer, 
deserit extemplo venas atque ossa relinquit ; 
noscere ut hinc possis non aequas omnia partis 
corpora habere neque ex acquo fulcire salutem, iz$ 
sed magis haec, venti quae sunt calidique vaporis 
semina, curare in membris ut vita moretur. 



est igitur calor ac ventus vttalis in ipso 
corpore qui nobis moribundos deserit artus. 
quapropter quoniana est animi natura reperta 130 

atque animae quasi pars hominis, reddc harinoniai 
nomen, ad organicos alto delatum Heliconi ; 
sive aliunde ipsi porro traxere et in illam 
transtulerunt, proprio quae tum res nomine egebat. 
quidquid id est, habeant : tu cetera percipe dicta. 135 
' Nunc animum atque animam dico coniuncCa teneri 
inter se atque unam naturam conficere ex se, 
se^ caput esse quasi et dominari in corpore toto 
consilium quod nos animum mentemque vocamus. 
idque sttum media regione in pecloris haereL 140 

hic exultat enim pavor ac metus, haec ]oca circum 
laetitiae mulcent ; hic er^ metiS animusquest 
ccieri j^ats animae per totum dissita corpus 
paret et ad nutnen mentis momenque movetur. 
idque sibi solum per se sapit, id sibi gaudet, 145 

cum neque res animam neque corpus commovet una. 
et quasi, cum caput aut oculus temptante dolore 
laeditur in nobis, non omni concruciamur 
corpore, sic animus nonnumquam laeditur ipse 
laetitiaque viget, cum cetera pais animai ijo 

per membra atque artus nuUa novitate cietur. 
v^Tim ubi vementi magis est commota metu mens, 
consentire animam totam per membra videmus 
sudoresque ita palloremque existere toto 
corpore et infringi linguam vocemque aboriri, 155 

caligare oculos, sonere auris, succidere artus, 
denique concidere ex animi terrore videmus 
saepe homines ; facik ut quivis hinc noscere possit 
esse animam cum animo coniunctam, quae cum animi vi 
percussast, exim corpus propellit et icit. 160 

Haec eadem ratio naturam animi atque animai 
corpoream docet esse ; ubi enim propellere membra, 



corripere ex somno corpus mutareque vultum 
atque hominem totum regere aa versare videhir, 
quonim nil fieri sine tactu posse videmus 
nec tactum porro sine corpore, nonne (atendumst 
corporea natura animum constare aoimamque ? 
praeterea pariter fimgi cum corpore et una 
consentire animum nobis in corpore cemis. 
si minus offendit vitam vis horrida teli 
ossibus ac nervis disclusis intus adacta, 
at tamen insequitur languor teTiaeque petitua 
segnis, et in terra mentis qui gignitur aestus, 
interdumque quasi exurgendi incerta yoluntas. 
e^^ corpoream naturam animi esse necessest, 
corporeis quoniam telis ictuque laborat. 

Is tibi nunc animns quali sit corpore et unde 
constiterit pergam rationem reddere dictis. 
principio esse aio persuptitem atque minutis 
perquam corporibus tactum constare. id ita esse 
hinc licet advertas animum ut pemoscere possis ; 
nil adeo fieri celeri ratione videtur, 
quam sibi mens fieri proponit et inchoat ipsa; 
ocius ergo animus quam res se perciet uUa, 
^mte oculos quorum in promptu natura videtur. 
at quod mobile tanto operest, constare rutundis 
perquam seminibus debet perquamque minutis, 
momine uti parvo possint inpuisa moverL 
namque movetur aqua et tantillo momine flutat 
quippe volubilibus parvisque creata figuris. 
at contra mellis constantior est natura 
et pigri latices magis et cunctantior actus ; 
haeret enim inter se magis omnis materiai 
copia, nimirum quia non tam levjbus extat 
corporibus neque tam subtilibus atque rutundis. 
namque papaveiis aura potcst suspensa levisque 
cogere ut ab summo tibi diffluat altus acervus ; 



at contra Upidum conlectum ipse euru' movere 

noenu potest. igitur parvissima corpora proquam 

et levissima sunt, ita mobilitate fruuntur ; zoo 

at contra quaecumque magis cum pondere magno 

asperaque inveniuntur, eo stabilita magis sunt. 

nunc igitur quoniam est animi natura reperta 

mobilis egregie, perquam constare necessest 

corporibus parvis et levibus atque rutundis. »5 

quae tibi cognita res in muttis, o bone, rebus 

utilis inventetur et oppoitUDa cluebit. 

haec quoque res etiam naturam dedicat eius, 

quam tenui constet tCJttura quamque loco se 

contineat parvo, si possit conglomerari, >io 

quod simul atque hominem leti secura quies est 

indepta atque animi natura animaeque recessit, 

nil ibi libatum de toto corpore cemas 

ad speciem, nil ad pondus : mors omnia praestat 

vitalem praeter sensum calidumque vaporem. 215 

ei^o animam totam perparvis esse necessest 

seminibus, nexam per venas viscera nervos ; 

quatenus, omnis ubi e toto iam corpore cessit, 

extima membromm circumcaesura tamen se 

incolumem praestat nec defit ponderis hilum. zzo 

quod genus est Bacchi cum flos evanuit aut cum 

spiritus unguenti suavis difliigit in auras 

aut aliquo cum iam sucus de corpore cessit; 

nil oculis tamen esse minor res ipsa videtur 

propterea neque detractum de pondere quicquam, 2*5 

nimiium quia multa minutaque semina sucos 

efficiunt et odorem in toto corpore rerum. 

quare etiam atque etiam mentis naturam animaeque 

scire licet perquam pauxillis esse creatam 

seminibus, quoniam fugiens nil ponderis aufert. 330 

Nec tamen haec simplex nobis natura putanda est. 
tenvis enim quaedam moribundos deserit aura 



mixta vapore, vapor porro trahjt aera secum. 

nec calor est quisquam, cui non sit mixtus et aer ; 

rara quod eius enim constat natura, necessest 235 

aeris inter eum primordia multa moveri. 

iam triplex animi est igitur natura reperta ; 

nec tamen haec sat sunt ad sensum cuncta creandum, 

nil horum quoniam recepit res posse creare 

sensiferos motus et homo quae mente volutat 240 

quarta quoque his igitur quaedam natura necessest 

adtribuatur ; east omnino nominis expers ; 

qua neque niobilius quicquam neque tenvius exstat, 

nec magis e parvis et levibus est elementis ; 

sensiferos motus quae didit prima per aitus. 245 

prima cietur enim, parvis perfecta figuris j 

inde calor motus et venti caeca potestas 

accipit, inde aer ; inde omnia mobilitantur, 

concutitur sanguis, tum viscera persentiscunt 

omnia, postremis datur ossibus atque medullis 3$a 

sive voluptas est sive est contrarius ardor. 

nec temere huc dolor usquc potest penetrare neque acre 

permanare raalum, quin omoia perturbentur 

usque adeo ut vitae desit locus atque animai 

diiTugiant partes per caulas corporis omnis. asS 

sed plenimque fit in summo quasi corpore Rnis 

motibus r hanc ob rem vitam retinere valemus. 

Nunc ea quo pacto inter sese mixta quibusque 
compta modts vigeant rationem reddere aventem 
aiistraiiit invitum patrii sermonis egestas ; 360 

sed tamen, ut potero, summatim, attingere, tangam. 
• inter enim cureant primordia principiorum 
motibus inter se, nil ut secemier unum 
possit nec spatio fieri divisa potestas, 
sed quasi mullae vis unius corporis cxtant. 265 

quod genus in quovis animantum viscere volgo 
est odor et quidam color et sapor, et tamen ex hjs 



omnibus est unum perfectum corporis augmeo. 

sic calor atque aer et venti caeca potestas 

mixta creant unam natuiara et raobilis illa r 

vis, initum motus ab se quae dividjt ollis, 

sensifer unde oritur primum per viscera motus. 

nam penitus prorsum latet haec natura subestque 

nec roagis hac in&a quicquam est in corpore nostro 

atque anima est animae proporro totius ipsa. 2; 

quod genus in Dostris membris et corpore toto 

mtxta latens animi vis est animaeque potestas, 

coiporibus quia de parvis paudsque creatast. 

sic tibi Dominis haec expeis vis facta tninutis 

corporibus latet atque animae quasi totius ipsa ai 

proporrost anima et dominatur corpore toto. 

consimili ratione necessest ventus et aer 

et calor inter se vigeant commixta per artus 

adque aliis aJiud subsit magis emineatque 

ut quiddam iieri videatur ab omnibus unura, H 

ni calor ac ventus seorsum seorsumque potestas 

aeris interemant sensum diductaque solvant. 

est etenim calor ille animo, quem sumit, in ira 

cum fervescit et ex oculis micat acribus ardor; 

est et frigida multa comes formidinis aura » 

quae ciet horrorem membris et concitat artus ; 

est etiam quoque pacati status aeris ille, 

pectore tranquillo fit qui volluque sereno. 

sed calidi plus est illis quibus acria corda 

iracundaque mens facile eff^rvescit in ira. - » 

quo genere in primis vis est violenta leonum, 

pectora qui freraitu rumpunt plenimque gementes 

nec capere irarum fluctus in pectore possunt 

at ventosa roagis cervorum frigida meus est 

et gelidas citius per viscera concitat auras 31 

quae tremulum faciunt membris existere motum. 

at natura boum placido magis acre vivit, 



nec nimis irai fax umquan] subdita percit 
fiimida, sufTundens caecae caliginis umbra, 
nec gelidis torpet telis perfixa pavoris : 
inter utrosque sitast, cervos saevosque leones. 
sic hominum genus est. quamvis doctrina politos 
constituat pariter quosdam, tamen illa relinquit 
naturae cuiusquc animi vestigia prima. 
nec radicitus evelli mala posse putandumst, 
quin proclivius hic iras decuirat ad acris, 
ille metu citius pauto temptetur, at ille 
tertius accipiat quaedam clementius aequo. 
inque aJiis rebus multis differre necessest 
caturas hominum varias moresque sequacis ; 
quorum ego nunc neqiieo caecas exponere causas 
nec reperire figurarum tot nomina quot sunt 
principiis, unde haec ontur variantia rerum. 
illud in his rebus videor firmare potesse, 
usque adeo naturamm vestigia linqui . 
parvola quae nequeat ratio depellere nobis, 
ut nil inpediat dtgnam dis degerc vitam. 

Haec igitur natura tenetur corporc ab omni 
ipsaque corporis est custos et causa salutis ; 
nam communibus inter se radicibus haerent 
nec sine pemicie divelli posse videntur. 
quod genus e thuris glaebis evellere odorem 
haud facile est quin intereat natura quoque eius. 
sic animi atque animae naturam corpore toto 
extrahere h^ut facile est quin omnia dissoluantur. 
inplexis ita principiis ab origine prima 
inter se fiunt consorti praedita vita, 
nec sibi quaeque sine alterius vi posse videtur i 
corporis atque animi seorsum sentire potestas, 
sed communibus inter eas conllatur utrimque 
motibus accensus nobis per viscera sensus. 
praeterea corpus per se nec gignitur umquam 



nec crescit neque post mortem durare videtur. 

non enim, ut umor aquae dimittit saepe vaporem 

qui datus est, neque ea causa convellitur ipse, 340 

sed manet incolumis, non, inquam, sic animai 

discidium possunt artus peiferre relicti, 

ied penitus pereunt convulsi conque putrescunt. 

ex ineunte aevo sic corporis atque animai 

mutua vitalis discunt cantagia motus 345 

matemis etiam membiia alvoque reposta, 

discidium ut nequeat fieri sine peste maloque ; 

ut videas, quoniam coniunctaat causa salutis, 

coniunctam quoque naturam consistere eonim. 

Quod superest, siquis corpus sentire refutat 350 

atque animam credit permixtam corpore toto 
suscipere hunc motura quem sensum nominitamus, 
vel manifestas res contra verasque.repugnat. 
quid sit enim corpus sentire quis adferet umquam, 
si non ipsa palam quod res dedit ac docuit nos ? 355 
at dimissa anima corpus caret undique sensu ; 
perdit enim quod non proprium fuit eius in aevo ; 
multaque praeterea perdit quam expellitur ante. 

Dicere porro oculos nuUam rem cemere posse, 
sed per eos animum ut foribus spectare reclusis, 360 
difficilest, contra cum sensus dicat eorum : 
sensus enim trahit atque acies detmdit ad ipsas ; 
fulgida praesertim cum cernere saepe nequimus, 
lumina luminibus quia nobis praepediuntur. 
quod foribus non fit ; neque enim, quia cemimus ipsi, 365 
ostia suscipiunt ullum reclusa laborem. 
praeterea si pro foribus sunt lumina nostra, 
iam magis exemptis oculis debere videtur 
cemere res animus sublatis postibus ipsis. 

Illud in his rebus nequaquam suraere possis, 370 
Democriti quod sancta viri sententia ponit, 
corporis atque animi primordia singula privis 



adposita altemis variaie, ac nectere membra, 

nam cum multo sunt animae elementa minora 

quam quibus e corpus nobis et viscera constant, 375 

tum numero quoque concedunt et rara per aitua 

dissica sunt dumtaxat ; ut hoc proraittere possis, I 

quantula prima queant nobis iniecta ciere 

coTpora sensiferos motus in corpore, tanta 

intervalla tenere exordia prima animai. \ 3S0 

nam neque pulveris interdum sentimus adhaesum 

corpore nec membris incussam sidere cretam, 

nec nebulam noctu neque aranei tenvia fila 

obvia sentimus, quando obretimur euntes, 

nec supera caput eiusdem ceddisse vietam 3S5 

vestem nec plumas avium papposque volantis 

qui nimia levitate cadunt plerumque gravatim, 

nec repentis itum cuiusviscumque animantis 

sentimus nec priva pedum vestigia quaeque, 

corpore quae in nosCro culices et cetera ponunt, 390 

usque adeo prius est in nobis raulta ctendum 

quam primordia sentiscant concussa animai 

semina corporibus nostris iopiixta per artus, 

et quam in his intervallis tuditantia possint 

concursare coirc et dissultare vicissim. 395 

Et magis est animus vicai claustia coercens 
et dominantior ad vitam quam vis animai. 
nam sine mente animoque nequit residere per artus 
temporis exiguam partem pars ulla animai, 
sed comes insequitur fecile et discedit in auras 400 
et gelidos artus ia leti frigore linquit 
at manet in vita cui mens animusque remansit 
quamvis est circum caesis lacer undique membris 
truncus, adempta anima circum membrisque remota 
vivit et aetherias vitalis suscipit auras. 4C>5 

si non omnimodis, at magna parte animai 
privatus, tamen in vita cunctatur et haeret ; 



ut, lacerato oculo circum si pupula mansit 

incolumis, stat cemundl vivata potestas, 

dummodo ne totum comimpas luminis orbem 410 

et circum cacdas aciem solamque relinquas ; 

id quoque enim sine peniicie non fiet et orbei, 

at si tantula pai^ oculi media illa peresa est, 

occidit extemplo lumen tenebraeque secuntur, 

incolumis quamvis aliquoi sit splendidus orbis. 415 

hoc anima atque animus vincti sunt foedere semper. 

" Nunc age, nativos animantlbus et mortalis ^ 

esse animos animasque levis ut noscere possis, 

conquisita diu dulcique reperta labore 

digna tua pergam disponere carmina cura, 4*0 

tu fac utrumque uno sub iungas nomine eonim, 

atque animam verbi causa cum dicere pergam, 

mortalem esse docens, animum quoque dicere credas, 

quatenus est unum inter se coniunctaque res est 

principio quoniam tenuem constare minutis 425 

corporibus docui multoque minoribus esse 

principiis factam quam liquidus umor aquai 

aut nebuk aut fumus : — nam longe mobilitate 

praestat et a tenui causa magis icta movetur ; 

quippe ubi imaginibus fumi nebulacque movetur : 430 

quod genus in somnis sopiti ubi cemimus alte 

exhalare vaporem altaria ferreque fumum ; 

nam procul hinc dubio nobis siraulacra genuntur ; — 

nunc igitur quoniam quassatis undique vasis 

diffluere umorem et laticem discedere cemis 435 

et nebula ac fumus quoniam discedit in auras, 

crede animam quoque difTundi multoque perire 

ocius et citius dissolvi in corpora prima, 

cum semel ex hominis membris ablata recessit. 

quippe etenim corpus, quod yas quasi constitit eius, 440 

quam cohibere nequit conquassatum ex aliqua re 

ac rarefkctum detracto sanguine venis, 



aere qui credas posse hanc cohiberier ulio? 
corpore qui nostro rarus magis is cohiliessit? 

Praeterea gigni pariter cuni corpore et una 
crescere sentimus pariterque senescere meQtem. 
nam velut intirmo pueri teneroque vagantur 
corpore, sic aniini sequitur sententia tenvis. 
inde ubi robtistis adolevit viribus aetas, 
consilium quoque maius et auctior est animi vis. 
post ubi iam validis quassatum est viribus aevi 
corpus et obtusis ceciderunt viribus artus, 
claudicat ingenium, delirat lingua, labat mens, 
omnia deficiunt atque uno tempore desunt. 
ei^ dissolui quoque convcnic omnem aniraai 
naturam, ceu fumus, in altas aeris auras ; 
quandoquidem gigni pariter pariterque videmus 
A*i-i^^crescere et, ut docui, simul aevo fessa fatisci. 

Huc accedit uti videamus, corpus ut ipsum 
suscipere inmanis morbos duntmque dolorem, 
sic animum curas acris luctumque metumque; 
quare participem leti quoque convenit esse. 
quin etiam morbis in corporis avius errat 
saepe animus ; dementit enira deiiraque fatur 
interdumque gravi lethargo fertur in altum 
aeternumque soporem oculis nutuque cadend, 
unde neque exaudit voces nec noscere voltus 
illorum potis est, ad vitam qui revocantes 
circumstant lacrimis rorantes ora genasque. 
quare animum quoque dissolui fatearc necessest, 
quandoquidem penetrant in eum contagia morbi ; 
nam dolor ac morbus leti fabricator uterquest, 
multonim exitio perdocti quod sumus ante. 
denique quor, hominem cum vini vis penetravit 
acris et in venas discessit diditus ardor, 
conscquitur gravitas membrorum, praepediuntur 
crura vacillanti, tardeacit Ungua, raadet mens, 



nant oculi, clamor singultus iurgia gliscunt, 4S0 

et iam cetera de genere hoc quaecumque secuotur, 

cur ea sunt, nisi quod vemens violentia vini 

conturbaie animam consuevit corpore in ipso? 

at quaecumque queunt conturbari inque pediri, 

significant, paulo si durior insinuarit 485 

causa, fore ut pereant aevo privata futuro. 

quin etiam subito vi raorbi saepc coactus 

ante oculos aliquis nostros, ut fulminis ictu, 

concidit et spumas agit, ingemit et tremit artus, 

desipit, cxtentat nervos, torquetur, anhelat 490 

inconstanter, et in iactando membra fatigat. 

nimirum quia vis morbi distracta per artua 

turbat, agens animam spumat, quasi in acquore salso 

ventorum validis fervescunt viribus undae. 

exprimitur porro gemitus, quia membra dolore 495 

adiiciuntur et omnino quod semina vocis 

eiciuntur et ore foras glomerata feruntur 

qua quasi consuerunt et sunt munita viaj. 

desipientia fit, quia vls animi atque animai 

conturbatur el, ut docui, divisa seorsum 500 

disiectatur eodem illo distiacta veneno. 

inde ubi iam morbi reflexit causa reditque 

in latebras acer corrupii corporis umor, , 

tum quasi vaccillans primum consurgit et omnis 

paulatim redit in sen^s animamque receptat. 505 

haec igitur tantis ubi morbis corpore in ipso , 

iactentur raiserisque modis distracta laborent, 

cur eadem credis sine corpore in aere aperto 

cum validis ventis aetatem degere posse ? 

et quoniam mentem sanari, corpus ut aegrum, 510 

cemimus et flecti medicina posse videmus, 

id quoque praesagit mortalem vivere mentem. 

addere enim partis aut ordine traiecere aecumst 

aut aliquid proi^um de sumina detrahere hilmu, 



commutare animum quicumque adoritur et iniit 515 

aut aliam quamvis naturam flectere quaerit ; 

at neque transfem sibi partis nec tribui vult 

inmortale quod est quicquam neque defluere hilum. 

nara quodcumque suis mulatum finibus exit, 

continuo hoc mora est illius quod fiiit ante. jao 

ergo animus sive aegrescit, mortalia signa 

mittit, uti docui, seu flectitur a medicina. 

usque adeo falsae rationi vera videtur 

res occurrere et effugium praecludere eunti 

ancipitique refutatu convincere falsum. 525 

Etenique saepe hominem paulatim cemimus irc 
et membratim vitalem deperdere sensjm ; 
in. pedibus priraum digitos livescere et unguis, 
inde pedes et cnira mori, post inde per artus 
ire alios tiactim gelidi vesdgia leti. 530 

scinditur itque animae hoc quoni^un natura nec uno 
tempore sincera existit, mortalis habendast. 
quod si forte putas ipsam se posse per artus 
introsum trahere et partis conducere in unum 
atque ideo cunctis sensum deducere membris, 535 

at locus ille tamen, quo copia tanta animat 
cogitur, in sensu debet maiore videri ; 
qui quoniam nusquamst, nimirum ut diximus ante, 
dilaniata foras dispargitur, interit ergo. 
quin etiam si iam liljeat concedere falsum 540 

et dare posse animam glomerari in corpore eorum, 
lumina qui lincunt moribundi particulatim, 
raortalem tamen esse animam fateare necesse, 
nec refert utrara pereat dispersa per auras 
an contracta suis e partibu» obbrutescat, 545 

quando hominem totum magis ac magis undique sensus 
deficit et vitae minus et minus undique restat. 

Et quoniam mens est hominis pars una, loco quae 
fixa manet certo, velut aures atque oculi sunt 



atque alii sensus qui vitam cumque gubemant, 
et veluti manus atque ocuius naresve seoisum 
secreta ab Dobis nequeunt sentire neque esse, 
sed tamen in parvo licuntur tempore tabe, . 
sic animus per se non quit sine corpore et ipso 
esse homine, iliius quasi quod vas esse videtur 
sive aliud quid vis potius coniunctius ei 
fingere, quandoquidem conexu corpus adhaeret. 
Denique corporis atque animi vivata potestas 
inter se coniuucta valent vitaque fruuntur; 
nec sine corpore enim vitalis edere motus 
sola potest animi per se natuta nec autem 
cassum anima corpus durare et sensibus uti. 
scilicet avolsus radidbus ut nequit ullam 
dispicere ipse oculus rem seorsum corpore toto, 
sic anima atque animus per se nil posse videtur. 
nimirum quia per venas et viscera mixtim, 
per Dervos atque ossa, tenentur corpore ab omni 
nec magnis intervallis primordia possunt 
libera dissultare, ideo conclusa moventur 
sensiferos motus quos extra corpus in auras 
aeris haut possunt post mortem eiecta moveri 
propterea quia non sinuli ratione tenentur, 
corpus enim atque animans erit aer, si colubere 
sese anima atque in eo poterit concludere motus 
quoa ante in nervis et in ipso corpore agebat. > 

quin etiam finis dum vitae vertitur intra, 
saepe aliqua tamen e causa labefacta videtur 
ire anima ac toto solui de corpore velle 
et quasi supremo languescere tempore voltus 
moUiaque exsangui trunco cadere omnia membra. ; 
quod genus est, animo male factum cum perhii>etur 
aut animam hquisse ; ubi iam trepidatur et omnes 
extremum cupiunt vitae repraehendere vinclum. 
conquassatur enim tum mens animaeque potestas 



omnis et haec ipso cum corpore conlabefiuDt ; 5S5 

ut gravior paulo possit dissolvere causa. 

quid dubitas tandcm quin extra prodita. corpus 

inbecilla foras in aperto, tegmine dempto, 

non modo non omnem possit durare per aevom, 

sed minimum quodvis nequeat consistere tempus? 590 

quare etiam atque etiam resoluto corporis omni 

tegmine et eiecds extrs vitalibus auris 

dissolui sensus animi fateare necessest 

atque animam, quoniam coniunctast causa duobus. 

Denique cum corpus nequeat perferre animai 595 
discidium quin in taetro tabescat odore, <-" 
quid dubitas quin ex imo penitusque coorta 
emanarit uti fumus difiusa animae vis, 
atque ideo tanta mutatum putre ruina 
conciderit corpus, pcnicus quia mota loco sunt 600 
fundamenta, foras anima emanante per artus 
perque viarum omnis flexus, in corpore qui sunt, 
atque foramina? multtmodis ut noscere possis 
dispertitam animae naturam exisse per artua 
et prius esse sibi distiactam corpore in ipso, 605 

quam prolapsa foras enaret tn aeris auras. 
nec sibi enim quisquam moriens sentire videtur 
ire foras animam incolumem de coqiore toto 
nec prius ad iugulum et supera succedere fauces, 
veram deficere Jn certa regione locatam ; 610 

ut sensus alios in parti quemque sua scit 
dissolui. quod si inmortalis nostra foret mens, 
lion tam se moriens dissolvi conqucreretur, 
sed magis ire foras vcstemque relinquere, ut angiiis. 

Deaique cur animi numquam mens consiKumquc C15 
gignitur in capite aut pedibus nkanibusve, scd unis 
sedibus et certis regionibus omnibus haeret, ' 
si Don certa loca ad nascendum reddita cuique 
Bunt, et ubi quicquid possit durare creatum, 

/ ,■ U.g.VK.yC00glc 


atque ita multimodis partitis artubus esse, 6» 

membrorum ut numquam existat praeposterus ordo ? 
usque adeo sequitur res rem neque flamma creari 
fluminibus soiitast neque in igni gignier algor. 

Praeterea st inmortalis natura animaist 
et sentire potest secreta a corpore nostro, 6*5 

quinque, ut opinor, eam faciundum est sensibus auctam ; 
nec ratione alia nosmet proponcre nobis 
possumus infemas animas Acherunte vagari. 
pictores itaque et scriptorum saecla priora 
sic animas intro duxerunt sensibus auctas. 630 

at neque sorsum oculi neque nares nec manus ipsa 
esse potest animae neque sorsum lingua, neque aures 
auditu per se possnnt sentire neque esse. 

Et quoniam toto sentimus corpore inesse 
vitalem sensum et totum esse animale videmus, 635 
si subito medium cekri praeciderit ictu 
vis aliqua ut sorsum partem secemat utramque, 
dispertita procul dubio quoque vis animai 
et discissa simul cum corpofe dissicietur. 
at quod scinditur et partis discedit in uUas, 640 

scilicet aetemam sibi naturaln abnuit esse. 
falciferos memorant currus abscidere membnt 
saepe ita de subito pemiixta caede calentis, 
ut tremere in terra videatur ab artubus id quod 
decidit abscisum, cum mens tamen atque hominis vis 645 
mobilitate mali non quit sentire dolorem ; 
et semel in pugnae studio quod dedita mens est, 
corpore reliqiio pugnam caedesque petessit, 
nec tfnet amissam laevam cum tegmine saepe 
inter equos abstraxe rotas ialcesque rapaces, 650 

nec cecidisse alius dextram, cum scandit et instat. 
inde alius conacur adempto surgere crure, 
cum digitos agitat propter moribundus humi pes. 
et caput abscisum calido viventeque trunco 



servat humi voltum vitalero oculosque patentia, 655 

donec reliquias animai reddidit omaes. 

quin etiam tibi si lingua vibrante micaoti 

serpentis cauda e procero corpore utmmque 

sit libitum in muitas partis discidere ferro, 

omnia iam sorsum cemes ancisa recenti 660 

volnere tortari et terram conspargcre tabo, 

ipsam seque retro partem petere ore priorera, 

volneris ardenti ut morsu premat icta dolorem. 

omnibus esse igitur totas dicemus in illis 

particulis animas? at ea ratione sequetur 665' 

nnam animantem animas habuisse in corpore mliitas. 

ergo divisast ea quae fijit nna simiH cura 

corpore ; quapropter mortale utrumque putandumst, 

in multas quoniam partis disciditur aeque, 

Praeterea si inmortalis natura animai 670 

constat et in corpus nascentibus insinuatur, 
cur super anteactara aetatem meminisse nequimus 
nec vestigia gestarum rerum ulla tenemus? 
nam si tanto operest animi mutata potestas, 
omnis ut actarum exciderit retincntia reram, 675 

non, ut opinor, id a leto iam longiter errat ; 
quapropter fateare necessest quae fuit ante 
interiisse et quae nunc est nunc esse creatam. 

Praeterea si iam perfecto corpore nobis 
inferri solitast animi vivata potestas 6S0 

tura cum gignimur et vitae cum limen iniraus, 
haud ita conveniebat uti cum corpore et una 
cum membris videatur in ipso sanguine cresse, 
sed velut in cavea per se sibi vivere solam. 
[convenit ut sensu corpus tamen affluat omne] 685 

quod lieri totum contra manifcsta docet res ; 
namque ita conexa est per venas viscera nervos 
ossaque, uti dentes quoque sensu participentur ; 
morbus ut indicat et gelidai stringor aquai 



et lapis oppressus, subiit si e fhigibtis, asper. 690 

quajre etiam atque etiatn neque originis esse putandurast 

expertis animas nec leti lege solutas. 

nam neque tanto opere adnecti potuisse putandutnst 

corporibus nostris extrinsecus insinuatas, 

nec, tam contextae cum sint, exire videntur 695 

incolumes posae et salvas exsolvere sese 

omnibus e nervis atque ossibus articulisque. 

quod si forte ptitas extrinsecus insinuatara 

permanare animam nobia per membra solere, 

tanto quique magis cum corpore fusa peribit. 7«» 

quod permanat enim dissolvitur, interit ergo. 

dispertitus enim per caulas corporis oranis 

ut cibus, in merabra atque artus cum diditur omnis, 

disperit atque aliam naturam sufiicit ex se, 

sic anima atque animus quamvis integra recens in 705 

corpus eunt, tamen in manando dissoluuntur, 

dum quasi per caulas omnis diduntur in artus 

particulae quibus haec animi natura creatur, 

quae nunc in nostro dominatur corpore nata 

ex illa quae tum periit partita per artus. 7'o 

quapropter neque natali privata videtur 

esse die natura aniraae nec funeris expers. 

Semina praeterea linquontur necne aniraai 
corpore in exanirao? quod si lincuntur et insunt, 
haut erit ut merito inmortalis possit haberi, 7'S 

partibus araissis quoniam libata recessit. 
sin ita sinceris membris ablata profugit 
ut nullas partis in corpore liquerit ex se, 
unde cadavera rancenti iara viscere vermes 
expiiant atque unde animantum copia tanta 720 

exos et exanguia tumidos periiuctuat artus? 
quod si forte animas extrinsecus insinuari 
vermibus et privas in corpora posse venire 
credis nec reputas cur milia multa a 



conveniant unde una lecesserit, hoc tamen est ut 725 

quaerendum videatuc et in discrimen agendum, 

utmm tandera animae venentur semina quaeque 

vermiculorum ipsaeque sibi fabricentur ubi siat, 

an quasi corporibus petfectis insinuentur. 

at neque cur faciant ipsae quareve laborent 730 

dicere suppeditat neque enim, sine corpore cum sunt, 

soUicitae volitant morbis a^que fameque ; 

corpus enim magis his vitiis adfine laborat 

et mala multa animus contage fungitur eius. 

sed tamen his esto quamvis &cere utile corpus, 735 

cum subeant ; at qua possint via nuUa videtur. 

haut igitur faciunt animae sibi corpora et artus. 

nec tamen est utqui perfectis insinuentur 

corporibus ; neque enim poterunt suptiliter esse 

conexae neque consensus contagia fient 740 

Denique cur acris violentia triste leonu{n 
seminium sequitur, volpes dolus, et fugETcervos, ^ 
et iam cetera de generc hoc cur omnia membris 
ex ineunte aevo generascunt ingenioque, 745 

si non, certa suo quia semine seminioque 
vis animi pariter crescit cum coipore toto ? 
quod si inmortalis foret et mutare soleret 
corpora, permixtis animantes moribus essent, 
effugeret canis Hyrcano de semine saepc 7S° 

comigeri incursum cervi tremeretque per auras 
aeris accipiter fiigiens veniente columba, 
desiperent homines, saperent fera saecla ferarum. 
illud enim falsa fertur ratione, quod aiunt 
inmortalcm animam mutato corpore flecti. 755 

quod mutatur enim dissolvitur, interit ci^ ; 
traiciuntur enim partes atque ordine migrant ; 
quare dissolui quoque debent posse per artus, 
denique ut intereant una cum corpore cunctae, 
sin animas hominum dicent in corpora semper 760 



ire humana, tamen quaeram cur e sapiend 
Btulta queat fieri, nec prudens sit puer ullus, 
nec tam doctus equae pullus quam fortis cqui vis. 
scilicet in tenero tenerascere corpore mentem 765 

contiigient. quod si iam fit, fateare necessest 
tnortalem esse animam, quoniam mutata per artus 
tanto opere amittit vitam sensumque priorem. 
quove modo poterit pariter cum corpore quoque 
confirmata cupitura aetatis tangere ftorem 770 

vis animi, nisi erit consors in origine prima? 
quidve foras sibi vuit membris exire senectja ? 
an metuit conclusa manere in corpore putri 
et domus aetatis spatio ne fessa vetusto 
. obruat? at non sunt immortali uUa pericla. 775 

Denique conubia ad Veneris partusque feraium 
esse animas praesto deridiculum esse videtur, 
expectare immortalis moitalia membra 
innumero numero certareque praeproperanter 
inter se quae prima potissimaque insinuetur ; 780 

si non forte ita sunt animanim foedera pacta 
ut quae prima volans adveserit insinuetur 
fmma neque inter se contendant viribus hilum. 

Denique in aethere non arbor, non aequore in alto 
nubes esse queunt nec pisces vivere in arvis 785 

nec cruor in lignis neque saxis sucus inesse. 
certum ac dispositumst ubi qutcquit crescat et insit. 
sic animi natura nequit sine corpore oriri 
sola nequc a nervis et sanguine longiter esse. 
quod si (posset enim multo prius) ipsa animl vis 790 
in capite aut umeris aut imis calcibus esse 
posset et innasci quavis in parte, soleret 
tandem in eodem homine atque in eodem vase manere. 
quod quoniam nostro quoque constat corpore certum 
dispositumque videtur ubi esse et crescere possit 795 
sorsum anima atque animus, tanto magis infitiandum 



totum posse extra corpus durare genique. 

quare, corpus ubi interiit, periiBse necessest 
confiteare animam distractam in corpore toto. 
quippe etenim mortale aelenio iungere et una 800 

consentire putare et fungi mutua posse 
desiperest ; quid enim diversius esse putandumst 
aut magis inter se disiunctum discrepitansque, 
quam mortale quod est inmortali atque pcrenni 
iunctum in concilio saevas tolerare procellas ? 805 

quod si forte ideo magis immotlalis habendast, Sig 

quod letalibus ab rebus munita tenetur, 
aut quia non veniunt omnino aliena salutis 
aut quia quae veniunt aliqua ratione recedunt 
pulsa prius quam quid noceant Bentire queamus, 

praeter enim quam quod morbis cum corporis aegret, 
advenit id quod eam de rebus saepe fiituris 8:5 

macerat inque metu male habet curisque fatigat 
praeteridaque male admissis peccata reniordent 
adde furorem animi pro^Hium atque oblivia reniro, 
adde quod in nigras lethargi mergitur undas. 

Nil igitur more est ad nos neque pertinet hilum, 830 
quandoquidem natura animi mortalis babetur ; 
et velut anteacto nil tempore sensimus aegri, 
ad confligendum venientibus undique Poenis, 
omnia cum belli trepido concussa tumultu 
horrida contremuere sub altis aetheris oris, S35 

in dubioque fuere utrorum ad regna cadendum 
omnibus humanis esset terraque marique, 
sic, ubi non erimus, cum corporis atque aiumai 
disddium fuerit quibus e sumus uniter apti, 
scilicet haud nobis quicquam, qui non eriraus tum, 840 
accidere omnino poterit sensumque movere, 
non si terra mari miscebitur et mare caelo. 
Gt si iam nostro sentit de corpore postquain 



disHactast animi natura animaeque potestas, 

nil tamen est ad nos qui comptu coniugioque 845 

corporis atque animae consistimus uniter apti. 

nec, d materiem nostram coUegerit aetas 

post obitum rursumque redegerit ut sita nunc est 

atque itenim nobis fiierint data lumina vitae, 

pertineat quicquam tamen ad nos id quoque factum, 850 

intemipta semel cum sit repetentia nostri. 

et nunc nil ad nos de nobis attinet, ante 

qui fuimus, neque iam de illis nos adficit angor. 

nam cum respicias inmensi temporis omne 

praeteritum spatium, tum motus materiai 855 

multimodis quam sint, facile hoc adcredere possis, 

semina saepe in eodem, ut nunc sunt, ordine posta 

haec eadem, quibus e nunc nos sumus, ante fuisse. 

nec memori tamen id quimus repraehendere mente ; 

inter enim iectast vitai pausa vageque 860 

deerrarunt passiro rootus ab sensibus omnes. 

debet enim, misere si forte aegreque futururast, 

ipse quoque esse in eo tum tempore, cui male possit 

accidere. id quoniam mois eximit, esseque probet 

illum cui possint incommoda conciliari, S65 

scire licet nobis nil esse in morte timendum 

nec miserum fieri, qui non est, posse neque hilum 

diffeire anne ullo fuerit iam tempoie natus, 

mortalem vitam mors cum inmortalis ademiL 

Proinde ubi se videas hominem indignarier ipsuro, 870 
post mortem fore ut aut putescat corpore posto 
aut flammis interfiat malisve ferarum, 
scire licet non sincerum sonere atque subesse 
caecum aliquem cordi stimulum, quamvis neget ipse 
credere se quemquam sibi sensum in morte fiiturum. S75 
non, ut opinor, enim dat quod promittit et unde, 
nec radicitus e vita se totlit et eicit, 
sed facit esse sui quiddam super inscius ipse. 



vivus enim sibi cum proponit quisque futurura, 

corpus ud volucres lacerent in morte feraeque, 38o 

ipse sui miseret ; neqjie enira se dividit illim 

nec removet satis a proiectu corpore et illum 

se fingit sensuque suo contaminat astans. 

hinc indignatur se mortalem esse crea.tum 

nec videt in vera nullum fore morte aKum se 885 

qui possit vivus sibi se lugere peremptum 

stansque iacentem se lacerari urive dolere. 

nam si in morte malumst malis mot^uque ferarum 

tractan, non invenio qui non sit acerbura 

ignibus inpositum calidis torrescere flammis 8go 

aut in melle situm sufTocari atque rigere 

frigore, cum summo gelidi cubat aequore saxi, 

urgerive supeme obtritum pondere terrae, 

' lam iam non domus accipiet te laeta, neque uxor 
optima nec dulces occurrent oscula nati 895 

praeripere et tacita pectus dulcedine tangent. 
non poteris factis florentibus esse, tuisque 
praesidium. misero misere ' aiunt ' omnia ademit 
una dies Infesta tibi tot praeraia vitae.' 
illud in his rebus non addunt ' nec tibi eanim 900 

iara desiderium rerum super insidet una.' 
quod bene si videant animo dictisque sequantur, 
dissoluant anirai magno se angore metuque. 
'tu quidem ut es leto sopitus, sic eris aevi 
quod superest cunctis privatu' doloribus aegris : 905 
at nos honifico cinefactum te prope busto 
insatiabiliter deflevimus, aetemumque 
nulla dies nobis maerorem e pectore demet/ 
illud ab hoc igitur quaerendum est, quid sit amari 
tanto opere, ad somnum si res redit atque quietem, 910 
cur quisquam aetemo possit tabescere luctu. 

Hoc etiam faciunt ubi discubuere tenentque 
pocuta saepe horoines et inumtmuit ora coronis, 




ex animo ut dicant ' brevis hic est fractus faomullis ; 

iam fuerit neque post umquam revocare licebit.' 915 

tamquam in morte mali cum priqus hoc sit eorum, 

quod sitis exurat niiseros atque aijda toires, 

aut atiae cuius desiderium insideat rei. 

nec sibi enim quisquam tum se vitamque reqaiiit, 

cum pariter mens et corpus sopka quiescont ; 920 

nam licet aetemum pei nos sic esse soporera, 

nec desiderium nostri nos adlicit ullum. 

et tamen faaudquaquam nostroa tonc iUa per artus 

longe ab sensiferis primcMdia motibus errant, 

cum coneptiis homo ex sonuio se coUigit ipse. 925 

multo igitur mortem minus ad nos esse putandumst, 

si minus esse potest quam quod nil esse videmus ; 

maior enim turbae didectus materiai 

coDsequitur leto nec quisquam expergitus exstat, 

frigida quem semel est vitai pausa secuta. 930 

Denique si vocem rerum natura repente 
mittat et hoc alicui nostrum sic increpet ipsa 
' quid tibi tanto operest, mortatis, quod nimis aegris 
luctibus indulges ? quid mortem congemis ac fies ? 
nam gratis anteacta fuit tibi vita priorque 93J 

et non omnia pertusum congesta quasi in vas 
commoda perfluxeFe atque ingrata interiere : 
cur non ut plenus vitae conviva recedis 
aequo animoque capis securam, stultc, quietero ? 
sin ea quae fhictus cumque es periere [rofusa 940 

vitaque in offensust, cur amplius addere quaeris, 
rursum quod pereat male et ingiatum occidat omne, 
non potius vitae finem lacis atque laboris? 
nam tibi praeterea quod machiner inveniamque, 
quod placeat, nil est : eadem sunt omnia semper. 945 
si tibi non aimis coipus iam marcet et artus 
confecti languent, eadem tamen omnia restant, 
omnia si pergas vivendo vincere saecla, 



atque etiam potius, si numquam sis moriturus,' 

quid respondemus, nisi iustam intendere litem 950 

naturam et veram verbis exponere causam ? 

grandior hic vero si iam seniorque queratur 

atque obitum lamentetur miser amplins aequo, 

non merito inclamet magis et voce iacrepet acri? 

' aufer abhinc lacrim^, balatro, et compesce quereilas. 955 

omnia perfunctus vitai praemia marces. 

sed quia semper aves quod abest, praesentia temnis, 

inpeifecta tibi elapsast ingrataque vita 

et nec opinanti mors ad caput adstitit ante 

quam satar ac plenus possis discedere rerum. 960 

nunc aliena tua tamen aetate omnia mitte 

aequo animoque agedum magnus concede r necessest' 

iure, ut opinor, agat, iure increpet inciletque ; 

cedit enim rerura novitate extrusa vetustaa 

semper, et ex aliis aliud reparare necessest ; 965 

nec quisquam in baraChrum nec Tartara deditur atra ; 

materies opus est ut crescant postera saecla ; 

quae tamen onania te vita perfuncta sequentur; 

nec minus ergo ante haec quam tu cecidere, cadentque. 

sic alid ex alio numquam desistet oriri 970 

vitaque mancipio nulii datur, omnilnis usu. 

respice item quam nil ad nos anteacta vetustas 

temporis aetemi fiierit, quam nascimur ante. 

hoc igitur speculum nobis natura futuii 

temporis exponit post moitem denique nostram. 975 

numquid ibi horribile apparet, num triste videtur 

quicquam, non omni somno securius exstat? 

Atque ea nimirum quaecumque Acherunte profundo 
prodita sunt esse, in vita sunt omnia nobis. 
nec miser inpendens magnum timet aere saxum 980 
Tantalus, ut famast, cassa fomidine torpens ; 
sed magis in vita divom metus urget inanis 
mortalis casumque timent quem cuique ferat fors. 



nec Tityon volucres ineunt Acherunte iacentera 

nec quod sub magno scnitentur pectore quicquam 985 

perpetuam aetatem possunt reperire profecto. 

quaralibet immaui proiectu corporis exstet, 

qui non sola novem dispessjs iugera membris 

optineat, sed qui teirai totius orbem, 

non tamen aetemum poterit peiferFe dolorem 990 

nec praebere cibum proprio de coipore semper. 

sed Htyos nobis hic est, in amore iacentem 

quem votucres lacerant atque exest anxius angor 

aut alia quavis scindunt cuppedine curae, 

Sisyphus in vita quoque nobis ante oculos est 995 

qui petere a populo fasces saevasquc secures 

imbibit et semper victus tristisque recediL 

nara petere irapenura quod inanest nec datur umquam, 

atque in eo semper durom suffere laborem, 

hoc est adverso nixantem tmdere monte looo 

saxum quod tamen e summo iam vertice rusum 

volvitur et plani raptim petit aequora campi. 

deinde animi ingratam naturam pascere semper 

atque exptere bonis rebus satiareque numquam, 

quod faciunt nobis annonim tempora, circum 1005 

cum redeunt fetusque ferunt variosque tepores, 

nec tamen explemur vitai fructibus umquara, 

hoc, ut opinor, id est, aevo florente puellas 

quod memorant laticem pertusum congerere in vas, 

quod tamen expleri nulla ratione potestur, 1010 

Cerberus et furiae iam vero et lucis egestas, 

Tartarus horriferos eructans faucibus aestus, 

qui neque sunt usquam nec possunt esse profecto, 

sed metus in vita poenamm pro mate factis 

est insignibus insignis, sceterisque luetla, 1013 

carcer et horribilis de saxo iactu' deorsum, 

vert)era caroifices robur pix lammina taedae ; 

quae tamen etsi absunt, at mens sibi conscia factis 



praemetnens adhibet sdmulos teiretque fUgellts 

nec videt interea qui terminus esse malorura 1020 

possit nec quae ait poeoarum deDtque finis 

atque eadem metuit magis haec ne in mwte gravescant. 

hic Acherusia fit slultonim denique vita. 

Hoc etiam tibi tute ioterdum dicere possis 
'lumina sis oculis etiam bonus Aocu' reliquit 1025 

qui melior multis quam tu fuit, improbe, rebus. 
inde alii multi reges rerumque potentes 
occiderunt, magnis qui gentibus imperitarunt. 
ille qtioque ipse, viam qui quondam per mare magnum 
stravit iterque dedit legionibus ire per altum 1030 

ac pedibus salsas docuit superare lucuoas 
et contcmsit equis insultans murmura ponti, 
lumine adempto animam moribundo corpore fudit. 
Scipiadas, belli fulmen, Carth^nis horror, 
ossa dedtt terrae proinde ac famul infimus esset. 1035 
adde leperiores doctrioarum atque leporum, 
adde HelJconiaduin comites ; quorum unus Homerus 
sceptra potitus eadem aliis sopitu' quietest. 
deoique Democritum postquam matura vetustas 
admonuit memores motus Languescere mentis, 1040 

sponte sua leto caput obvius optulit ipse. 
ipse Epicunis obit decutso lumine vitae, 
qui genus humanum ingeoio superavit et omnis 
restiocKit, stellas exortus ut aetherius sol. 
tu vero dubitabis et indignabere obire ? 1045 

mortua cui vita est prope iam vivo atque videnti, 
qui somoo partem maiorem conteris aevi 
et vigilans stertis nec somnia cemere cessas 
soHicitamque geris cassa formidine mentem 
nec reperire potes tibi quid ait saepe mali, cum 1050 
cbrius urgcris multis miser undique curis 
atque animi iocerto fluitans errore vagaris.' 

Si possent homioes, proiode ac sentire videntur 



pondus inesse animo quod se gravitate fatiget, 

e quibus id fiat causis quoque noscere et unde loss 

tanta mali tatnquam moles in pectore constet, 

haut ita vitam agerent, ut nunc plenimque videmus 

quid sibi quisque velit nescire ct quaetere semper 

commutare locura quasi onua deponere possit. 

exit saepe foras magnis ex aedibus ille, 1060 

esse domi quem pertaesumst, subitoque revertit, 

quipi>e foris nilo melius qui sentia.t esse. 

currit agens mamios ad villam praecipitanter, 

auxilium tectis quasi ferre ardentibus instans ; 

oscitat extemplo, tetigit cum liraina villae, 1065 

aut abit in somnum gravis atque oblivia quaerit, 

aut etiam properans urliem petit atque revisit. 

hoc se quisque modo fugit (at quem scilicet, ut fit, 

effijgere haut potis est, ingratis haeret) et odit 

[m>pterea, morbi quia causam non tenet aeger; 1070 

quam bene si videat, iam rebus quisque relicds 

naturam primum studeat cognoscere rerum, 

temporis aetemi quoniam, non unius horae, 

ambigitur status, in quo stt moitalibus omnis 

aetas, post mortem quae restat cumque manenda. 1075 

Deriique tanto opere in dubiis trepidare peridis 
quae mala nos subigit vitai tanta cupido ? 
cetta quidem finis vitae mortalibus adstat 
nec devitari letum pote quin obeamus. 
praeterea versamur ibidem atque insumus usque loSo 
nec nova vivendo procuditur uUa voluptas ; 
sed dum abest quod averaus, id exsuperare videtur 
cetera ; post aliut, cum contigit illud, avemus 
et sitis aequa tcuet vitai semper hiantis. 
posteraque in dubiost fortunam quam vehat aetas, 1085 
quidve ferat nobis casus quive exitus instet. 
uec prorsum vitam ducendo demimus hilum 
tempote de mortis nec delibare valemus, 



quo minus esse diu possimus fortejterempd. 
proinde licet quot vis vivendo condere saecla ; 
mors aetema tamen nilo minus illa manebit, 
nec minus ilte diu iam non crit, ex hodieniQ 
lumine qui finem viud fccit, et ille, 
mensibus atque annis qui multis occidit ante. 





[Avia Keridum peragro loca nullius ante 

trita solo. iuvat integros accedere fontis 

atque haurire, iuvatque novos decerpere flores 

insignemque meo capiti petere inde coronam 

unde prius nulti velarint tempora musae ; 

primum quod magnis doceo de rebus et artis 

religionum animum nodis exsolvere pergo, 

deinde quod obscura de re tam lucida pango 

carmioa, musaeo contingens cuncta lepore. 

id quoque enim non ab nulla ratione videtur; i 

nam veluli pueris absinthia taetra medentes 

cum dare conantur, prius oras pocula circum 

contingunt mellis dulci flavoque liquore, 

ut pueronim aetas inprovida ludificetur 

labrorum tenus, interea perpotet amarum i 

absinthi laticem deceptaque non capiatur, 

sed potius tali pacto recreata valescat, 

sic ego nunc, quoniam haec ratio plerumque videtur 

tristior esse quibus non est tractata, retroque 

volgus abhorret ab hac, volui tibi suaviloquenti 2 

carmine Pierio rationem exponere nostram 

et quasi musaeo dulci contingere melle, 

si tibi forte animuni tali ratione tenere 



versibus in nostris possem, dum percipis oninem 
naturam rerum ac persentis utilitatem.] 

Atque animi quoniam docui natura quid esset 
el quibus e rebus cum corpore compla vigeret 
quove modo distracta rediret in ordia prima, 
nunc agere incipiam tibi, quod veraenter ad has res 
attinet, esse ea quae renim simulacra vocamus ; 
quae, quasi membranae summo de corpore remm 
dereptae, volitant ultroque citroque per auras, 
atque eadem nobis vigilantibus obvia mentes 
tenificant atque in soinnis, cum saepe Rguras 
contuimur miras simulacraque luce carentum, 
quae nos borrifice languentis saepe sopore 
excieront, nc forte animas Achenmte reamur 
effugere aut umbras inter vivos volitare 
□eve aliquid nostri post mortem posse relinqui, 
cum corpus siraul atque animi natura perempta 
in sua discessum dederint primordia quaeqiie. 

Dicb igitur rerum effigias tenuisque figuras 
mittier ab rebus summo de corpore renim, 
quoi quasi membranae, vel corteK nominitandast, 
quod speciem ac formam similem gerit eius imago 
cuiuscumque cluet de corpore fusa vagari. 
id licet hinc quamvis hebeti cognoscere corde. 
principio quoniam mittunt in rebus apertis 
corpora res multae, partim diffusa solute, 
robora ceu fumum mittunt ignesque vaporem, 
et partim contexta magis condensaque, ut olim 
cum teretis ponunt tunicas aestate cicadae, 
et vituli cum membranas de corpore summo 
nascentes mittunt, et item cum lubrica serpens i 

exuil in spinis vestem ; nam saepe videmus 
illonim spoliis vepres volitantibus auctas ; 
quae quoniam fiant, tenuis quoque debet imago 
ab rebus raitti summo de corpore rerura. 



nam cur JHa cadant magis ab rebusque recedfuit i 

quam quae tenvia sunt, hiscendist nulla potestas ; 

praesertim cum sint in summis corpora rebus 

multa minuta, iaci quae possint ordine eodcm 

quo fuerint et formai servare figuram, 

et multo citius, quanto minus indupediri 

pauca queuDt et quae sunC prima fronte locata. 

nam certe iacere ac largiri multa videmus, 

non solum ex alto penitusque, ut diximus ante, 

verum de summis ipsum quoque saepe colorem. 

et volgo fadunt id lutea russaque vela 

et ferrugina, cum magnis intenta theatris 

per malos volgata trahesque trementia flutant ; 

namque ibi consessum caveai supter et dmpem 

scaenai speciem, patrum coetumque decorum 

inficiunt coguntque suo fluitare colore. j 

et quanto circum mage sunt inclusa theatri 

moenibu', tam magis haec intus perfusa lepore 

omnia conrident correpta luce diei. 

ei^ lintea de summo cum corpore fiicum 

mittunt, effigias quoque debent mittere tenm 1 

res quaeque, ex summo quoniam iaculantur uttaque. 

sunt igitur iam formarum vestigia certa 

quae volgo volitant suptili praedita filo 

nec singillatim possunt secreta videri. 

praterea omnis odor fumus vapor atque aliae rea < 

consimiles ideo difTusae e rebus abundant, 

ex alto quia dum veniunt intrinsecus ortae, 

scinduntur per iter flexum, nec recta vianira 

ostia sunt qua contendant exire coortae. 

at contra tenuis summi membrana coloris j 

cum iacitur, nil est quod eam discerpere possit, 

in promptu quoniam est in prima fronte locata. 

postremo speculis in aqua splendoreque in onrni 

quaecumque appaient nobis simulacra, necessest. 



quandoquidem simili spede sunt praedita Ferum 100 

extima, imaginibus missis consistere rerum. 

sunt igitur tenues formae rerum simiiesque 104 

effigiae, singillatim quas cemere nemo 

cum possit tamen, adsiduo crebroque repulsu 

reiectae reddunt speculorum ex aequOTe visumt 

nec ratione alia servari posse videntur, 

tanto bpere ut similes reddantur cuique figurae. 

Nunc age quam tenui natura constet imago iio 

percipe. et io primis, quoniam primordia tantuni 
sunt infra nostros sensus tantoque minora 
quam quae primum oculi coeptanl non poase tueri, 
nunc tamen id quoque uti confirmem, exordia rerum 
cunctarum quam isint suptilia percipe paucis. iij 

primum animalia sunt iam partlm tantula, quonim 
tertia pars nulla possit ratione videri. 
horum intestinum quodvis quale esse putandumst ! 
quid cordis globusautoculi? quidmembta? quid artus? 
quantula sunt I quid praeterea primordia quaeque 110 
unde anima atque animi constel natura necessumst? 
nonne vides quam sint subtilia quamque minuta? 
praeterea quaecumque suo de corpore odorem 
expirant acrem, panaces absinthia taeUra 
habrotonique graves et tristia centaurea, 125 

quorura unum quidvis kviter si forte duobus 

quin potius noscas rerum simulacra vagari 
multa modis multis nulla vi cassaque seosu? 
[Sed ne forte putes ea demum sola vagari, 
quaecumque ab rebus rerum simulacra recedunt, 130 
sunt etiam quae sponte sua gignuntur et ipsa 
constituuntur in hoc caelo qui dicitur aer, 
quae multis formata modis sublime feruntur 
nec speciem mutare suam liquentia cessant 
et cuiusque modi formarum vertere in oras ; 135 



ut nubes lacile intndum concrescere in allo 
cemimua et mundi speciem violare serenam 
aera mulcentes motu. nam saepe Gigantum 
ora volare videntur et umt»am ducere late, 
inteidum magni moates avolsaque saxa 140 

montibus anteire et aolem succedere praeter, 
inde aKos trahere atque inducere belua nimbos.] 
Nunc ea quam facili et celeri ratione genaotur 
pefpetuoque ^uant ab lebus lapsaque cedant 

semper enim summum quicquid de rebus abundat 14$ 

quod iaculentur. et hoc alias cum pervenit in res, 

transit, ut in primis vitrum. sed ubi aspera saxa 

aut in materiam ligni pervenit, ibt iam 

scinditur ut nuUum simulacnun reddere possit, 

at cum splendida quae constant opposta fuerunt ijo 

densaque, ut iu primis speculum est, uil accidit horum ; 

nam neque, uti vitrum, potis est transire, neque autem 

scindi ; quam meminit levor praestare salutem. 

quapropter fit ut hinc nobts simulacra redundent 

et quamvis subito quovis in tempore quamque 155 

rem contra speculum ponas, apparet imago; 

f>erpetuo fluere ut ooscas e corpore summo 

texturas rerum tenuis tenuisque figuras. 

ergo multa brevi spatio simulacra genuntur, 

ut merito celer his rebus dicatur origo. 160 

et quasi mulla brevi spatio summitteie debet 

lumina sot ut perpetuo sint omnia plena, 

sic ab rebus item simili ratione necessest 

temporis in puncto rerum simutacra ferantur 

multa tnodis multis in cunctas undique paitis ; 165 

quandoquidem speculum quocumque obverdmiis ors, 

res ibi respondent simili fonna atque cotore. 

praeterea modo cum fuerit liquidissima caeli 

tempestas, perquam subito fit turbida foede. 



undique uti tenebras omnis Acherunta reari» 
liquisse et magnas caeli complesse cavemas. 
usque adeo taetra lumborum nocte coorta 
inpendent atrae formidinis ora superae ; 
quonim quantula pars sit imago dicere nemost 
qui possit neque eam lationein reddere dicds. 

Nunc age, quam celeri motu simukcra ferantur 
et quae mobilitas ollis tranantibus auras 
reddita sit, longo spatio ut brevis hora teratur, 
in quera quaeque locum diverso nomine tendunt, 
suavidicis potius quam multis versibus edam ; 
parvus ut est cycni melior canor, ille gruum quam 
clamor in aetheriis dispersus nubibus austrL 
principio persaepe levis res atque minutis 
corporibus factas celeris licet essc videre. 
in quo iam genere est solis lux et vapor eius 
propterea quia sunt e primis facta minutis 
quae quasl cuduntur perque aeris intervallum 
Don dubitant transire sequenti concila plaga. 
suppeditatur enim confestim lumine lumen 
et quasi protelo stimulatur fulgere fulgui. 
quapropler simulacra pari ratione necesse est 
jnmemorabile per spadum transcurrere posse 
temporis in puncto, primum quod parvola causa 
est procul a tergo quae provehat atque propellat, 
quod superest, ubi tam volucri levitate ferantur ; 
deinde quod usque adeo textura praedita rara 
mittuntur, facile ut quasvis penetiare queaft rea 
et quasi perroanare per aeris intervallum. 
praeterea si, quae penitus corpuscula rerum 
ex altoque foras mittuatur, solis uti lux 
ac vapor, haec puncto cemuntur lapsa diei 
per totum caeli spatium dilfundere sese 
perque valare mare ac terras caelumque rigare, 
quid quae suat igitur iam [niina fronte paiata. 



cum iaciuDtuT et cmissum res nulla moratur? »5 

quone vides citius debere et longius ire 
multiplexque loci spatium transcurrere eodem 
tempore quo solis pervolgant lumina caelum? 
hoc etiam in primis specimen venim esse videtur 
quam celeri motu rerum simulacra ferantur, ato 

quod simul ac primum sub diu splendor aquai 
ponitur, extemplo caelo stellante serena 
sidera respondent in aqua radiantia mundi. 
ianme vides igitur quam puncto tempore imago 
aetheris ex oris in terrarum accidat oras? 115 

quare etiam atque etiam mira fateare necessest 

corpora quae feriant oculos visumque lacessant. 

perpetuoque fluunt ceitis ab rebus odores j 

frigus ut a fluviis, calor ab sok, aestus ab undis 

aequoris exesor moerorum litora circum. 3zo 

nec variae cessant voces volitare per auras. 

denique in os saJsi venit umor saepe saporis, 

cum mare versamur propter, dilutaque contra 

cura tuimur misceri absinthia, tangit amaror. 

usque adeo omnibus ab rebus res quaeque fluenter 21$ 

fertur et in cunctas dimittitur undique partis 

nec mora nec requies interdatur ulla fluendi, 

perpetuo quoniam sentimus, et omnia semper 

cemere odorari licet et sentire sonare. 

Praeterea quoniam manibus tractata figura 230 

in tenebris quaedam cognoscitur esse eadem quae 
cemitur in luce et claro candore, oecessest 
consimili causa tactum visumque moveri. 
nunc igitiu' si quadratum temptamus et id nos 
commovet in tenebris, in luci quae poterit res 235 

accidere ad speciem quadrata, nisi eius imago? 
esse in imaginibus quapropter causa videtur 
cemundi neque posse sine his res ulla videri. 



minc ea quae dico reram simukcra ferantur 
undique et in cunctas iaciuntur didita partis ; 2 

veram nos oculis quia solis cernere quimus, 
propterea fit uti, speciem quo vertimus, omnes 
res ibi eam CQntra fcriant forma atque colore. 
et quantum quaeque ab nobis les absit, imago 
efiicit ut videamus et intemoscere curat ; a 

nam cum mittitur, extemplo protrudit agitque 
aera qui inter se cumque est oculosque locatus, 
isque ita per nostras acies perlabitur omnis 
et quasi perterget pupiUas atque ita transit. 
propterea fit uti videamus quam procul absit 2 

res quaeque. et quanto plus aeris ante agitatur 
et nostros oculos p>erterget longior aura, 
tam procul esse magis res quaeque remota videtur, 
scilicet haec summe celeii ratione gerantur, 
quale sit ut videamus et una quam procul absit. 2 
illud in his rebus minime mirabile habendumst, 
cur, ea quae feriant oculos simulacra videri 
singula cum neqaeant, res ipsae perspiciantur. 
ventus enim quoque paulatim cum verberat et cum 
acre fluit frigus, non privam quamque solemus 11 

particulam venti sentire et frigoris eius, 
sed magis unorsum, fierique perinde videmus 
corpore tum plagas in nostro tam quam aliquae res 
verberet atque sui det sensum corporis extra. 
praeterea lapidem digito cum tundimus, ipsum 2 

tangimus extremum saxi summumque colorem, 
nec sentimus eum tactu, veram magis ipsam 
duritiem penitus saxi sentimus in alto. 

Nunc age, cur ultra speculum videatur imago 
percipe ; nam certe penitus semota videtur. 2 

quod genus illa foris quae vere transpiciuntur, 
ianua cum per se transpectum praebet apertum, 
multa facitque foris ex aedibus ut videantur. 



is quoque enim dupUd geminoque fit aere visus. 

primus enim citra postea tum cemitur aer «75 

inde fores ipsae dcxtra laevaque secuntur, 

post eKtraria lux oculos perterget et aer 

alter et illa foiis quae vere transpiciuntur. 

sic ubi se primum speculi proiectt imago, 

dum venit ad nostras acies, protrudit agitque 980 

aera qui inter se cumquest oculosque locatus, 

et facit ut prius hunc omnem sentire queamus [ipsum, 

quam speculum. sed ubi speculum quoque sensimus 

continuo a nobis in idem quae fertur imago 

pervenit et nostros oculos reiecta revisit 285 

atque allum prae se propellens aera volvit 

et facit ut prius hunc quam se videamus, eoque 

distare ab speculo tantum semota videtur. 

quare ctiam atque etiam minime miiarier est par, 

illic quor reddant speculonira ex aequore visum, 390 

aeribus binis quoniam res confit utraque. 

nunc ea quae nobis membrorum dextera pars eat, 

in speculis fit ut in laeva videatur eo quod 

planitiem ad speculi. veniens cum ofiendit imago, 

non convertitur incolumis, sed recta retroreum »95 

sic eliditur, ut siquis, prius arida quam sit 

cretea persona, adlidat pilaeve trabive, 

atque ea continuo rectam si fronte figuram 

servet et elisam retro sese exprimat ipsa. 

fiet ita, ante oculus fuerit qui dexter, ut idem 300 

nuDc sit laevus, et e laevo sil rautua dexter. 

fit quoque de speculo in speculum ut tradatur iroago, 

quinque etiam sexve ut fieri simulacra suerint. 

nam quaecumque retro parte interiore latebunt, 

inde tamen, quamvis torte penitusque remota, y>s 

omnia per fiexos aditus educta licebit 

pluribus haec speculis videantur in aedibus esse. 

usque adeo speculo in speculum tranalucet imago, 



et cum laeva dala est, fit rusum ut dextera fiat, 
inde retro rursum redit et convertitur eodem. 
quin etiam quaecumque latuBcula sunt speculomni 
adsimili lateris Sexura praedita nostri, 
dextera ea propter nobis simulacra remittunt, 
aut quia de speculo in specutum transfeitur imago, 
inde ad noa eLsa bis advolat, aut etiam quod 
circum agitur, cum venit, imago propterea quod 
flexa figura docet speculi convertier ad nos. 
indugredi porro pariter simulacra pedemque 
ponere nobiscum credas gestumque imitari 
propterea quia, de speculi qua parte recedas, 
continuo nequeunt illinc simulacra reverti ; 
omnia quandoquidem cogit natura refeni 
ac resilire ab rebus ad aequos reddita flexus. 

Splendida porro oculi fugitant vitantque tueri. 
BOl etiam caecat, contra si tendere peigas, 
propterea quia vis magnast ipsius et alte 
aeia per pnrum graviter simulacra feruntur 
et feriunt oculos turbantia composituras. 
praeterea splendor quicumque est acer adurit 
saepe oculos ideo quod semina possidet ignis 
mutta, dolorem oculis quae gignunt insinuando. 
lurida praeterea fiunt quaecumque tuentur 
arquati, quia luroris de corpore eorum 
semina multa fluunt gimutacris obvia rerum, 
multaque sunt oculis in eorum denique mixta, 
quae contage sua paltoritMis omnia pingunt 
e tenebris autem quae sunt in luce tuemur 
propterea quia, cum propior catiginis aer 
ater init oculos prior et possedit apertos, 
insequitur candens confestim lucidus aer 
qui qoasi purgat eos ac nigras discutit umbras 
aeris illius ; nam multis partibus tiic est 
mobilior multisque minutioT et raage poltens, 



qui siroul atque vias oculonun luce rei^erit 

atque patefecit quas ante obsederat aer 3 

ater, continuo lerum simulacia secuntur 

quae sita sunt in luce, lacessuntque ut videamns. 

quod contra faceie in tenebris e luce nequimus 

propterea quia posterior caliginis aer 

crassior insequitur qui cuncta foiamina complet ? 

obsiditque vias oculonun, ne simulacia 

possint ulkrum lerum coaiecta movere. 

quadratasque piocul turris cum ceinimus uibis, 

propteiea fit uti videantui saepe rutundae, 

angulus optusus quia longe cemitui omnis 3 

sive etiam potius non cemitui ac perit eius 

plaga nec ad nostras acies perlabitur ictus, 

aera pei multum quia dum simulacra feiuntur, 

cogit hebescere eum crebris olfensibus aer. 

hoc ubi sulfugit sensum simul angulus omnis, 3 

fit quast ut ad tomum saxomm stiucta teiantur ; 

non tamen ut coram quae sunt veieque rutunda, 

sed quasi adumt^tim paulum simulata videntur. 

umbra videtui item nobis in sole moveri 

et vestigia nostra sequi gestumque imitari ; 3 

aera si crcdis privatum lumine posse 

indugredi, motus hominum gestumque sequentem ; 

nam nil esse potest aliut nisi lumine cassus 

aer id quod nos umbram perhibere suemus. 

□imiram quia teira locis ex ordine certis 3 

lumine privatur solis quacumque meaates 

officiraus, repletur item quod liquimus eius, 

propterea fit uti videatur, quae fuit umbra 

corporis, e regione eadem nos usque secuta. 

sempei enim nova se radiomm lumina fundunt 3 

primaque dispeieunt, quasi in ignem lana tiahatur. 

piopterea iacile et spoliatur himine tena 

et repletm item nigiasque sibi abluit umbras. 



Nec tamen hic oculos falli concedimus hiJum 
nam quocumque loco sit lux atque nmbra tueri 380 
illomm est ; eadem vero sint lumina necne, 
umbraque quae fiiit hic eadem nuoc transeat iOuc, 
an potius fiat paulo quod diximus ante, 
hoc animi demum ratio discemeie debet, 
nec possunt oculi naturam nosccre rerum. 383 

proinde animi vitium hoc oculis adfingere noli. 
qua vehimur navi, fertur, cum stare videtur ; 
quae manet in atatione, ea praeter creditur ire. 
et fugere ad puppim coUes campique vidcotur 
quos agimus praeter navem velisque volamus. 390 

gidera cessare aetheriis adfixa cavemis 
cuncta videntur, et adsiduo sunt otnnia motu, 
quandoquidem longos obitus exorta revisunt, 
cum permcnsa suo sunt caelum coipore claro. 
solque paii ratione manere et luoa videntur 39; 

in statione, ea quae ferri res indicat ipsa. 
exstantisqite procitl medio de gurgite montis 
classibus iuter quos liber patet exitus ingens, 
insula coniunctis tamen ex hJs una ridetur. 
atiia versari et drcumcursare columnae 400 

usque adeo fit uti pueris videantur, ubi ipsi 
desierunt verti, vix ut iam credere possint 
non supra sese ruere omnia tecta minari. 
iamque rubrum tremulis iubar ignibus erigere alte 
cum coeptafc natura supraque extollere montes, 405 
quos tibi tum supia sol montis esse videtur 
comminus ipse suo contingens fervidus igni, 
vix absunt nobis missus bis mille sagittae, 
vix etiam cursus quingentos saepe veruti : 
inter eos solemque iacent immania ponti 4'0 

aeqnora substrata aetheriis ingentibus oris, 
ioteriectaque sunt terraium milia multa 
quae variae retinent gentes et saecla feiarum. 



at conlectns aqaae digitum non Mor unum, 

qui lapidcs inter sistit per strata viaium, 

despectum praebet sulj terras inpete tanto, 

a tenis quantum caeli patet altua hiatus ; 

nubila dispicere et caelum ut videaie videre 

cetera mirando sub teiras abdita caclo. 

denique ubi in medio nobis ecus acer otrfiaent 

flumine et in rapidas amois despeximus undas, 

stantis equi corpus transversum ferre videtur 

vis et in adversum flumen contrudere raptim, 

et quocumque oculos traiecimus omnia ferri 

et fluere adsimiti nobis ratioiie videntur. . 

porticus aequali quamvis est denique ductu 

stansque in perpetuum paribus sufTulta columnis, 

longa tamen parte ab summa cum tota videtur, 

paulatim trahit angusti fastigia coni, 

tecta solo iungens atque omnia dextera laevis • 

donec in obscurum coni conduxit acumen. 

in pelago nautis ex undis ortus in undis 

sol fit uti videatur obire et condere lumen ; 

quippe ubi nil aliud nisi aquam caelumque tuentur; 

ne leviter credas iabefactaii undique sensus. ^ 

at maris ignaris in portu clauda videntur 

navigia aplustris fractis obnitier undae. 

nfun quaecumque supra rorem saiis edita pars est 

remorum, recta est, et recta superae gubema : 

quae demersa liquorem obeunt, refracta videntur 4 

omnia converti sursumque supina reverti 

et reflexa prope in summo fluitare liquore. 

raraque per caelum cum vend nubila portant 

tempore noctumo, tum splendida signa videntur 

labier adversum nimbos atque ire supeme 4 

tonge aliam in partem ac veni ratione fenmtur. 

at si forte oculo manus uni subdita supter 

pres^t eum, quodam sensu fit uti videantur 



omoia qaae tuiimir fieri tum bina tuendo, 

bina lucernarum florentia lumina flammis 450 

binaque per totas aedis geminare supellex 

et duplicis hominum facies et corpora bina. 

denique cum suavi devinxit membra sopore 

somnus et in summa corpus iacet omne quJete, 

tam vigilare tamen nobis et membra movere 4SS 

nostra videmur, et in noctis caligine caeca 

cemere censemus solem lumenque diurnum, 

conclusoque loco caelum mare flumina montis 

mutare et campos pedibus transire videmur, 

et sonitns andire, severa silentia noctis 460 

undique cum constent, et reddere dicta tacentes. 

cetera de genere hoc miracula multa videmus, 

quae violare fidem quasi sensibus omnia quaerunt, 

nequiquam, quoniam pars bomm maxima faJlit 

propter opinatus animi quos addimus ipsi, 465 

pro visis ut sint quae non sunt sensibu' visa. 

nam nil aegrius est quam res secemere apertas 

ab dubiis, animus quas ab se protinus addit 

Denique nil sciri siqub putat, id quoque nescit 
an sciri possit, quoniam nil scire fatetur. 470 

hunc igituT contra mittam contendere causam, 
qui capite ipse sua Jn statuit vestigia sese. 
et tamen hoc quoque uti concedam scire, at id ipsum 
quaeram, cum in rebus veri nil viderit ante, 
unde sciat quid sit scire et nescire vicissim, 47S 

notitiam veri quae res falsique crearit 
et dubium certo quae res differre probarit 
invenies primis ab sensibus esse creatam 
notitiem veri neque sensus posse refeHi. 
nam raaiore fide debet reperirier illud, 480 

Eponte sua veris quod possit vincere felsa. 
quid maiore fide porro quam sensus haljeri 
debet? an ab sensu faJso ratio orta valebit 



dicere eos coDtra, qtiae tota ab sensibus orta estP 

qui nisi sunt vcri, ratio quoque blsa fit oouiis. 485 

an potenint oculos a.ures reprehendere, an aures 

tactus ? an hunc porro tactum sapor arguet oris, 

an confutabunt nares oculive revincent ? 

Don, ut ojHnor, ita esL nam seoisum cuique potcstas 

divisast, sua vis cuiquest, ideoque necesse est 490 

et quod moUe sit et gelidum fervensve seorsum 

et seorsum varios rerum sentire colores 

et quaecumque cotoribu' sint coniuncta videre. 

seorsus item sapor oris habet vim, seorsus odoies 

nascuntur, sorsum sonitus. ideoque necesse est 495 

non possint alios alii convincere sensus. 

nec porro poterunt ipsi reprehendere sese, 

aequa fides quoniam debebit semper haberi. 

proinde quod in quoquest his visum tempore, verumst 

et si non poterit ratio dissolvere causam, joo 

cur ea quae fiierint iuxtim quadrata, procul sint 

visa rutunda, tamen praestat rationis egentem 

reddere mendose causas utriusque figurae, 

quam manibus manifesta suis emittere quoquam 

et violare fidem primam et convellere tota 505 

fundaraenta quibus nixatur vita salusque. 

non modo enim ratio ruat omnis, vita quoque ipsa 

concidat extemplo, nisi credere sensibus ausis 

praecipitisque locos vitare et cetera quae sint. 510 

iila tibi est igitur verborum copia cassa 

omnis quae contra sensus instructa paratast. 

denjque ut in fabrica, si pravast regula prima, 

normaque si failax rectb regionibus exit, 

et libella aliqua si ex parti claudicat hilum, 515 

omnia mendose fieri atque obstipa necesse est 

prava cubantia prona supina atque absona tecta, 

iam Tuere ut quaedam videantur velle, niantque 

prodita iudiciis fallacibus omnia primis, 



sic igitur rado tibi rerum prava necessest 510 

folsaque sit, falsis quaecumque ab sensibus ortasL 

Nunc alii sensus quo pacto quisque suam rem 
sentiat, haudquaquam ratio scruposa relicta est 

Principio auditur sonus et vox omnis, in auris 
insinuata suo pepulere ubi corpore sensum. 535 

corpoream vocem quoque enim constaie fatendumst 
et sonitum, quoniam possunt inpellere sensus. 
praeterea radit vox fauces saepe facitque 
asperiora foras gradiens arteria clamor. 
qujppe per angustum turtia maiore coorta 530 

ire foras ubi coepenmt primordia vocum, 
scilicet expleti quoque ianua raditur oris. 
baud igitur dubiumst quin voces verbaque constent 
corporeis e principiis, ut laedere possint. 
nec te fallit item quid coiporis auferat et quid 533 

detrahat ex hominum nervis ac viribus ipsis 
perpetuus sermo nigrai noctis ad umbram 
aurorae perductus ab exoriente nitore, 
praesertim si cum summost clamore profusus. 
ergo corpoream vocem constare necessest, 540 

multa loquens quoniam amittit de corpoie partem. 
asperitas autem vocis fit ab asperitate 
principiorum et item levor levore creatur. 
nec simili peaetrant auris primordia forma, 
cum tuba depresso graviter sub murmure mugit 545 
et retxtat raucum regio cita barbara bomtHim, 
et validis cycni torrentil)us ex Heliconis 
cum liquidam toUunt lugubri voce querellam. 

Hasce ^tur penitus voces cum corpore nostro 
exprimimus rectoque foras emittimus ore, 550 

mobilis aiticulat verborum daedala lingua 
formaturaque labrorum pro parte figurat 
hoc ubi non longum spatiumst unde una profecta 
perveniat vox quaeque, necessest verba quoque ipsa 



plane exaudiri discemique articulatim ; 
servat enim fonnatuiam servatque iiguram. 
at si inteqwsitum spatium sit longius aequo, 
aera per mulmm conflindi verba necessest 
et contuibari vocem, dum transvolat auras. 
ergo fit, sonitum ut possis sentire neque illam 
intemoscere, verborum sententia quae sit : 
usque adeo confusa venit vox inqne pedita. 
praeterea verbum saepe unum perciet auris 
omnibus in populo, missum piaeconis ab ore. 
in multas igitur voces voi una repente 
difTugit, in privas quoniam se dividit auris 
obsignans formam verbi clarumque sonorem. 
at quae pars vocum non auris incidit ipsas, 
praeteriata perit frustra diffusa per auras. 
pars solidis adlisa locis reiecta sonorem 
reddit et interdum Ihistratur imagine verbi. 
quae bene cum videas, rationem reddere possis 
tute tibi atque aliis, quo pacto per loca sola 
saxa paris formas verbonim ex ordine reddant, 
palantis comites quom montis inter opacos 
quaerimus et magna dispersoa voce ciemus. 
sex etiam aut septem loca vidi reddere vods, 
unam cum iaceres ; ita coUes coUibus ipsi 
verba repulsantes iterabast docta refeiri. 
baec loca capripedes satyros n)wphasque tenere 
finidmi finguut et faunos esse locuDtur 
quomm noctivago strepitu ludoque iocanti 
adtirmant volgo tacituma silentia rumpi 
chordarumque sonos fieri dulcisque querellas, 
tibia quas fundit digitis pulsata canentum, 
et genus agricolum late sentiscere, quom Pan 
pinea semiferi capicis velamina quassans 
unco saepe labro calamos percurrit hiautis, 
iistula silvestrem ne cesset fundere musam. 



cetera de genere hoc monstra ac poneota loquontur, 590 
ne loca deseita ab divis quoque fcHte putcntur 
sola tenere. ideo iactant miracula dictis 
aut aliqua raticMie alia ducuntur, ut omne 
humanum gcDus est avidum nimis auriculanim. 

Quod superest, oon est mirandum qua ratione, J95 
per loca quae nequeunt oculi res ceraere apertas, 
haec loca per voces veniant aurisque lacessant. 
conloquium clausis foribus quoque saepe videmus, 
nimirum quia vox per fiexa foramina reram 
incolumis transire potest, simulacra renutant ; 600 

perscinduntur enim, nisi recta foramina tranant, 
qualia sunt vitrei, species qua travolat onmis. 
praeterea pards in cunctas dividitur vox, 
ex aliis aliac quoniam gignuntur, ubi una 
dissuluit semel in multas exorta, quasi ignis 605 

saepe solet scintiUa suos se spargere in ignis. 
ergo replentur loca vocibus, abdita retro 
omnia quae circum fervunt sonituque cientur. 
at simulacra viis derectis omnia tendunt 
ut Bunt roissa semel ; quapropter cemere nemo 610 
saepem ultra potis est, at voces accipere extra. 
et tamen ipsa quoque haec, dum transit dausa domorum, 
vox optunditur atque auris confusa penetrat 
et sonitum potius quam verba audire videmur. 

Nec, qui sentimus sucnm, lingua atque palatum £15 
plusculum habent in se rationis plus operaeve. 
principio sucum sentimus in ore, cibum cum 
mandendo exprimimus, ceu plenam spongiMn aqnai 
siquis forte manu premere ac siccare coepit 
inde quod exprimimus per caulas omne palati 620 

diditur et rarae perptexa foramina linguae. 
hoc ubi levia sunt manautis corpora suci, 
suaviter attingunt et suaviter omnia tractant 
umida linguai circum sudanda templa. 



at contni punguttt sensum lacerantque coorta, 635 

quanto quaeque magis sunt aspcntate repteta. 
deinde voluptas est e suco fine palati ; 
cum vero deorsum per fauces praecipitavit, 
nuUa voluptas est, dum diditur omnis in aitus. 
nec refert quicquam quo victu corpus alatur, 630 

dummodo quod capias concoctum didere possis 
artubus et stomachi umidulum servare tenorem, 

Nunc aliis alius qui sit cibu' suavis et almus 
CKpediam, quareve, aliis quod triste et amammst, 
hoc tamen csse aliis possit perdulce videri, £35 

tantaque in his rebus distantia diiferitasque, 
ut quod aU cibus est aliis fuat acre vcaenum. 
extetque ut serpens, hominis quae tacta salivis 
disperit ac sese mandendo conficit ipsa. 
praeterea nobis veratrum est acre venenum, 640 

at capris adipes et coturnicibus auget 
ut quibus id fiat rebus cognoscere possis, 
principio meminisse decet quae diximus ante, 
semina multimodis in rebus mixta teneri. 

porro omnes quaecumque cibum capiunt animantes, 64J ' 

ut sunt dissimiles extrinsecus et generatim 
extima membromm circumcaesura coercet, 
proinde et seminibus constant variante tigura. 
scmina cum porro distent, difTerre necessest 
intervalla vtasque, foramina quae pcrhibemus, 650 

omnibus in membris et in ore ipsoque palato. 1 

csse minora igitur quaedam maioraque debent, I 

esse triquetra aliis, aliis quadrata necessest, I 

multa rutunda, modis multis multangula quaedam. 
namque figuranim ratio ut motusque reposcunt, 655 
proinde foraminibus debent differre figurae, 
et variare viae proinde ac textura coercet. 
hoc ubi quod suave est aliis aliis fit amarum, 
illi, cui suave est, levissima corpora debent 



contractabiliter cauks intrare palati, 660 

at contra quibus est eadem res Jntus acerba, 

aspera nimitum penetrant hamataque fauces. 

Dunc facile cst ex his rebus cognoscete quaeque. 

quippe ubi cui febris bili supcrante coorla est 

aut alia ratione aliquast vis excita morbi, 665 

pertuibatur ibi iam totura corpus et omnes 

commutantur ibi positurae principiorum ; 

fit prius ad sensum ut quae corpora conveniebant 

nunc non convcniant, ct cetera sint magis apta, 

quae penetrata queunt sensum progignere acerbura ; 670 

utraque enim sunt in mellis commixta sapore ; 

id quod iam supera tibi saepe ostendimus ante. 

Nunc age quo pacto naris adiectus odoris 
tangat agam. primum res multas esse necessest 
unde fluena vo!vat varius se fluctus odorum, 675 

et fluere et mitti volgo spargique putandumst ; 
venim aliis alius magis est animantibus aptus 
dissimilis propter formas. ideoque per auras 
raellis apes quamvis longe ducuntur odore, 
volturiique cadaveribus. tum fissa ferarum 680 

ungula quo tulerit gressum permissa canum vis 
ducit, et humanum longe praesentit odorem 
Romulidarum arcis servator candidus anser. 
sic aliis alius nidor datus ad sua quemque 
pabula ducit et a taetro resilire veneno 685 

cogit, eoque modo servantur saecla ferarum. 

Hic odor ipse igitur, naris quicumque lacessit, 
est alio ut possit permitti longius alter ; 
sed tamen haud quisquam tam longe fertur eorum 
quam sonitus, quam vox, mitto iam dicere quam res 690 
quae feriunt oculorum acies visumque lacessunt 
errabundus enim tarde venit ac perit ante 
paulatim facilis distractus in aeris auras ; 
ex alto primum quia vix emittitur ex re : 



nam penitus fluere atque recedere rebas odores 695 

Eignificat quod firacta magis redolere videntur 

oninia, quod contrita, quod igni conlabeiacta : 

deinde videre licet maioribus esse creatum 

principiis qtiam vox, quoniam per saxea saepta 

non penetrat, qua vox volgo sonitusque femntur. 700 

quare etiam quod olet non tam ^ile esse videbis 

investigare in qua sit regione locatum ; 

refiigescit enim cunctando plaga per auras 

nec calida ad sensum decurrunt nuntia renim. 

errant saepe canes itaque et vestigia quaerunt 70S 

[Nec tamen hoc solis in odoribus atque saporum 
in generest, sed item species rerum atque colores 
non ita conveniunt ad sensus omnibus omnes, 
ut non sint aliis quaedam magis acria visu. 
quin etiam gallum, noctem explaudentibus alis jio 

auroram clara consuetum voce vocare, 
noenu queunt rabidi contra constaie leones 
inque tueri : ita continuo meminere fugai, 
niraimm quia aunt gallonim in corpore quaedam 
semina, quae cum sunt oculis inmissa leonum, 715 

pupUlas interfodiunt acremque dolorem 
praebent, ut nequeant contra durare feroces ; 
cum tamen haec nostras acies nil laedere possiot, 
aut quia non penetrant aut quod penetrantibus illis 
exitus ex oculis liber datur, in remorando 7» 

laedere ne possint ex uUa lumina parte.] 

Nunc age quae moveant animum res accipe, et undc 
quae veniunt veniant in mentem percipe paucis. 
principio hoc dico, rerum simulacra vagari 
multa modis multis in cunctas undique paitis 725 

tenvia, quae facile inter se iunguntur in auris, 
obvia cum veniunt, ut araiiea bratteaque auri. 
quippe etenira multo magis haec sunt tenvia textu 
quam quae percipiunt oculos visumque lacessunt, 



corporis haec quoniam penetrant per rara cientque 730 

tenvem animi naturam intus sensumque lacessunt. 

Centauros itaque et Scyllarum membra videmus 

Ccrbereasque canum facies simulacraque eorum 

quonim raorte obita tellus araplectitur ossa ; 

omne genus quoniam passim simulacra feruntur, 735 

partim sponte sua quae fiunt aere in ipso, 

partim quae variis ab rebus cumque recedunt 

et quae confiunt ex harum facta tiguris. 

nam certe ex vivo Centauri non fit imago, 

nuUa fuit quoniam talis natura animantis ; 740 

verum ubi equi atque hominis casu convenit imago, 

haerescit facile extemplo, quod diximus ante, 

propter sabtilem naturam et tenvia texta. 

cetera de genere hoc eadem ratione creantur. 

quae cum mobiliter summa levitate feruntur, 745 

ut prius ostendi, facile uno commovet ictu 

quaelibet una aniraism nobis subtilis imago ; 

tenvis enim mens est et mire mobilis ipsa. 

Haec fieri ut memoro, faciie hinc cognoscere possis. 
quatenus hoc simile est illi, quod mente videmus 750 
atquc octilis, simili tieri ratione necesse est. 
nunc igitur docui quoniam me forte leonem 
cemere per simulacra, ocubs quaecumque lacessunt, 
scire licet mentem simili ratione moveri, 
per simulacra leonem et cetera quae videt aeque 755 
nec rainus atque oculi, nisi quod mage tenvia cemit. 
nec ratione alia, cum somnus membra profudit, 
mens animi vigilat, nisi quod simulacra lacessunt 
hacc eadem nostros animos quae cum vigilamus, 
usque adeo, certe ut videamur cemere eum quera 760 
rellicta vita iam mors et terra potitast. 
hoc ideo fieri cogit natura, quod omnes 
corporis offecti sensus per membra quiescunt 
nec possunt falsum veris convincere rebus. 



praeterea meminisse iacet languetque sopore 765 

nec dissentit eum mortis letique potltum 

iam pridem, quem mens vivom se cernere credit- 

quod superest, non est mirum simulacra moveri 

bracchiaque in numerum iactare et cetera membra ; 

nam fit ut in somnis facere hoc videatur imago ; 770 

quippe ubi prima perit alioque est altera nata 

iiide statu, prior hic gestum mutasse videtur. 

scilicet id fieri celeri ratione putandumst : 

tanta est mobilitas et rerum copia tanta 

tantaque sensibili quovls est tempore in uno 775 

copia particularum, ut possit suppeditare. 

[Multaque in his rebus quaeruntur multaque nobis 
clarandumst, plane si res exponere avemus. 
quacritur in primis quare, quod cuique libido 
venerit, extemplo mens cogitet eius id ipsum. 7S0 

anne votuntatem nostram simulacra tuentur 
et simul ac volumus nobls occurrit imago, 
si mare, si terrast cordj, si denique caelum? 
coDventus hominum porapam convivia pugnas, 
omnla sub verbone creat natura paratque ? 785 

cum praesertim aliis eadem in regione locoquc 
longe dissimilis animus res cogitet omnis. 
quid porro, in numerum procedere cum simulacra 
cemimus in somnis et moUia membra movere, 
motlia roobiiitcr cum altemis bracchia mittunt 790 

et repetunt ocuUs gestum pede convenienti? 
scilicet arte madent simulacra et docta vagantur, 
noctumo facere ut possint in tcmpore ludos. 
an magis illud erit verum? quia tempore in uno, 
cum scntimus id, et cum vox emittitur una, 795 

tempora multa latent, ratio quae compcrit csse, 
propterea fit uti quovis in tempore quaeque 
praesto sJnt simulacra locis in quisque parata. 
et quia tenvia sunt, nisj quae contendit, acute 801 



cemere non potis est aaimus ; proinde omnia quae sunt 
praeterea pereunt, nisi siquae ad se ipse paiavit. 
ipse parat sese porro speratque futurum 805 

Ut videat quod consequitur rem quamque ; Ht ergo. 
nonne vides oculos etiam, cum tenvia quae sunt 
cemere coeperunt, contendere se atque parare, 
nec sine eo fieri posse ut cemamus acute? 810 

et tamen in rebus quoque apertis noscere possls, 
si non advertas animum, proinde esse quasi onini 
tempore semotum fuerit longeque remotum. 
cur igitur mirumst, animus si cetera perdit 
praeterquam quibus est in rebus deditus ipse? 815 

deinde adopinamur de signis maxima parvis 
ac nos in iraudem induimus frustraminis ipsi,] 

Fit quoque ut interdum non suppeditetur imago 
eiusdem gcneris, sed femina quae fiiit ante, 
in manibus vir uti factus videatur adesse, 820 

aut alia ex alia facies aetasque sequatur. 
quod ne miremur sopor atque oblivia curant. 

[Illud in his rebus vitium vementer avessis 
effugcre, errorem vitareque praemetuenter, 
lumina ne facias oculorum dara creata, S15 

prospicere ut possemus, et ut proferre queamus 
proceros passus, ideo fastigia posse 
suranim ac feminum pedibus fundata plicari, 
bracchia tum porro validis ex apta lacertis 
esse manusque datas utraquc ex parte ministras, 830 
ut facere ad vitam possemus quae foret usus. 
cetera de genere hoc inter quaecumque pretantur, 
omnia perversa praepostera sunt ratione, 
nil ideo quoniam natumst in corpore ut uti 
possemus, sed quod naturast id piocreat usum. 835 
nec fuit ante videre oculorum lumina nata 
nec dictis orare prius quam Ungua creatast, 
sed potius longe linguae praecessit origo 



sermonem multoque creatae sunt prius aufes 

quam sonus est auditus, et omnia denique membra 840 

ante fuere, ut opinor, eorum quam foret usus ; 

haud igitur potuere utendi crescere causa, 

at contra conferre manu certamina pugnae 

et lacerare artus foedareque mcmbra cruore 

ante fuit multo quam lucida tela volarent, 845 

et volnus vitare prius natura coegit 

quam daret obiectum parmai iaeva per artem. 

scilicet et fessum coipus mandare quieti 

multo antiquius est quam lecti mollia strata, 

et sedare sitim prius est quam pocula natum. 850 

haec igitur possunt utendi cognita causa 

credier, ex usu quae sunt vitaque reperta. 

illa quidem seoisum sunt omnia quae prius ipsa 

nata dedere suae post notitiam utilitatis, 

quo genere in primis sensus et membra videmus ; 855 

quare etiam atque etiam procul est ut credere possis 

utilitatis ob officium potuisse creari.] 

[IUud itera non est mirandnm, corporis ipsa 
quod natura cibum quaerit cuiusque animantis. 
quippe etenim fluere atque recedere corpora rebus 860 
multa modis multis docui, sed plurima debent 
ex animalibu'. quae quia sunt exercita motu, 
multaque per sudorem ex alto pressa feruntur, 
multa per os exhalantur, cum languida anhelant, 
his igitur rebus rarescit coipus et omnis 865 

subruitur natura ; dolor quam consequitur rem. 
propterea capitur cibus ut suffulciat artus 
et recreet vires interdatus atque patentem 
per membra ac venas ut amorem opturet edendi. 
umor item discedJt in omnia quae loca cumque 870 
poscunt umorem ; glomeratque raulta vaporis 
corpora, quae stomacho praebent incendia nostro, 
dissupat adveniens hquor ac restinguit ut ignem, 



urere ne possit calor amplius aridus artus. 

sic igitur tibi anhela sitis de corpoTe nosbo 87S 

abluitur, sic expletur ieiuna cupido.] 

Nunc qui fiat uti passus profeire queamus, 
cura volumus, varieque datum sit membra movere, 
et quae res tantum hcx: oneiis protmdere nostri 
corporis insuerit, dicam : tu percipe dicta. 880 

dico animo nostro primum simulacra meandi 
accidere atque animum pulsare, ut diximus ante. 
inde voluntas fit ; neque enim facere incipit ullam 
rem quisquam, quam mens providit quid velit ante. 
id quod providet, illius rei constat imago. 885 

ergo animus cum sese ila commovet ut velit ire 
inque gredi, ferit extemplo quae in corpore toto 
per membra atque artus animai dissita vis est 
et facilest factu, quoniam coniuncta tenetur. 
inde ea proporro corpus ferit, atque ita tota 890 

paulatim moles protruditur atque movetur. 
praeterea tum rarescit quoque corpus et aer, 
scilicet ut debet qui semper mobihs extat, 
per patefacta venit penetratque foramina largus 
et dispargiUir ad partis ita quasque minutas 895 

corporis. hic igitur rebus fit utrimque duabus, 
corporis ut ac navis velis ventoque feratur. 
nec tamen illud in his rebus mirabile constat; 
tantula quod taotum corpus corpuscula possunt 
contorquere et onus totum couvertere nostrura. 900 
quippe etenim ventus suptili corpore tenvis 
tnidit agens magnam magno molimine navem 
et manus una regit quantovis impete euntem 
atque gubemaclum contorquet quolibet unum, 
multaque per trocleas et tympana pondere magno 905 
commovet atque levi sustollit machina nisu. 

Nunc quibus ille modis somnus per membra quietem 
inriget atque animi curas e pectore solvat, 



suavidicis pottns quani multis versibus edam ; 
parvus ut est cycni melicv canor, ille gnium quam 
clamor in aetheriis dispersus nubibus austri. 
tu mihi da tenuis aures animumque sagacem, 
ne fieri negites quae dicam posse retroque 
vera repulsanti discedaa pectore dicta, 
tutimet in culpa cum sis neque cemere possis. 
principib somnus fit ubt est distracta per artus 
vis animac partimque foras eiecta recessit 
et partim contrusa magis concessit in altum ; 
dissoluuntur enim tum demum mcmbra fluuntque. 
nam dubium non est, animai quin opera sit 
sensus hic in nobis, quem cum sopor inpedit esse, 
tum nobis animam perturbatam esse putandumst 
eiectamque foras ; non omnem ; namque iaceret 
aetemo corpus perfusum (Hgore leti. 
quippe ubi nuUa latens animai pars remancret 
in membris, cinere ut multa latet obnitus ignis, 
unde reconflari sensus per membra repente 
possct, ut ex igni caeco consurgere flarama? 

Sed quibus haec rebus novitas confiat et unde 
perturbari anima et corpus languescere possit, 
expediara : tu fac ne ventis verba profundam, 
principio extema corpus de parte necessum est, 
aeriis quoniam vicinum tangitur auris, 
tundier atque eius crebro pulsarier ictu, 
proptereaque fere res omnes aut corio sunt 
But etiam conchis aut callo aut cortice tectae. 
interiorem etiam partem spirantibus a€r 
verberat hic idem, cum ducitur atque reflatur. 
quare utrimque secus cum corpus vapulet et cum 
perveniant plagae per parva foramina nobis 
corporis ad primas partis elementaque prima, 
fit quasi paulatim nobis per merobra ruioa. 
contutbantur enim positurae principiorum 



corporis atque animi. fit uti pars inde animai 
eiciatuT et introrsum pais abdita cedat, 
pars ettam distracta per artus non queat esse 
coniuncta inter se neque motu mutua fungi; 
inler enim saepit coctus natura viasque ; 
ergo sensus abit mutatis motibus alte. 
et quoniaro non est quasi quod sufiiilciat artus, 
debile fit corpus languescuntque omnia membra, 
bracchia palpebraeque cadunt poplitesque cubanti 
saepie tamen summittuntur virisque resolvunt. 
deinde cibum sequitur somnus, quia, quae facit aer, 
haec eadem cibus, in venas dum diditur omnis, 
efSciL et multo sopor ille gravissimus exslat 
quem satur aut lassus capias, quia plurima tum se 
corpora conturbant magno contusa iatwre. 
fit ratione eadem coniectus partim animai 
altior atque foras eiectus largior eius, 
et divisior inter se ac distractior in tesl. 

Et quo quisque fere studio devinctus adhaeret 
aut quibus in rebus multum sumus ante morati 
atque in ea ratione fuit contenta magis mens, 
in Eomnis eadem plerumque videmur obire ; 
causidici causas agere et componere leges, 
induperalores pugnare ac proelia obire, 
nautae contractnm cnm ventis degere bellum, 
nos agere hoc autem et naturam quaerere rerum 
semper et inventam patriis exponere chartis. 
cetera sic smdia atque artes plerumque videntur 
in somnis animos hominum frustrata tenere. 
et quicumque dies multos ex ordine ludis 
adsiduas dederunt operas, plerumque videmus, 
cum iam destiterunt ea sensibus usurpare, 
reticuas tamen esse vias in mente patentis, 
qua possint eadem rerum simuiacra venire. 
per multos itaque illa dies eadem obversantur 



ante oculos, etiam vigilantes ut vidCantur 

cemere saltantis et mollia membTa moventis ^Sc 

et citharae liquidum carmen chordasque loquentis 

auribus accipere et consessum cemere eundem 

scenaique simul varios splendere decores, 

usque adeo magni refert studium atque voluptas, 

et quibus in rebus consuerint esse operati 98; 

non homines solum sed vero animalia cancta. 

quippe videbis equos fortis, cum membra iacebunt, 

in somnis sudare tamen spirareque semper 

et quasi de palma summas contendere viris 

aut quasi carceribus pateiactis 991 

venantumque canes in moUi saepe quiete 

iactant crura tamen subito vocesque repente 

mittunt et crebro ledducunt naribus auras, 

ut vestigia si teneant inventa ferarum, 

expergefactique secuntur inania saepe 99; 

cervorum simulacra, fugae quasi dedita cemant, 

donec discussis redeant erroribus ad se. 

at consueta domi catulorum blanda propago 

discutere et corpus de terra corripere instant 99^ 

proinde quasi ignotas facies atque ora tuantur. 1004 

et quo quaeque magis sunt aspera semioionira, 

tam magis in somnis eadem saevire necessust. 

at variae fugiunt volucres pinnisque repente 

soUicitant divom noctumo tempore lucos, 

accipitres somno in leni si proelia pugnas 

edere sunt persectantes visaeque volantes. loie 

porro hominum mentes, magnis quae motibus edunt 

magna, itidem saepe in somnis faciuntque geruntque, 

reges expugnant, capiuntur, proelia miscent, 

tollunt claraorem quasi si iugulentur ibidem. 

multi depugnant gemitusque doloribus edunt loi; 

et quasi pantherae morsu saevive leonis 

mandantur magois clamoribus omnia complent. 



mdti (ie magnis per somnum rebu' loquuntur 
indicioque sui fecti persaepe fuere. 
muld mortem obeunt. mutti, de montibus altis loio 
nt qul praecipitent ad teiram corpore toto, 
extemantuT et cx somno quasi mentibu' capti 
vix ad se redeunt permoti corporis aestu. 
flumen item sitiens aut fontem propter amoeoum 
adsidet et totum prope feucibus occupat amnem. 1025 
puri saepe lacum propter si ac dolta curta 
somno devincti credunt se estollere vestem, 
totius umorem saccatum corpori' fundunt, 
cum Babylonica magnifico splendore rigantur. 
tura quibus aetatis freta primitus insinuatur 1030 

semen, ubi ipsa dies membris matura creavit, 
conveniunt simulacra foris e corpore quoque 
nuntia praeclari voltus pulchrique coloris, 
qui ciet inritans loca turgida semine multo, 
uC quasi transactis saepe omnibu' rebu' profundant 1035 
fluminis ingeotis fluctus vestemque cruentent. 
SoUicitatur id in nobis, quod diximus ante 
semen, adulta aetas cum primum roborat artus. 
namque alias aliud res commovet atque lacessit ; 
ex homine humanum semen ciet una hominis vis. 1040 
quod simul atque suis eiectum sedibus exit, 
per membra atque artus decedit corpore toto 
in loca conveniens nervorum certa cietque 
continuo partis genitalls corporis ipsas. 
inritata tument loca semine fitque voluntas 1045 

eicere id quo se contendit dira lubido, 
idque petit corpus, mens unde est saucia amore. 
namque omnes plerumque cadunt in vulnus et illam 
emicat in partem sanguis unde icimur ictu, 1050 

et si comminus est, hostem ruber occupat umor. 
aic ^tur Veneris qui telis accipit ictus, 
nve puer membris muUebribus hunc iaculatur 



seu malier toto iactans e corpore mnorem, 
iinde fcritur, eo tendit gestitque coire 1053 

et iacere umorem in corpus de corpore ductum. 
namque voluptatem praesagit muta cupido. 

Haec Venus est nobis ; hinc autemst nomen amoris, 
hinc iUaec primum Veneris dulcedinis in cor 
Stiltavit gutta et successit frigida cura. 1060 

nam si abest quod aves, praesto simulacra tamen sunt 
illius et nomen dulce obversatur ad auris. 
sed fugitare decet simulacra et pabula amoris 
absterrere sibi atque alio convcrtere mentem 
et iacere umorem conlectum in corpora quaeque io6j 
nec retinere semel conversum unius amore, 
et servare si' curam certumque dolorem. 
ulcus enim v^vescit et inveterascit alendo 
inque dies gliscit furor atque aerumna gravescit, 
si Don prima novis conturbes volnera plagis 1070 

volgivagaque vagus Venere ante recentia cures 
aut alio possis animi traducere motus. 

Ncc Veneris frucW caret is qui vitat amorem, 
sed potius quae sunt sine poena commoda sumit ; 
nam certe purast sanis magis inde voluptaa 1075 

quam miseris. etenim potiundi terapore in ipso 
fluctuat incertls erroribus ardor amantum 
nec constat quid primum oculis manibusque fruantur. 
quod petiere, premunt arte faciuntque dolorem 
corporis et dentes inlidunt saepe labellis 1080 

oaculaque adiiigunt, quia non est pura voluptas 
et stimuli subsunt qui instigant laedere id ipsum 
quodcumque est, labies unde illaec germina surgunt. 
sed leviter poenas fiai^t Venus inter amorem 
blandaque refrenat morsus admixta voluptas. 10S5 

namque in eo spes est, unde est ardoris origo, 
restingui quoque posse ab eodem corpore flammam. 
quod fieri contra totum natuia repugnat ; 



uoaque res haec est, cuius quom quam plurima habemus, 

tum tnagjs ardesdt dira cuppedine pectus. 1090 

nam cibus atque umor membris adsumitui intus ; 

quac quoniam cerCas possunt obsidere partls, 

hoc facile expletui kticum frugumque cupido. 

ex hominis vero facie pulchroque colore 

Dil datur in corpus praeter simulacra fruendum 1095 

tenvia ; quae vento spes raptaat saepe misella. 

ut bibere in somnis sitiens quom quaerit et umor 

non datur, ardorem qui membris stinguere possit, 

sed ladcum simulacra petit frustraque laborat 

in medioque sitit torrenti flumine potans, iioo 

sic in amore Venus simulacris ludit amantis 

nec satiare queunt spectando corpora coram 

nec manibus qulcquam teneris abradere membris 

possunt errantes incerti corpore toto. 

denique cum membris conlatis llore fruuntur tioj 

aetatis, iam cum praesagit gaudia corpus 

atque in eost Venus ut muliebria conserat arva, 

adfigunt avide corpus iunguntque salivas 

oris et insptrant pressantes dentibus ora, 

nequiquam, quoniam nil inde abradere possunt 11 10 

nec penetrare et abire in corpus corpore toto ; 

nam facere interdum velle et certare videntur : 

usque adeo cupide in Veneris compagibus haercnt, 

membra voluptatis dum vi labefacta liquescunU 

tandem ubi se erupit nervis conlecta cupldo, 1115 

parva fit ardoris violenti pausa parumper. 

inde redit rabies eadem et furor ille revisit, 

cum sibi quid cupiant ipsi contingere quaerunt, 

nec reperire malum id possunt quae machina vincat : 

usque adeo incerti tabescunt volnere caeco. iizo 

Adde quod absumunt viris pereuntque labore, 
adde quod alterius sub nutu degitur aetas. 
labitur inteiea res et Babylonica fiunt, 



languent officia atque aegrotat fama vacillans. 
huic leata et pulchra in pedibus Sicyonia rident 1125 
sci]icet et grandes viridi cum luce zmaragdi 
auro includuntur teriturque thalassina vestis 
adsidue et Veneris sudorem exercita potat. 
et bene parta patnim tiunt anademata, mitrae, 
interdum in paUam atque Alidensia Ciaque vertunt. 1130 
esimia veste et victu convivia, ludi, 
pocula crebra, unguenta coronae serta parantur, 
nequiquam, quoniam medio de fonte leporum 
surgit amari aliquit quod in ipsis floribus angat, 
aut cum conscius ipse animus se forte remordet 1135 
desidiose agere aetatem lustrisque perire, 
aut quod in ambiguo vcrbum iaculata reliquit 
quod cupido adfixum cordi vivescit ut ignis, 
aut nimium iactare oculos aliumve tueri 
quod putat in voltuque videt vestigia risus. 1140 

Atque in amore mala haecproprio summeque secundo 
inveniuntur : in adverso vero aique inopi sunt, 
prendere quae possis oculorum luraine operto, 
innumerabilia ; ut melius vigiJare sit ante, 
qua docui ratione, cavereque ne inliciaris. 1145 

nam vitare, plagas in amoris ne iaciamur, 
non ita difficile est quam captum retibus ipsis 
exire et validos Veneris pemimpere nodos. 
et tamen implicitus quoque possis inque peditus 
effugere tnfestum, nisi tute tibi obvius obstes 1150 

et praetermittas animi vitia omnia primiim 
aut quae corpori' sunt eius, siquam petis ac vis. 
nam faciunt homines plerumque cupidine caeci 
et tribuunt ea quae noa sunt his commoda vere. 
multimodis igitur pravas turpisque videmus iiSS 

esse in deliciis summoque in honore vigere. 
atque alios alii inrident Veneremque siiadent 
ut placent, quoniam foedo adflictentur amore, 



nec sua resptdunt mtseri mala maxima saepe. 
nigra melichrus est, iomunda et fetida acosmos, n6o 
caesi^ FaJladium, nervosa et lignea dorcas, 
parvula, pumilio, chariton mia, tota merum sal, 
magna atque inmatiis cataplexis plenaque honoris. 
balba loqui non quit, traulizi, muta pudens est; 
at flagrans odiosa loquacula Lampadium fit. 1165 

ischnon eromenion tura fit, cum vivere non quit 
prae macie ; rhadine verost iani mortua tussi, 
at tumida et mammosa Ceres est ipsa ab laccho, 
simula Silena ac saturast, labeosa phileraa. 
cetera de genere hoc longum est si dicere coner. 1170 
sed tamen esto iam quantovis oris honore, 
cui Veneris membris vis omnibus exoriatur ; 
□empe aliae quoque sunt ; nempe hac sine vixJmus ante ; 
nempe eadera facit, et scimus facere, omnia turpi, 
et miseram taetris se suflit odoribus ipsa 1175 

quam famulae longe fugitant furtimque cachinnant. 
at lacrimans exclusus amator limina saepe 
fioribus et sertis operit postisque superbos 
unguit amaracino et foribus miser oscula figit ; 
quem si, iam ammissum, venientem offenderit aura 1180 
una modo, causas abeundi quaerat honestas, 
et meditata diu cadat alte sumpta querella, 
stultitiaque ibi se damnet, tribuisse quod illi 
plus videat quam mortali concedere par esL 
nec Veneres nostras hoc fallit ; quo magis ipsae m8j 
omnia summo opere hos vitae poscaenia celant 
quos retinere voluat adstriclosque esse in amore, 
nequiquam, quoniam tu animo tamen omnia possis 
protrahere in lucem atque omnis inquirere risus 
et, si bello animost et non odiosa, vicissim 1190 

pratermittere et humanis concedere rebus. 
Nec mulier semper ficto suspirat araore 
quae complexa viri coqjus cum corpore iungit 



et tenet adsuctis umectans oscula labris. 

nam fadt ex animo saepe et communia quaecens 1195 

gaudia solUcitat spatium decurrere amoris. 

nec ratione alia volucres armenta feraeque 

et pecudes et equae maribus subsidere possent, 

si non, ipsa quod illorum subat ardet abundaas 

natura et Venerem salientum laeta retractat, 1100 

nonne vides etiam quos mutua saepe voluptas 

vinxit, ut in vinclis communibus excrucientur? 

in triviis quam saepe canes, discedere aventis, 

divorsi cupide summis ex viribu' tenduDt, 

quom interea validis Veneris compagibus haerent 1 1205 

quod facerent numquam nisi rautua gaudia nossent 

quae iacere in fraudem possent vinctosque tenere. 

quare etiam atque etiam, ut dico, est communi' voluptas. 

Et commiscendo quom semioe forte virili 
femina vim vicit subita vi corripuitque, mo 

tum similes matnim matemo semine fiunt, 
ut patribus patrio, sed quos utriusque figurac 
esse vides, iuxtim miscentes vulta parentum, 
corpore de patrio et matemo sanguine crescunt, 
semina cum Veneris stimulis excita per artus 1215 

obvia conflixit conspirans mutuus ardor, 
et neque utrum superavit eorum nec superatumst 
fit quoque ut interdum similes existere avorum 
possint et referant proavorum saepe figuras 
propterea quia multa raodis primordia multis 1210 

mixta suo celant in corjxire saepe parentis, 
quae patribus patres tradunt ab stirpe profecta; 
inde Venus varia producit sorte figuras 
maiorumque refert voltus vocesque comasque. 
et muliebre oritur patrio de semiue saecluro 12*7 

fiunt quam facies et corpora membraque nobis, 
maternoque mares existunt coipore creti ; 
quandoquidem nilo inagis haec de semine ccrto 1325 



semper enim partus dupUci de semine constat, 
atque utri similest magis id quodcumque creatur, i 
eius habet plus parte aequa ; quod cernere possis, 
sive virum suboles sivest muliebris origo. 

Nec divina satum genitalem numina cuiquam 
absterrent, pater a gnatis ne dulcibus umquam 
appelletur et ut sterili Venere exigat aevom ; i 

quod plerumque putant et multo sanguine maesti 
conspergunt aras adolentque altaria donis, 
ut gravidas reddant uxores semine largo. 
nequiquam divom numen sortisque iatigant. 
nam steriles nimium crasso sunt semine partim i 
Ct liquido praeter iustum tenuique vicissim. 
tenve locis quia non potis est adligere adhaesum, 
liquitur extemplo et revocatum cedit abortu. 
crassius his porro quoniam concretius aequo 
mittitur, aut non tam prolixo provolat ictu ■ 

aut penetrare locos aeque nequit aut penetratum 
aegre admiscetur muliebri semine semen. 
nam multum harmoniae Veneris differre videntur. 
atque alias alii complent magis ex aliisque 
succipiunt aliae pondus raagis inque gravescunt. i 
- et multae steriles Hymenaeis ante fuenint 
pluribus et nactae post sunt tamen unde puelJos 
suscipere et partu possent ditescere duici. 
et quibus ante domi fecundae saepe nequissent 
uxores parere, inventast illis quoque compar i 

natura, ut possent gnatis munire senectam. 
usque adeo magni refert, ut semina possint 
seminibus commisceri genitaliter apta, 
crassane conveniant liquidis et liquida crassis. 
atque in eo refert quo victu vita colatur ; i 

namque aliis rebus concrescunt semina membris 
atque aliis extenvantur tabentque vicissim. 
et quibus ipsa modis tractetur blanda voluptas. 



id qucxiue pennagni refert ; nam more feranim 
quadxupedumque magii) ritu plerumque pulantur 1 
concipere uxorea, quia sic loca sumere possunt, 
pectoribus positis, sublatis semina lumbis. 
liec molles opu' sunt motus uxoribus hilum. 
nam mulier prohibet se concipere atque repugnat, 
dunibus ipsa viri Venerein si laeta retractat 1 

atque exossato ciet omni pectore fluctus ; 
eicit enim sulcum recta regione viaque 
vomeris atque locia avertit seminis ictum. 
idqiie sua causa consuemnt scorta moveri, 
ne complerentur crebro gravidaeque iacerent 1 

et simul ipsa viris Venus ut concinnior esset ; 
coniugibuB quod nil nostris opus esse videtur. 
Nec divinitui interdum Venerisque sagittis 
deteriore fit ut fomia muliercula ametur. 
nam fadt ipsa suis interdum feinina factis 1 

morigerisque modis et munde corpore culto, 
ut facile insuescat te secum degere vitam. 
quod superest, consuetudo concinnat amorem ; 
nam leviter quamvis quod crebro tunditur ictu, 
vincitur in longo spatio tamen atque labascit. i 

□onne vides etiam guttas in saxa cadentis 
umoris longo in ^tio pertuodere saxa? 





Quis potis est dignum poUenti pectore carmeD 
condere pro rerum maiestate hisque repertis ? 
quisve valet verbis tantum qui fingere laudes 
pro meritis eius possit qui talia nobis 
pectore parta suo quaesitaque praemia liquit? 
nemo, ut opinor, erit mortali corpore cretus. 
nam si, ut ipsa petit maiestas cognita reruro, 
dicendum est, deus ille fuil, deus, inclyte Memmi, 
qui princeps vitae rationem invenit eam quaei 
nunc appellatur sapientia, quique per artem 
fluctibus e tantis vitam tantisque tenebris 
in tam tranquijlo et tam clara luce locavit^ 
confer enim divina aliorum antiqua repcrta. 
namque Ceres fertur fruges Liberque liquoris 
vitigeni laticem mortalibus instituisse ; 
cum tamen fais posset sine rebus vita manere, 
ut fama est aliquas etiam nunc vivere gentis. 
at bene non poterat sine puro pectore vivi ; 
quo magis hic merito nobis deus esse videtur, 
ex quo nunc etiam per magnas didita gentis 
dulcia permulcent animos solacia vitae. 
Herculis antistare autem si facta putabis, 
longius a vera multo ratione ferere. 



quid Nemeaeus enim nobis nunc magnus hiatus 
ille leoais obesset et horrens Arcadius sus? 25 

denique quid Cretae taurus Lemaeaque pestis 
hydra venenatis posset vallata colubris? 
quidve tripectora tergemini vis Geryonai 

tanto opere ofRcerent nobis Stymphala colentes, 

et Diomedis equi spirantes naribus ignem 30 

Thracis Bistoniasque plagas atque Ismara propter? 

aureaque Hesperidum servans fulgentia mala, 

asper, acerba tuens, immani corpore serpens 

arboris amplexus stirpem quid denique obcsset 

propter Atlanteum litus pelageque sonoiti 35 

quo neque noster adit quisquam nec barbarus audet? 

cetera de genere hoc quae sunt portenta perempta, 

sei non victa forent, quid tandem viva nocerent? 

nil, ut opinor ; ita ad satiatem terra ferarum 

nunc etiam scatit et trepido terrore repleta est 40 

per nemora ac montes magnos silvasque profundas ; 

quae loca vitandi plerumque est nostra potestas. 

at nisi purgatumst pectus, quae proelia nobis 

alque pericula tumst ingratis insinuandura ! 

quantae tum scindunt hominem cuppedinis acres 45 

sollicitum curae quantique perinde timores ! 

quidve superbia spurcitia ac petulantia? quantas 

efliciunt clades ! quid luxus desidiaeque? 

haec igitur qui cuncta sutiegerit ex animoque 

expulerit dictis, non armis, nonne decebit 50 

hunc hominem numero divom dignarier esse? 

cum benc praesertim muita ac divinitus ipsis 

immortalibu' de divis dare dicta suerit 

atque omnem remm naturam pandere dictis, 

Cuius ego ingressus vestigia dum rationes SS 

persequor ac doceo dictis, quo quaeque creata 
foedere sint, in eo quam sit durare necessum 



nec validas valeant aevi rescindere leges, 

quo genere in priniis animi natura reperta est 

nativo primiim consistere corpore creta 60 

nec posse incolumis tnagnum durare per aevom, 

sed simulacra solere in somnis fallere raentem, 

cemere cum videamur eum quem vita reliquit, 

quod superest, nunc huc rationis detulit ordo, 

ut mihi mortali consistere corpore mundum 65 

nativomque simul ratio reddunda sit esse ; 

et quibus ille inodis congressus materiai 

fundarit terram caelum mare sidera solem 

tunaique globum ; tum quae tellure animantes 

extiterint, et quae nuUo sint tempore natae ; 70 

quove modo genus humanum variante loquella 

coeperit inter se vesci per nomina rerum ; 

et quibus ille modis divom' metus iosinuarit 

pectora, terranim qui in orbi sancta tuetur 

fana lacus lucos aras simulacraque divom. 75 

praeterea solis cursus lunaeque meatus 

expediam qua vi flectat natura gubetnans ; 

ne forte haec inter caelum terramque reamur 

libera sponte sua cursus liistrare perennis 

morigera ad fruges augendas atque animantis, 80 

neve altqua divom volvi ratione putemus. 

nam bene qui didicere deos securura agere aevora, 

si tamen interea mirantur qua ratione 

quaeque geri possint, praesertim rebus in illis 

quae supera caput aetheriis cernuntur in oris, 85 

rursns in antiquas referuntur religiones 

et dominos acris adsciscunt, omnia posse 

quos miseri credunt, ignari quid queat esse, 

quid nequeat, iinita potestas denique cuique 

quanam sit ratione atque alte terminus haerens. 90 

Quod superest, ne te in promissis plura moremur, 
principio maria ac terras caelumque tuere ; 



quonim naturam triplicem, tria corpora, Metnmi, 

tris species tam dissimilis, tria talia texta, 

una dies dabit exitio, multosque per amios 

sustentata niet moles et macliina mundi. 

nec me animi fallit quam res nova miraque menti 

accidat exitium caeli tenaeque fijturum, 

et quam difficile id mihi sit pervincere dictis ; 

ut fit ubi insolitam rem adportes auribus ante i 

nec tamen hanc possis oculorum subdere visu 

nec iacere indu manus, via qua munita fidei 

proxima fert humanum in pectus templaque mentis. 

sed tamen effabor. dictis dabit ipsa fidem res 

forsitan et graviter terramm motibus ortis i 

omnia conquassari in paivo tempore cernes. 

quod procul a nobis flectat fortuna gubemans, 

et ratio potius quam res persuadeat ipsa 

succidere horrisono posse omnia victa fragore. 

[Qua prius at^ediar quam de re fundere fata i 
sanctius et multo certa ratione magis quam 
Pythia quae tripode a Phoebi lauroque profatur, 
multa tibi expediam doctis solacia dictis ; 
religione refrenatus ne forte rearis 
terras et solera et caelum, mare sidera lunam, i 

corpore divino debere aetema manere, 
proptereaque putes ritu par esse Gigantum 
pendere eos poenas inmani pro scelere omnis 
qui ratione sua disturtwnt moenia mundi 
praeclanimque velint caeli restinguere solem i 

inmortalia mortali sennone notantes ; 
quae procul usque adeo divino a numine distent, 
inque deum numero quae sint indigna videri, 
notitiam potius praebere ut posse putentur 
quid sit vitali motu sensuque remotum. i 

quippe etenim non est, cum quovis corpore ut esse 
posse animi natura putetur consiliumque ; 



siciii in aethere non arbor, non aequore salso 

nubes essc queunt neque pisces vivere in arvis 

uec cruor in lignis neque saxis sucus inesse. 130 

certum ac dispositumst ubi quicquit crescat et insit. 

sic animi natura nequit sine corpore oriri 

sola neque a nervis et sanguine longiter esse. 

quod si — posset enim multo prius — ipsa animi via 

in capite aut umeris aut imis calcibus esse 135 

posset et innasci quavis in parte, soleret 

tandem in eodem homine atque in eodem vase manere. 

quod quonianj nostro quoque constat corpore certum 

dispositumque vidctur ubi esse et crescere possit 

seorsum antma atque animus, tanto magts infitiandum 140 

totum posse extra corpus fomiamque animalem 

putribus in glebis terrarum aut solis in igni 

aut in aqua durare aut altis aetheris oris, 

haud igitur coostant divino praedita sensu, 

quandoquidem nequeunt vitaliter esse animata. 145 

Illud item non est ut possis credere, sedes 
esse deum sanctas in mundi partibus uUis. 
tenvis enim natura deum longeque remota 
sensibus ab nostris animi vix mente videtur ; 
quae quoniam manuum tactum sufTugit et ictum, 150 
tactile nil nobis quod sit contingere debet. 
tangere enim non quit quod tangi non licet ipsum. 
quaie etiam sedes quoque nostris sedibus esse 
dissimiles debent, tenues de corpore eorum ; 
quae tibi posterius largo sermone probabo. 155 

dicere porro hominum causa voluisse parare 
praeclaram mundi naturam proptereaque 
adlaudabile opus divom laudare decere 
aetemumque putare atque inmortale futurum 
nec fas esse, deum quod sit ratione vetusta 160 

gentibus humanis fundatum perpetuo aevo, 
soUicitare suis ulla vi ex sedibus umquam 



nec verbis vexare et ab imo evertere summa, 

cetera de genere hoc adfingere et addere, Memmi, 

desiperest. quid enim inmortalibus atque beaCis 165 

gratia nostra queat largirier emolumenti, 

ut nostra quicquam causa gerere adgrediantuc? 

quidve novi potuit tanto post ante quietos 

inlicere ut cuperent vitam mutare priorem? 

nam gaudere novis rebus debere videtur Z70 

cui veteres obsunt ; sed cui nil accidit aegri 

tempore in anteacto, cum pulchre degeret aevom, 

quid potuit novitatis amorem accendere tali ? 

an, credo, in tenebris vita ac maerore iacebat, 

donec diluxit rerum genitalis origo. 175 

quidve mali fuerat nobis non esse creatis? 

nalus enim debet quicumque est velle manere 

in vita, donec retinebit blanda voluptas. 

qui numquam vero vitae gustavit amorem 

nec fuit in numero, quid obest non esse creatum? 180 

exemplum porro gignundis rebus et ipsa 

notities divis hominum unde est insita primum 

quid vellent iacere ut scirent animoque viderent,. 

quove modost umquam vis cognita principiorum 

quidque inter sese permutato ordine possent, 185 

si non ipsa dedit specimen natura creandi? 

naraque ita mu!ta modis multis primordia renim 

ex infinjto iam tempore percita plagis 

ponderibusque suis consueruot concita ferri 

omnimodisque coire atque omnia pertemptare, 190 

quaecumque inter se possent congressa creare, 

ut noD sit mirum si in talis disposituras 

deciderunt quoque et in talis venere meatus, 

qualibus haec rerura geritur nunc summa novando. 

Quod si iam rerum ignorem primordia quae sint, 195 
hoc tamen ex ipsis caeli rationibus ausim 
confirmare aliisque ex rebus reddere multis, 



nequaquam nobis divinitus esse paratam 

naturam reram : tanta stat praedita culpa. 

priiicipio quantum caeli tegit impetus ingeos, a» 

inde avidei partem montes silvaeque ferarum 

possedere, tenent rupes vastaeque paludes 

et mare quod late terrarum distinet oras. 

inde duas poiro prope partis fervidus ardor 

adaiduusque geli casus mortalibus aufert. 205 

quod superest arvi, tamen id natura sua vi 

sentibus obducat, ni vis humana resistat 

vitai causa valido coiksueta bidenti 

ingemere et terram pressis proscindere aratris. 

si noQ fecundas vertentes voinere glebas 210 

terraique solum subigentes ctmus ad ortus, 

spODte sua nequeant liquidas existere in auras, 

et tamen interdum magno quaesita labore 

cum iam per teiras frondent atque omnia florent, 

aut nimiis torret fervoribus aetherius sol 215 

aut subiti peremunt imbris gelidaeque pruinae, 

flabraque ventorum violento turbine vexant. 

praeterea genus horriferum natura ferarum 

humanae genti infestum terraque marique 

cur ahc atque auget? cur anni tempora morbos 2:0 

adportant? quare mors inmatura vagatur? 

tum porro puer, ut saevis proiectus ab undis 

navita, nudus humi iacet, infans, indigus omni 

vitali auxilio, cum primum in luminis oras 

nixibus ex alvo matris natura profudit, 225 

vagituque locum lugubri complet, ut aecumst 

cui tantum in vita restet transire malorum, 

at variae crescunt pecudes armenta feraeque 

nec crepiiacillis opus est nec cuiquam adhibendaat 

almae nutricis blanda atque infracta loquella 230 

nec varias quaerunt vestes pro tempore caeli, 

denique non armis opus est, non moenibus altis, 



qiii sua tutentur, quando omnibus omnia large 
tellus ipsa parit naturaque daedala rerum.] 

Principio quoniam terrai corpus et umor z; 

auraramque leves animae calidique vapores, 
e quibus haec rerum consistere summa videlur, 
omnia nativo ac mortali corpore constant, 
debet eodem omnis mundi natiira putari. 
quippe etenim quonim partis et membra videmus 2. 
corpore nativo ac mortalibus esse figuris, 
haec eadem fenne mortalia cemimus esse 
et nativa simul. quapropter maxima mundi 
cum videam membra ac partis consumpta regigni, 
scire licet caeli quoque item terraeque fuisse a. 

principiale aliquod tempus clademque futuram. 

lllud in his rebus ne corripuisse rearis 
me mihi, quod terram atque ignem mortalia sumpsi 
esse neque umorem dubitavi aurasque perire 
atque eadem gigni rursusque augescere dixi, 2 

principio pars terrai nonnulla, perusta 
solibus adsiduis, multa pulsata pedum vi, 
pulveris exhalat nebulam nubesque volantis 
quas validi toto dispergunt aere venti. 
pars etiam glebarum ad diluviem revocatur s 

imbribus et ripas radentia flumina rodunt. 
praeterea pro parte sua, quodcumque alid auget, 
rcdditur ; et quoniam dubio procul esse videtur 
omniparens eadem rerum commune sepulcrum, 
ergo terra tibi libatur et aucta recrescit. 1 

Quod superest, umore novo mare flumina fontes 
semper abundare et latices manare perennis 
nil opus est verbis : magnus decursus aquamm 
undique declarat. sed primum quicquid aquai 
tollitur in summaque fit ut nil uraor abundet, 2 

partira qnod validi verrentes aequora venti 
diminuunt radiisque retexens aetherius sol, 



partim quod supter per terras diditur omnis ; 

percolatUT enim virus retroque rcmanat 

materies umoris et ad caput amnibus omnis 170 

convenit, inde super terras fluit agmine dulci 

qua via secta semel liquido pede detulit undas. 

Aera nunc igitur dicam qui corpore toto 
innumerabiUter privas mutatur in horas. 
semper enim, quodcumque fluil de rebus, id omne 275 
aeris in magnum fertur mare ; qut nisi contra 
corpora retribuat rebus recreetque fluends, 
omnia iam resoluta forent et in aera versa. 
haut igitur cessat gigni de rebus et in res 
reccidere, adsidue quoniam fluere omnia constat. 2S0 

Largus item liquidi fons luminis, aetherius sol, 
inrigat adsidue caelum candore recenti 
suppeditatque novo confestim lumine lumen. 
nam primum quicquid fulgoris disperit ei, 
quocumque accidit id licet hinc cognoscere possis, 285 
quod simul ac primum nubes succedere soli 
coepere et radios inter quasi lumpere lucis, 
extemplo inferior pars horum disperit omnis 
terraque inumbratur qua nimbi cumque feruntur ; 
ut noscas splendore novo res seraper egere 290 

et primum iactum fulgoris quemque perire 
nec ratione alia res posse in sole videri, 
perpetuo ni suppeditet lucis caput ipsum. 
quin etiam noctuma tibi, terrestria quae sunt, 
lumina, pendentes iychini claraeque coruscis J95 

fulguribus pingues multa caligine taedae 
consimili properant ratione, ardore ministro, 
suppeditare novom lumen, tremere ignibus instant, 
instant, nec loca lux inter quasi rupta relinquit ; 
usque adeo properanter ab omnibus ignibus ei 300 

exittum celeri celatur origine flammae. 
sic igitur solem lunam stellasque putandumst 



ex alio atque alio lucem iactare subortu 

et primum qiiicquid flammarum perdere semper; 

inviolabilia haec ne credas forCe vigete. 305 

Denique non lapides quoque vinci cemis ab aevo, 
non altas turris ruere et putrescere saxa, 
non delubra deum simulacraque fessa fadsci, 
nec sanctum nuraen fati protoilere finis 
posse neque adversus naturae foedera niti? 310 

denique non monimenta virum dilapsa vtdemus 
quaerere proporro sibi sene senescere credas 
non ruere avolsos silices a montibus altis 
nec validas aevi vires perferre patique 
finiti? neque enim caderent avolsa repenle, 315 

ex infinito quae tempore pertolerassent 
omnia tormenta aetatis privata fragore. 

Denique iam tuere hoc, circum supraque quod omnem 
continet amplexu terram ; si procreat ex se 
omnia, quod quidam memorant, recipitque perempta, 320 
totum nativum mortali corpore constat, 
nam quodcumque alias ex se rcs auget alitque, 
deminui debet, recreari, cum recipit res. 

Praeterea si nulla fuit genitalis origo 
terrarum et caeli seraperque aetema fuere, 3*5 

cur supera bellum Thebanum et funera Troiae 
non aiias alii quoque res cecinere poetae ? 
qno tot facta virum totiens cecidere neque usquam 
aetemis famae monimentis insita florent? 
verum, ut opinor, haljet novitatem summa recensque 330 
naturast mundi neque pridem exordia cepit. 
quare etiam quaedam nunc artes expoliuntur, 
nunc etiam augescunt ; nunc addita navigiis sunt 
multa, modo organici meiicos peperere sonores, 
denique natura haec rerum ratioque repertast 335 

nuper, et hanc primus cum primis ipse repertus 
nunc ego sum in pairias qui possim vertere voces. 



quod si forte fuisse antehac eadem omnta credis, 

sed periisse hominum torrenti saecla vapore, 

aut cecidisse urbis magno vexamine mundi, 340 

aut ex imbribus adsiduis exisse rapaces 

per terras amnes atque oppida cooperuissc, 

tanto quique magis victus fateare necessest 

exitium quoque terrarura caelique futurura. 

nam cum res tantis morbis tantisque periclis 345 

tcraptarentur, ibi si tristior iocubuisset 

causa, darent late cladem magnasque ruinas. 

nec ratione alia mortales esse videmur, 

inter nos nisi quod morbis aegrescimus isdem 

atque itli quos a vita natura removit. 350 

Praeterea quaecumque manent aetema necessust 
aut, quia sunt solido cum corpore, respuere ictus 
nec penetrare pati sibi quicquam quod queat artas 
dissociare intus partis, ut materiai 
corpora sunt quorum naturara ostendimus ante, 335 
aut ideo duraie aetatera posse per omnem, 
plaganim quia sunt expertia, sicut inane est 
quod manet intactum neque ab ictu fiingitur hilum, 
aut etiam quia nulla loci fit copia circum, 
quo quasi res possint discedere dissoluique, 360 

sicut summarum summa est aetema neque extra 
qui locus est quo dissiliant neque corpora sunt quae 
possint incidere et valida dissolvere plaga. 
at neque, uti docui, solido cum corpore mundi 
naturast, quomam admixtumst in rebus inane, 365 

nec tamen est ut inane, neque autem corpora desunt, 
ex infinito quae possint forte coorta 
comiere hanc renim violento turbine summam 
aut aliam quamvis cladem inportare pericli, 
nec poTTO natura loci spatiumque profundi 370 

deficit, exspargi quo possint moenia raundi, 
aut alia quavis possunt vi puUa perire. 



haut igitur kti praeclusa est ianua caelo 

nec soli terraeque neque altis aequoris undis, 

sed patet immani et vasto respectat hiatu. 375 

quare etiam nativa necessumst confiteaK 

haec eadem ; neque enim, mortaii corpore quae sunt, 

ex infinito iam tempore adhuc potuissent 

inmensi validas aevi contemnere vires. 

Denique tantopere inter se cum maxima raundi 380 
pugnent membra, pio nequaquam concita bello, 
nonne vides aliquam longi certaminis oUis 
posse dari finem ? vel cura sol et vapor omnls 
omnibus epotis umoribus exsuperarint : 
quod facere iiitendunt, neque adhuc conata patnmtur : 3SS 
tantum suppeditant amnes ultraque minantur 
omnia diluviare ex alto gnrgite ponti, 
nequiquam, quoniam veirentes aequora venti 
deminuunt radiisque retexens aetherius sol, 
et siccare prius confidunt omnia posse 390 

quam liquor incepti possit contingere Anem. 
tantum spirantes aequo certamine bellum 
magnis inter se de rebus cemere certant, 
cum semel interea fuerit superantici" ignis 
et semel, ut {ama est, umor regnarit in aivis. 395 

ignis enim superat et lambens raulta perussit, 
avia cum Phaethonta rapax vis solis equorura 
aethere raptavit toto terrasque per omnis. 
at pater omnipotens ira tum peicitus acri 
magnanimum Phaethonta repenti fiilminis ictu 400 

deturbavit equis in teiram, solque cadenti 
obvius aetemam succepit lampada mundi 
disiectosque redeg^t eqnos iunxitque trementis, 
inde suum per itei recieavit cuncta gubemans, 
scilicet ut veteres Graium cecinere poetae. 405 

quod procul a vera nimis est ratione repulsura. 
ignis enim superaie potest ubi materiai 



ex infinito sunt corpora plura coorta ; 

inde cadunt vires aliqua ralione revictae, 

aut pereunt res esustae toirentibus auiis. 

unaor item quondam coepit superare coorhis, 

ut iama est, hominum mullas quando obruit urbis. 

inde ubi vis aliqua ratione aversa recessit, 

ex infinito fuerat quaecumque coorta, 

constitenint imbres et flumina vim minuerunt, i 

Sed quibus iUe modis coniectus materiai 
fundarit terram et caelum pontique profunda, 
solis lunai cursus, ex ordine ponam. 
nam certe neque consilio primordia rerum 
ordine se suo quaeque sagaci mente locarunt ^ 

nec quos quaeque darent motus pepigere profecto, 
sed quia niulta modis muJtis primordia rerum 
ex infinito iam tempore percita plagis 
ponderibusque suis consuenint concita ferri 
omnimodisque coire atque omnia pertemptare, 4 

quaecumque inter se possent congressa creare, 
propterea fit uti magnum volgata per aevom 
omne genus coetus et motus ex periundo 
tandem conveniant>ea quae convecta repente 
magnarum rerum fiunt exordia saepe, ^ 

terrai maris et caeli generisque animantum. /\ 

Hic neque tum solis rota cemi lumine largo 
altivolans poterat nec magni sidera mundi 
nec mare nec caelum nec denique terra neque aer 
nec similis nostris rebus res ulla videri, 4 

sed nova tempestas quaedam molesque coorta 
orane genus de principiis, discordia quorum 
intervalla vias conexus pondera plagas 
concursus motus ttirbabat proelia miscens, 
propter dissimilis formas variasque figuras 4 

quod non omnia sic poterant coniuncta manere 
nec motus inter sese dare convenientia. 



diffugere inde loci partes coepere paresque 
cum paribus iungi res et discludere mundum 
racmbraque dividere et magnas dispooere partes, 44 
hoc est, a terris altura secemere caelum, 
et sorsum mare uti secreto umore pateret, 
seorsus item puri secretique aetheris ignes. ^ 

Quippe etenim primum terrai corpora quaeque, 
propterea quod erant gravia et perplexa, coibant 4; 
in medio atque imas capiebant omnia sedes ; 
quae quanto m^s inter se perplexa coibant, 
tam magis expressere ea quae mare sidera solem 
lunamque ef!icerent et magni moenia mundi. 
omnia enim magis haec e levibus atque ratundis 4' 
seminibus multoque minoribu' sunt elementis 
quam teltus. ideo, per rara foramina, terrae 
partibus erumpens priraus se sustulit aether 
ignifer et multos sccum levis abstulit ignis, 
non alia longe ratione ac saepe videmus, *£ 

aurea cum primum gemmantis rore per herbas 
matutJna rubent radiati lumina solis 
exhalantque lacus nebulam fluviique perenncs, 
ipsaque ut interdum tellus fumare videtur; 
omnia quae surstim cum conciliantur, in atto 4( 

coqiore concreto subtexunt nubila caelum. 
sic igitur tum se levis ac diffusilis aether 
corpore concreto circuradatus undique flcxJt 
et late diffusus in oranis undique partis 
omnia sic avido complexu cetera saepsit. 47 

hunc exordia sunt solis lunaeque secuta, 
intenitrasque globi quorum vertuntur in auris ; 
quae neque terra sibi adscivit nec maximus aether, 
quod neque tam fueiunt gravia ut depressa sederent, 
nec levia ut possent per summas labier oras, 47 

et tamen interutrasque ita sunt ut corpora viva 
versent et partes ut mundi totius extent; 



quod genus in nobis quaedam licet in statione 

membra manere, tamen cum stnt ea quae moveantur. 

his igitur rebus retractis terra repente, 480 

maxuma qua nunc se ponti plaga caerula tendit, 

succidit et salso suffudit gurgite fossas. 

inque dies quanto circum magis aetheris aestus 

et radii solis cogebant undique terram 

verberibus crebris extrema ad limina in artum, 485 

in medio ut propulsa suo condensa coiret, 

tam magis expressus salsus de corpore sudor 

augebat mare manando camposquc natanlis, 

et tanto magis iHa foras elabsa volabant 

corpora multa vaporis et aeris aitaque caeli 490 

densebant procul a terris fulgentia templa. 

sidebant campi, crescebant montibus altis 

ascensus ; neque enim poterant subsldere saxa 

nec pariter tantundem omnes succumbere partis, 

Sic igitur terrae concreto corpore pondus 495 

constitit atque omnis mundi quasi limus in imum 
confluxit gravis et subsedit funditus ut faex ; 
inde mare inde aer inde aether ignifer ipse 
corporibus liquidis sunt omnia pura relicta, 
et leviora aliis alia, et liquidissimus aether 500 

atque levissimus aerias super influit auras, 
nec liquidura corpus turbantibus aeris auris 
commiscet ; sinit haec violentis omnia verti 
turbinibus, sinit incertis turbare procellis, 
ipse snos ignis certo fert impete labens. - 505 

nam modice fluere atque uno posse aethera nisu 
significat Pontos, mare certo quod fluit aestu 
unum labendi conservans usque tenorem, 

[Motibus astrorum nunc quae sit causa canamus. 
principio magnus caeli si vortitur orbis, 510 

ex utraque polum parti premere aera nobis 
dicendum est extraque tenere et claudere utrimque ; 



inde aliutn supra fluere atque intendere eodem 

quo volvenda micant aeterni sidera mundi ; 

aut alium supter, contra qui subvehat orbem, 51J 

ut fluvios versare rotas atque haustra videmus. 

est etiam quoque uti possit caelum omne manere 

in statione, tamen cum lucida signa ferantur ; 

sive quod inclusi rapidi stuit aetheris aestus 

quaerentesque viam circum versantur et ignes 520 

passim per caeli volvunt Summania tetnpla; 

sive aliunde fluens aUcunde extrinsecus aer 

versat agens ignis ; sive ipsi serpere possunt 

quo cuiusque cibus vocat atque invitat euntis, 

flammea per caelum pascentis corpora passim. 535 

nam quid in hoc mundo sit eorum ponere certum 

difiicile est ; sed quid possit fiatque per onme 

in variis mundis varia ratione creatis, 

id doceo plurisque sequor disponere causas, 

motibus astrorum quae possint esse per omne ; 530 

e quibus una tamen sit in hoc quoque causa necessest 

quae vegeat motum signis ; sed quae sit earum 

praecipere hautquaquamst pedetemtim progredientis.] 

Terraque ut in media mundi regione quiescat, 
evanescere paulatim et decrescere pondus S35 

convenit, atque aliam naturam supter habere 
ex ineunte aevo coniunctam atque uniter aptam 
partibus aeriis mundi quibus instta vivit. 
propterea non est oneri neque deprimit auras ; 
ut sua cuique homini nuUo sunt pondere membra S4<» 
nec caput est oneri collo nec denique totum 
corporis in pedibus pondus sentimus inesse ; 
at quaecumque foris veniunt inpostaque nobis 
pondera sunt laedunt, permulto saepe minora. 
usqjie adeo magni refert quid quaeque obeat res. j45 
ac igitur teilus non est aUena repente 
allata atque auris aliunde obiecta aUenis, 



sed pariter prima concepta ab origine niundi 

certaque pars cius, quaai nobis membra videntur. 

praeterea grandi tonitni concussa repeote, 550 

teira supra quac se sunt concutit omnia raotu ; 

quod facere haut ulla posset ratione, nisi esset 

partibus aeriis mundi caetoque revincta. 

nam communibus inter se radicibus haerent 

ex ineunte aevo coniuncta atque uniter apta, 555 

nonne vidcs etiara quara magno pondere nobis 

sustineat corpus tenuissima vis animai 

propterea quia tam coniuncta atque uniter apta est? 

denique iam saltu pernici tollere corpus 

quid potis est nisi vis animi quae membra gubernat ? s&» 

iamne vides quantum tenuis natura valere 

possit, ubi est coniuncta gravi cum corpore, ut aer 

coniunctus terris et nobis est animi vis? 

Nec nimio sotis maior rota nec minor ardor 
esse potest, nostris quam sensibus esse videtur. 565 
nam quibus e spatiis cumque ignes lumina possunt 
adicere et caJidum membris adilaTe vaporem, 
nil ilta his inteivattis de corpore tibant 
flammarum, nil ad speciem est contractior ignis. 
proinde, cator quoniara sotis tumenque profusum 570 
perveniunt nostros ad sensus et loca muicent, 
forma quoque hinc sotis det>et fitumque videri, v- ^'"^ 
nil adeo ut possis plus aut minus addere, vere. ' 
lunaque sive notho fertur loca tumine ]ustrans S7S 

sive suam proprio iactat de corpore lucem, 
quidquid id est, nilo fertur maiore figura 
quam, nostris oculis qu^ cernimus, esse videtur. 
nam prius omnia, quae longe semota tuemur 
aera per multum, specie confusa videntur 580 

quam minui filum. quapropter tuna necesse est, 
quandoquidem claram speciem certamque figuram 
praebet, ut est oris extrerais cumque notata 



quantaque quantast hinc nobis videatur in alto. 
postremo quoscumque vides hinc aetheris igoes ; 585 
quandoquidem quoscumque in terris cemimus ignes, 
dum tremor est claius, dum cemitur ardor eorum, 
perparvom quiddam interdum mutare videtur 
alteram utram in partem filum, quo longius absunt ; 
scire licet perquara pauxillo posse minores 590 

esse vel exigua maioris parle brevique, 

Illud item non est mirandura, qua ratione 
tantulus ille queat tantum sol mittere lumen, 
quod maria ac tciras omnis caelumque rigando 
compleat et caJido perfundat cuncta vapore. 595 

nam licet hinc mundj patefactum totius unum 
largiflimm fontem scatere atque erumpere lumen, 
ex omni mundo quia sic elementa vaporis 
undique conveniunt et sic coniectus eorura 600 

confluit, ex uno capite hic ut proAuat ardor. 
nonne vides etiam quam late parvus aquai 
prata riget fons interdum campisque redundet? 
est etiam quoque uti non magno solis ab igni 
aera percipiat calidis fervoribus ardor, 605 

opportunus ita est si forte et idoneus aer, 
ut queat accendi parvis ardoribus ictus ; 
quod genus interdum segetes stipulamque videmus 
accedere ex una scinttlla incendia passim. 
forsitan et rosca sol alte lampade lucens 610 

possideat multura caecis fervoribus ignem 
circum se, nullo qui sit fulgore notatus, 
aestifer ut tantum radiorum exaugeat ictum. 

Nec ratio solis simplex et certa patescit, 
quo pacto aestivis e partibus aegocerotis 615 

brumalis adeat flexus atque inde revertens 
cancri se ut vertat metas ad solstitialis, 
lunaque mensibus id spatium videatur obire, 
anuua sol in quo consumit terapora cursu. 



non, inquam, sitnplex his rebus reddita causast. 
nam fieri vel cum primis id posse videtur, 
Democriti quod sancta viri sententia ponit, 
quanto quaeque magis slnt terram sidera propter, 
tanto posse miiius cum caeli turbine ferri. 
evanescere enim rapidas illius et acris 
imminui supter viris, ideoque relinqui 
paulatim solem cum posterioribu' signis, 
inferior multo quod sit quam fervida signa. 
et magis hoc lunam : quanto demissior eius 
cursus abest procul a caelo terrisque propinquat, 
tanlo posse minus cum signis tendere cursum. 
flaccidiore etenim quanto iam turbine fertur 
inferior quam sol, tanto magis omnia signa 
hanc adipiscuntur circum praeterque feruntur. 
propterea fit ut haec ad signum quodque reverti 
mobilius videatur, ad hanc quia signa revisunt. 
(it quoque ut e mundi tranversis partibus aer 
alternis certo fluere alter tempore possit, 
qui queat aestivis solem detrudere signis 
brumalis usque ad flexus gelidumque rigorein, 
et qui reiciat gelidis a frigoris umbris 
aestiferas usque in partis et fervida signa. 
et ratione pari lunam stellasque putandumst, 
quae volvunt magnos in magnis orbibus annos, 
aeribus posse alternis e partibus ire. 
nonne vides etiam diversis nubila ventis 
diversas ire in partis infema supemis? 
qui minus iila queant per m^nos aetheris orbis 
aestibus inter se diversis sidera ferri? 

At nox obniit ingenti caligine terras, 
aut ubi de longo cursu sol ultima caeli 
impulit atque suos efilavit languidus ignis 
concussos itere et labefactos aere multo, 
aut quia sub terras cursum convortere cogit 



vis eadem, supra quae teiras pertulit orbem. 655 

Tempore item certo roseain Matuta per oras 

aetheris auroram dilTert et lumina pandit, 

aut quia sol idem, sub terras ille revertens, 

anticipat caelum radiis accendere temptans, 

aut quia conveniunt ignes et seniina multa 660 

confluere ardoris consuerunt tempore certo, 

quae faciunt solis nova semper lumina gigni ; 

quod genus Idaeis iama est e montibus altia 

dispersos ignis orienti lumine cemi, 

inde coire globum quasi in uDiim et conficere orbem. 665 

nec tamen illud in his rebus mirabile debet 

esse, quod haec ignis tam certo tempore possunt 

semina confluere et solis reparare nitorem. 

multa videmus enim, certo quae tempore finnt 

omnibus in rebus. florescunt tempore certo 670 

arbusta et certo dimittunt tempore florem. 

nec minus in certo dentes cadere imperat aetas 

tempore et inpubem molli pubescere veste 

et pariter mollem malis demittere barbam. 

fulmina postremo nix imbres nubila venti £75 

non nimis incertis fiunt in partibus anni. 

namque ubi sic fuerunt causarum exordia priraa 

atque ita res mundi cecidere ab origine prima, 

conseque quoque iam redeunt ex ordine certo. 

Crescere itemque dies licet et Ubescere noctes, 680 
et minui luces, cum sumant augmina noctes, 
aut quia sol idera sub terras atque supeme 
impiaribus currens amfractibus aetheris oras 
partit et in partis non aequas dividit orbem, 
et quod ab alterutra detraxit parte, reponit 685 

eius in adversa tanto plus parte relatus, 
donec ad id signum caeli pervenit, ubi anni 
nodus noctumas exaequat lucibus umbras. 
nam, medio cursu flatus aquilonis et austri, 



distinet aequato caelum discrimine metas 690 

propter signifcri positurara totius orbis, 

annua sol in quo condudit tempora serpens, 

obliquo tenas et caelum lumine lustrans, 

ut ratio dedarat eorum qui loca caeli 

omnia dispositis signis oniata notarunt. 695 

aut quia ciassior est certis in partibus aer, 

sub terris ideo tremulum iubar haesitat ignis 

nec penetiare potest facile atque emergere ad oitus. 

propterea noctes hibemo tempore longae 

cessant, dum veniat radiatum insigne diel 700 

aut etiam, quia sic altemis partibus ansi 

tardius et citius censuerunt coniluere ignes 

qui taciunt solem certa desurgere parte, 

propterea fit uti videantur dicere venun 

Luna potest solis radiis percussa nitere 705 

inque dies magis id luraen convertere notHS 
ad speciem, quantura solis secedit ab orbi, 
donique eum contra pleno bene tumine fulsit 
atque oriens obitus eius super edita vidit ; 
inde minutatim retro quasi condere lumen 710 

debet item, quanto propius iam solis ad ignem 
labitur ex alia signorum parte per orbem ; 
ut faciunt, hinam qui fingunt esse ptlai 
consimilem cursusque viam sub sole tenere. 
est etiam quare proprio cum lumine possit 715 

volvier et varias splendoris reddere fonnas. 
corpus enim licet esse aliud quod fertuT et una 
labitur omnimodis occuisans ofiiciensque 
nec potis est cemi, quia cassum luraine feitur. 
versarique potest, globus ut, si forte, pilai 710 

diinidia ex parti candenti luraine ttnctus, 
versandoque globum variantis edere forraas, 
donique eam partem, quaecumque est ignibus aucta, 



ad speciem vertit nobis oculosque patentis ; 

inde minutalim retro contorquet et aufert 715 

luciferam partem glomeraminis atque pilai ; 

ut Babylonica Chaldaeum doctrina refutans 

astrologorum artem contra convincere tendit, 

proinde quasi id fieri nequeat quod pugnat uterque 

aut minus hoc ilto sit cur amplectier ausis. 730 

denique cur nequeat semper nova luna creari 

ordine formarum certo certisque iiguris 

iaque dies privos aboriaci quaeque creata 

atque alia illius reparari in parte locoque, 

difficilest ratione docere et vincere verbis, 735 

ordine cum possint tam certo multa creari. 

it ver et Venus, et Veneris praenundus ante 

pennatus graditur, zephyri vestigia propter 

Flora quibus mater praespargens ante viai 

cuncta coloribus egregiis et odoribus opplet. 740 

inde loci sequitur calor aridus et comes una 

pulveruleota Ceres et etesia flabra aquilonum. 

inde autumnus adit, graditur simul Euhius Euan. 

inde aliae tempestales ventique secunlur, 

altitonans Voltumus et auster falmine pollens. 745 

tandem bruma nives adfert pigramque rigorem 

reddit ; hiemps sequitur crepitans hanc dentibus algu. 

quo minus est mirum si certo tempore luna 

gignitur et certo deletur tempore rusus, 

cum fieri possint tam certo tempore multa. 750 

Solis item quoque defectus lunaeque latebras 
pluribus e causis fieri tibi posse putandumst. 
nam cur luna queat terram secludere solis 
lumine et a terris altum caput obstruere ei, 
obiciens caecum radiis ardentibus orbem ; 7SS 

tempore eodem aliut facere Jd non posse putetur 
corpus quod cassum labatur lumine semper? 
solque suos etlam dimittere langtiidus ignis 



tempore cur certo nequeat recreareque lumen, 

cum loca praeteriit tlammis infesta per auras, 760 

quae feciunt ignis interstiQgui atque perire? 

et cur terra queat lunam spoliare vicissim 

lumine et oppressum solem super ipsa tenere, 

menstrua duni rigidaa coni perlabitur umbras ; 

tempore eodem aliut nequeat succurrere lunae 765 

corpus vel supra solis perlabier orbem, 

quod radios interrumpat lumenque profusura? 

et tamen ipsa suo si fulget luna nitore, 

cur nequeat certa mundi languescere paite, 

dum loca luminibus propriis ininaica per exit? 770 

Quod superest, quoniam magni per caemla mundi 
qua fieri quicquid posset ratione resolvi, 
solis uti varios cursus lunaeque meatus 
noscere possemus quac vis et causa cieret, j 775 

quove modo possent offecto lumine obire i 
et neque opinantis tenebris obducere terras, , 
cura quasi conivcnt et aperto lumine rursum 
omnia convisunt clara loca candida luce, 
nuncTcdeo ad mundi novitatem et mollia teirae 780 
arva, nova fetu quid primum in luminJs oras 
tollere et incertis crerint committere ventis._ 

Principio genus herbarum viridemque nitorem 
terra dedit circum collis camposque per onuiis, 
florida fulaerunt viridand prata colore, 785 

arboribusque datumst variis exinde per auras 
crescendi magnum inmissis certamen habenis. 
ut pluma atque pili primum saetaeque creantur 
quadripedum membris et corpore pennipotentum, 
sic nova tum tellus herbas virgultaque primum 790 

sustulit, inde loci mortalia saecla creavit 
multa modis multis varia ratione coorta. 
nam neque de caelo cecidisse animalia possunt 
oec terrestria de salsis exisse lacunis. 



linquitur ut merito matemum nomen adepta 79S 

terra sit, e terra quoniam sunt cuncta creata. 

roultaque nunc etiam existunt animaJia tenis 

imbribus et calido solis concreta vapore ; 

quo minus est minim si tum sunt plura coorta 

et maiora, nova tellure atque aethere aduita. 800 

principio genus alituum variaeque volucres 

ova relinquebant exclusae tempore vemo, 

folliculos ut nunc teretis aestate cicadae 

lincunt sponte sua victum vitamque petentes. 

tum dbi teira dedit primum mortalia saecla. 805 

multus enim calor atque umor superabat in arvis. 

hoc ubi quaeque loci regio opportuna dabatiu', 

crescebant uteri terram radicibus apti ; 

quos ubi tempore maturo patefecerat aestus 

infantum fiigiens umorem aurasque petessens, 810 

convertebat ibi natura foramina terrae 

et sucum venis cogebat fundere apertis 

consimilem lactis, sicut nunc femina quaeque 

cum peperit, duki repletur lacte, quod omnis 

impetus in mammas convertitur ijle alimenti. 815 

terra cibum pueris, vestem vapor, herba cubile 

praebebat multa et moUi lanugine abundans. 

at novitas mundi nec frigora dura ciebat 

nec nimios aestus nec magnis viribus auras. 

omnia enim pariter crescunt et roljora sumunt. 820 

Quare etiam atque etiam matemum nomen adepta 
terra tenet merito, quoniam genus ipsa creavit 
humanum atque anlmal prope certo tempore fudit 
omne quod in magnis bacchatur montibu' passim, 
aeriasque simul volucres variantibu' formis. 825 

sed quia finem atiquam paricndi debet habere, 
destitit, ut mulier spatio defessa vetusto. 
mutat enim mundi naturam totius aetas 
ex alioque alius status excipere omnia debet, 



nec manet ulla sui sJmilis res : omnia migiant, S30 

omnia commutat natura et vertere cogit. 

namque aliut putrescit et aevo debile languet, 

porro aliut clarescit et e contemptibus exit. 

sic igituT mundi naturam totius aetas 

mutat et ex alio terram status excipit alter ; 835 

quod potuit nequit, possit quod non tulit ante. 

Multaque tum tellus etiam poitenta creare 
conatast mira fecie membrisque coorta, [tum, 

androgynum, interutrasque nec utrum, utrimque remo- 
orba pedum partim, manuum viduata vicissim, 840 

muta sine ore etiam, sine voltu caeca reperla, 
vinctaque membrorum per totum corpus adhaesu, 
nec_ facere ut possent quicquara nec cedere quoquam 
nec vitare malum nec sumere quod foret usus. 
cetera de genere lioc monstra ac portenta creabat, 845 
nequiquam, quoniana natura absterruit auctum 
nec potuere cupitum aetatis tangere florem 
nec reperire cibum nec iungi per Veneris res, 
inulta videmus enim rebus concurrere debere, 
ut propagando possint procudere saecla ; 850 

pabula priraum ut sint, genitalia deinde per artus 
semina qua possint raembris manare remissis ; 
feminaque ut maribus cooiungi possit, habere 
mutua qui mutent inter se gaudia uterque. 

Multaque tum interiisse animantum saecla necessest 855 
nec potuisse propagando procudere prolem. 
nam quaecumque vides vesci vitalibus auris, 
aut dolus aut viitus aut denique mobilitas est 
ex ineunte aevo genus id tutata reservans, 
multaque sunt, nobis ex utilitate sua quae 8G0 

commendata manent, tutelae tradita nostrae. 
principio genus acre leonum saevaque saecla 
tutatast virtus, volpes dolus et fuga cervos. 
at levisomna canum fido cum pectore corda 



et genus omne quod est veterino semine partum 865 

lanigeraeque simul pecudes et bucera saecla 

omnta sunt hominum tutelae tradita, Memmi. 

nam cupide fugere feras pacemque secuta 

sunt et laj^a suo sine pabula parta labore, 

quae damus utilitatis eorum praemia causa. 870 

at quis nil horum tribuit natura, nec ipsa 

sponte sua possent ul vivere nec dare nobis 

uiilitatem aliquam quare pateremur eorum 

praesidio nostro pasci genus esseque tutum, 

sciticet haec aliis praedae lucroque lacebant 875 

indupedita suis fatalibus omnia vinclis, 

donec ad interitum genus id natura redegit. 

Sed neque Centauri fuerunt, nec tempore in ullo 
esse queunt duplici natura et corpore bino 
ex alienigenis membris compacta, potcstas S80 

hinc illinc visque ut non sat par esse potissit, 
id licet hinc quamvis hebeti cognoscere corde. 
principio circum tribus actis impiger annis 
floret ecus, puer hautquaquam ; nam saepe ettam nunc 
ubera mammarum in somnis lactantia quaeret 885 

post ubi ecum validae vires aetate senecta 
membraque deficiunt fugienti languida vita, 
tum demum puero illi aevo florente iuventas 
occipit et moUi vestit lanugine malas. 
ne forte ex homine et veterino semine equorum 890 
confieri credas Centauros posse neque esse, 
aut rabidis canibus succinctas semimarinis 
corporibus Scyllas et cetera de genere hoium, 
inter se quorum discordia membra videmus ; 
quae neque florescunt pariter nec rabora sumunt 895 
corporibus neque proiciunt aetate senecta 
nec simili Venere ardescunt nec motibus unis 
conveniunt, neque sunt eadem iucunda per artus. 
quippe videre licet pinguescere saepe cicutae 



barbigeras pecudes, homini quae est acre venenum, 900 

flamma quidem vero cura corpora fnlva leonum 

tam soleat torrere atque urere quam genus omne 

visceris in terris quodcumque et sanguinis extet, 

qui fieri potuit, triplict cum corpore ut una, 

prima leo, postrema draco, media ipsa, Chimaera 905 

ore foras acrem flaret de corpore flammam? 

quare etiam tellure nova caeloque recenti 

talia qui fingit potuisse animalia gigni, 

nixus in hoc uno novitatis nomine inani, 

multa licet simih ratione efTutiat ore, 910 

aurea tum dicat per terras flumina vulgo 

fluxisse et gemmis florere arbusta suesse 

aut hominem tanto membrorum esse impete natum, 

trans maria alta pedum nisus ut ponere posset . 

et manibus totum circum se vertere caelum. 915 

nam quod multa fuere in terris semina rerum 

tempore quo primum tellus aniraalia fiidit, 

nil tamen est signi mixtas potuisse creari 

inter se pecudes compactaque membra animantura, 

proptcrea quia quae de terris nunc quoque abundant 920 

herbarum genera ac fruges arbustaque laeta 

non tamen inter se possunt complexa creari, 

sed res quaeque suo ritu procedit et omnes 

foedere naturae certo discrimina servant. 

At genus humanum multo fuit illud in arvis 925 

durius, ut decuit, tellus quod dura creasset, 
et maioribus et solidis magis ossibus intus 
fundatum, validis aptum per viscera nervis, 
nec iacile ex aestu nec frigore quod capetetur 
ncc novitate cibi nec labi corporis ulla. 930 

multaque per caelum solis volventia lustra 
volgivago vitara tractabant more ferarum, 
nec tobustus erat curvi moderator aratri 
quisquatn, nec scibat ferro mohrier arva 



nec nova defodere in terram virgulta neque alds 935 

arboribus veteres decidere falcibu' ramos, 

quod sol atque imbres dederant, quod teira crearat 

sponte sua, satis id placabat pectora donum. 

glandiferas inter curabant coqjora quercus 

plerumque ; et quae nunc hiberno tempore cemis 940 

arbita puniceo lieri matura colore, 

plurima tum tellus etiam maiora ferebat. 

multaque praeterea novitas tum florida mundi 

pabula dura tulit, miseris mortalibus ampla. 

at sedare sitim fluvii fontesque vocabant, 945 

ut nunc montibus e magnis decursus aquai 

claru' citat late sitientia saecla ferarum. 

denique nota vagi silvestria templa tenebant 

nymphanim, quibus e scibant umori' fluenta 

lubrica proluvie larga lavere umida saxa, 950 

umida saxa, super viridi stillantia musco, 

et partim plano scatere atque erumpere campo. 

necdum res igni scibant tractare neque uti 

pellibus et spoliis corpus vestire ferarum, 

sed nemora atque cavos montis silvasque colebant 955 

et frutices inter condebant squalida membra 

verbera ventorum vitare imbrisque coacti. 

nec commune bonum poterant spectare neque uUis 

moribus inter se scibant nec legibus uti. 

quod cuique obtulerat praedae fortuna, ferebat 960 

sponte sua sibi quisque valere et vivere doctus. 

et Venus in silvis iungebat corpora amantum ; 

conciliabat enim vel mutua quamque cupido 

vel violenta viri vis atque inpensa libido 

vel pretium, glandes t.tque arbita vel pira lecta. 965 

et manuum mira freti virtute pedumque 

consectabantur silvestria saecla ferarum 

missilibus saxis et magno pondere clavae ; 

multaque vincebant, viubant pauca latebris ; 



saetigerisque pares subu' sic silvestria membra 
nuda dabant terrae nocturno tempore capti, 
circum se foliis ac frondibus involventes. 
nec plangore diera magno solemque per agroa 
quaerebant pavidi palantes noctis in umbris, 
sed taciti respectabant somnoque sepulti, 
dum rosea fece sol inferret IJmina caelo. 
a parvis quod enim consuerant cemere semper 
alterno tenebras et lucem tempore gigni, 
non erat ut fieri posset mirarier umquam 
nec diifidere ne terras aeterna teneret 
nox in perpetuum detracto lumine solis. 
sed magis illud erat curae, quod saecla feiaram 
infestam miseris faciebant saepe quietem. 
eiectique domo fugiebant saxea tecta 
spumigeri suis adventu validive leonis 
atque intempesta cedebant nocte paventes 
hospitibus saevis instrata cubilia fronde. 

Nec nimio tum plus quam nunc mortalia saecla 
dulcia linquebant labentis lumina vitae. 
unus enim tum quisque magis deprensus eorum 
pabula viva feris praebebat, dentibus haustus, 
et nemora ac montis gemitu silvasque replebat 
viva videns vivo sepeliri viscera busto, 
at quos efiiigium servarat corpore adeso, 
posterius tremulas super ulcera taetra teneates 
palmas horriferis accibant vocibus Orcum, 
donique eos vita privarant vermina saeva 
expertis opis, ignaros quid vohiera vellent, 
at non multa virum sub signis milia ducta 
una dies dabat exirio nec turbida ponti i 

aequora fligebant navis ad saxa virosque. 
hic temere in cassum frustra mare saepe coortum 
saevibat leviterque minas ponebat inanis, 
nec poteiat quemquam placidi pclbcia ponti 



subdola pellicere in fraudem ridentibus undis, 1005 

improba naucleri ratio cum caeca iacebat. 

tum penuria detnde cibi tanguentia leto 

membra dabat, contra nunc rerum copia mersat. 

illi inpmdentes ipsi sibi saepe venenum 

vergebant, nurui nunc dant sollertius ipsi. 1010 

Inde casas postquam ac pellis ignemque panirunt, 
et mulier coniuncta viro concessit in uniun 

cognita sunt, prolemque eit se videre creatam, 

tum genus humanum primum mollescere coepit 

ignis enim curavit ut abia corpora frigus 1015 

non ita iam possent caeli sub tegmine feiTe, 

et Venus inminuit viris puerique parentum 

blanditiis (acile ingenium fregere superbum. 

tunc et amicitiem coepemnt iungere aventes 

finitimi inter se nec laedere nec violari, 10» 

et pueros commendarunt muliebreque saeclum, 

vocibus et gestu cum balbe significarent 

imbecillorijm esse aecum misererier omnis. 

nec tamen omnimodis poterat concordia gigni, 

sed bona magnaque pars servabat foedera caste ; 1015 

aut genus huraanum iam tum foret omne peremptum 

nec potuisset adhuc perducere saecla propago. 

At varios linguac sonitus natura subegit 
mittere et utiliias expressit nomina rerum, 
non alia longe ratione atque ipsa videtur 1030 

protrahere ad gestum pueros infantia linguae, 
cum facit ut digito quae sint praesentia monstrent 
sentit enim vim quisquc suam quoad possit abuti. 
comua nata prius vitulo quam frontibus extent, 
illis iratus petit atque infestus inurget. 1035 

at catuli pantherarum scyranique leonum 
unguibus ac pedibus iam tum morsuque repugnant, 
vix etiam cum sunt dentes unguesque creati. 



alitutun porro genus alis omae videmus 

fidere et a pinnis tremulum pccere auxiUatum. 1040 

proinde putare aliquem tum nomina diatribuisse 

rebus ct inde homines didicisse vocabula prinia, 

desiperest. nam cur hic posset cuncta notare 

vocibus et varios sonitus emittere linguae, 

tempore eodem alii iacere id non quisse putentui ? 1045 

praeterea si non alii quoque vocibus usi 

inter se fiterant, unde insita notities est 

utilitatis et unde data est huic prima potestas, 

quid vellet iacere ut sciret animoque videret ? 

cogere item pluris unus victosque domare loso 

non poterat, rerum ut perdiscere nomina vellent. 

nec ratione docere ulla suadereque surdis, 

quid sit opus facto, facilest ; neque enim paterentur 

nec ratione ulla sibi feirent amplius auris 

vocis inauditos sonitus obtundere fhislra. 1055 

postremo quid in hac mirabile tantoperest re, 

si genus humanum, cui vox et lingua vigeret, 

pro vario sensu varia res voce notaret? 

cum pecudes mutae, cum denique saecla ferarum 

dissimilis soleant voces variasque ciere, :o6o 

cum metus aut dolor est et cum iam gaudia gUscunt, 

quippe etenim llcet id rebus cognoscere apertis. 

inritata canum cum priraum magna Molossum 

moUia ricta fremunt duros nudantia dentes, 

longe alio sonitu rabie restricta minantur, 1065 

et cum iam latrant et vocibus omnia complenL 

et catulos blande cum lingua lambere temptant 

aut ubi eos iactant pedibus morsuque petentes 

suspensis teneros imitantur dentibus haustus, 

longe alio pacto gannitu vocis adulant, 1070 

et cum deserti baubantur in aedibus aut cum 

plorautis fugiunt summisso corpore plagas. 

denique non binnitus item diffene videtur, 



inter equas ubi equus florenti aeEate iuvencus 

pinnigeri saevii calcaribus ictus amoris, 1075 

et fremitum patulis ubi naribus edit ad arma, 

et cum sic alias concussis artibus hinnit? 

prostremo genus alituum variaeque volucres, 

accipitres atque ossifi-agae mergique marinis 

fluctibus in salso victum vitamque petentes, 1080 

longe alias alio iaciunt in terapore voces, 

et quom de victu certant praedaeque repugnant. 

et partim mutant cum tempestatibus una 

raucisonos cantus, comicum ut saecla vetusta 

corvorumque greges ubi aquam dicuntur et imbris 1085 

poscere et interdum ventos aurasque vocare. 

eigo si varii sensus animalia cogunt, 

muta tamen cum sint, varias emittere voces, 

quanto mortalis magis aecumst tum potuisse 

dissimilis alia atque alia res voce notare I 1090 

[Illud in iiis rebus tacitus ne forte requiras, 
fulmen detulit in terram niortalibus ignem 
primitus, inde omnis flaramamm diditur ardor. 
multa videmus enim caclcstibus inlita flammis 
fulgere, cum caeli donavit plaga vapore. 1095 

et ramosa tamen cum ventis pulsa vacillans 
aestuat in ramos incumbens arboris arbw, 
exprimitur vaiidis extritus viribus ignis 
et micat interdum flammai fervidus ardor, 
mutua dum inter se rami stirpesque terantur. 1100 

quomm utnimque dedisse potest mortalibus ignem. 
inde cibum coquere ac flammae mollire vapore 
sol docuit, quoniam mitescere multa videbant 
verberibus radior^im atque aestu victa per agros. 

Inque dies magis hi victum vitamque priorem 1103 
commutare novis monstrabant rebu' benigni, 
ingenio qui praestabant et corde vigebant. 
condere coeperont urbis arcemque locare 



praesidium reges ipsi sibi petfugiumque, 

et pecus atque agros diviscre atque dedere iito 

pro fecie cuiusque et viribua ingenioque : 

nam facies multum valuit viresque vigentes. 

posterius res inventast aurumque repertum, 

quod facile et validis et pulchris dempsit honoicm ; 

divilioris entm sectam plerumque secuntur 1115 

quaralubet et fortes et pulchro corpore creti. 

quod siquis vera vitam ratione gubernet, 

divitiae giuDdes homini sunt vivere parce 

aequo animo ; neque enim est umquam penuria parvi. 

at claros homines volueruat se atque potentes, iizo 

ut riindamento stabili fortuna maneret 

et placidam possent opulenti degere vitam, 

nequiquam, quoniam ad summum succedere honorem 

certantes iter infestum fecere viai, 

et tamen e summo, quasi fulmen, deicit ictos 1125 

invidia interdum contemptim in Tartara taetra ; 

invidia quoniara, ceu fulmine, summa vaporant 

pleruraque et quae sunt aliis magis edita cumque ; 

ut satius multo iam sit parere quietum 

quam regere imperio res velle et regna tenere. 1130 

proinde sine incassum defessi aanguine sudent, 

angustum per iter luctantes ambitionis ; 

quandoquidem sapiunt alieno ex ore petuntque 

res ex auditis potius quam sensibus ipsis, 

nec magis id nunc est neque erit mox quam fuit ante. 1 135 

Ergo regibus occisis subversa iacebat 
pristina maiestas soliorum et sceptra superba, 
et capitis summi praeclarum insigne cruentum 
sub pedibus vulgi magnum lugebat honorem ; 
nam cupide conculcatur nirais ante metutum. 1140 

res itaque ad summam faecera turbasque rediliat, 
imperium sibi cum ac summatum quisque petebat 
inde magistratura partim docuere creare 



iuraque constituere, ut vellenl legibus uti. 

nam genus humanum, defessum vi colere aevom, 1145 

ex iDimicittis languebat ; quo magis ipsum 

sponte sua cecidit sub lcges artaque iura. 

acrius ex Jra quod enim se quisque parabat 

ulcisci quam nunc concessumst legibus aequis, 

hanc ob rem est homines pertaesum vi colere aevom. 1150 

inde metus maculat poenarum praemia vitae. 

circumretit enim vis atque iniuria quemque 

atque, unde exortast, ad eum pierumque revertit, 

nec facilest placidam ac pacatam degere vitam 

qui violat factis communia foedera pacis. 1155 

etsi fallit enim divom genus humanumque, 

perpetuo tamen id fore clam diffidere debet ; 

quippe ubi se multi per somnia saepe loquentes 

aut morbo delitantes protraxe ferantur 

et celata mala in medium et peccata dedisse]. 1160 

Nunc quae causa deum per magnas numina gentis 
pervulgarit et ararum compleverit urbis 
suscipiendaque curarit soUemnia sacra, 
quae nunc in magnis florent sacra rebu' locisque, 
unde etiam nunc est moitaJibus insitus hoiror 1165 

qui delubra deum nova toto suscitat orbi 
terramm et festis cogit celebrare diebus, 
non ita diflicilest rationem reddere verbis. 
quippe etenim iam tum divom mortalia saeda 
egregias animo facies vigilante videbant 1170 

et magis in somnis mirando corporis auctu. 
his igitur sensum tribuebant propterea quod 
membra movere videbantur vocesque superbas 
mittere pro facie praeclara et viribus amplis. 
aetemamque dabant vitam, quia semper eorum 11 75 
subpeditabatur facies et forma manebat, 
et tamen omnino quod tantis viribus auctos 
noa teraere ulia vi convinci posse putabaut 



fortunisque ideo longe praestare putabant, 

quod mortis timor tiaut queraquam vexaret eoram, iiSo 

et simul in soranis quia multa et mira videbant 

eflicere et nullum capere ipsos inde laborem. 

praeterea caeli rationes ordine certo 

et varia annonim cemebant tempora verti 

nec poterant quibus id tieret cognoscere causis. 1185 

ergo perfugium sibi habebant omnia divis 

tradere et illorum nutu facere omnia flecti. 

in caeloque deum sedes et templa locarunt, 

per caelum volvi quia nox et luna videtur, 

luna dies et nox et noctis signa severa 1190 

noctivagaeque faces caeli flammaeque volantes, 

nubila sol Imbres nix venti fulmina grando 

et rapidi fremitus et murmura magna minanim. 

O genus infelix humanum, talia divis 
cum tribuit facU atque iras adiunxit acerbas ! 1195 

quantos tum gemitus ipsi sibi, quantaque nobis 
volnera, quas lacrimas peperere minoribu' nostris I 
nec pjetas ullast velatum saepe videri 
vertier ad lapidem atque onmis accedere ad aras 
nec procumbere humi prostratum etpanderepalmas ikk> 
ante deum deiubra nec aras sanguine multo 
spargere quadrupedum nec votis nectere vota, 
sed mage pacata posse omnia mente tueri, 
nam cum suspicimus magni caelestia mimdi 
templa, super stellisque micantibus aetbera fixum, 1205 
et venit in mentem solis tunaeque viarum, 
tunc aliis oppressa maiis in pectora cura 
illa quoque expergeiactum caput erigere infit, 
nequae fbrte deum nobis inmensa potestas 
sit, vario motu quae candida sidera verset. izio 

temptat enim dubiam mentem rationis egestas, 
ecquaenam fuerit mundi genitalis origo, 
et simul ecquae sit fUiis, quoad moenia mundi 



solliciti motus hunc possint ferre laborem, 
an divinitus aetema donata salute 1215 

perpetuo posslnt aevi labentia tractu 
inmensi validas aevi contemnere viris. 
praeterea cui non animus fonnidine divum 
contrahitur, cui non conepunt membra pavore, 
fulrainis hoiribili cum plaga torrida tellus 1220 

contrerait et magnum percurrunt murmura caelum? 
non populi gentesque tremunt, regesque superbi 
corripiunt divum percussi membra timore, 
nequid ob admissum foede dictumve superbe 
poenanim grave sit solvendi tempus adultum? 1225 
summa etiam cum vis violenti per mare venti 
induperatorem classis super aequora verrit 
cum validis pariter legionibus atque elephantis, 
non divom pacem votis adit ac prece quaesit 
ventorum pavidus paces aniraasque secundas, 1130 

nequiquam, quoniam violento turbine saepe 
correptus nilo fertur minus ad vada leti ? 
usque adeo res humanas vis abdita quaedam 
^pterit et pulchros fascis saevasque secures 
proculcare ac ludibrio sibi habere videtur. 1135 

denique sub pedibus tellus cum tota vacillat 
concussaeque cadunt urbes dubiaeque minantur, 
quid mirum si se temnunt mortalia saecla 
atque potestatis magnas mirasque relinqunt 
in rebus viris divum, quae cuncta gubement? 1140 

Quod superest, aes atque aurum femimque repertumst 
et simul argenti pondus plumbique potestas, 
ignis ubi ingentis silvas ardore cremarat 
montibus in raagnis, seu caeli fulmine misso, 
sive quod inter se bellum silvestre gerentes 134S 

hostibus intulerant ignem formidinis ergo, 
sive quod inducti terrae bonitate volebant 
pandeie agros pinguis et pascua reddere rura, 



sive feras interficere et ditescere pracda. 

nam fovea atque igni prius est venarier orCum 1350 

quam saepire plagis saltum canibusque ciere. 

quidquid id est, quacumque e causa Aammcus ardor 

hoiribili sonitu silvas exederat alcis 

ab radicibus et terram percoxerat igni, 

manabat venis ferventibus in loca terrae 1355 

concava conveniens argenti rivus et auri, 

aeris itera et plumbi. quae cum concreta videbant 

posterius claro in terra splendere colore, 

toUebant nitido capti levique lepore, 

et simili formata videbant esse Agura ii6o 

atque lacunanim fuerant vestigia cuique. 

tum penetrabat eos posse haec liquefacta calore 

quamlibet in formam et faciem decurrere rerum 

et prorsum quamvis in acuta ac tenvia posse 

mucronum duci fastigia procudendo, 1265 

ut sibi tela darent, silvasque ut caedere possent 

materiemque dolare et levia radere tigna 

et terebrare etiam ac pertundere perque forare. 

nec minus argento facere liaec auroque parabant 

quam validi primum violentis viribua aeris, 1370 

nequiquam, quoniam cedeliat victa potestas 

nec poterat pariter durum sufTeiTe laborem. 

tum fuit in pretio magis aes aunimque iacebat 

propter inutilitatem het>eti mucrone retusum. 

nunciacetaes,auniminsummumsuccessit honorem. 1:75 

sic volvenda aetas commutat tempora rerum. 

quod fuit in pretio, fit nullo denique honore ; 

porro aliut succedit et e contemptibus exit 

mque dies magis adpetitur floretque repertum 

laudibus et miro est mortalis inter honore. i:So 

Kunc tibi quo pacto ferri natura reperta 
sit facilest ipsi per te cognosccre, Memmi. 
arma antiqua manus ungucs dentesque fuexunt 



et lapides et item silvanim fri^mina rami, 

et flamma atque ignes, postquam sunt cognita primum. 

posterius ferri vis est aerisque reperta. ij86 

at prior aeris erat quam ferri cognitus usus, 

quo facilis magis est natura et copia maior. 

aere solum terrae tractabant, aereque belli 

mtscebant fluctus et vulnera vasta serebant 1x90 

el pecus atque agros adiraebant ; nam facile ollis 

omnia cedebant armatis nuda et ineraia. 

inde roinutatira processit ferreus ensis 

versaque in obprobium species est falcis ahenae, 

et ferro coepere solum proscindere terrae legs 

exaequataque sunt crfperi certamina belli. 

et prius est annatiim in eqni conscendere costas 

et rooderarier hunc frenis dextraque vigere 

quam biiugo cumi belli teraptare pericla. 

et biiugos prius est quam bis coniungere binos 1300 

et quam falciferos annatum escendere currus. 

inde boves lucas turrito corpore, taetras, 

anguimanus, belli docucrunt volnera Poeni 

sufferre et magnas Martis turbare catervas. 

sic alid ex alio peperit discordia tristis, 1305 ' 

horribile humanis quod gentibus esset in armis, 

inque dies belli terrorJbus addidit augmen. 

Temptarunt etiam tauroa in moenere belli 
expertique sues saevos sunt mittere in hostis. 
et valtdos partim prae se misere leoncs 1310 

cum doctoribus armatis saevisque magistris 
qui moderarier his possent vinclisque tenere, 
nequiquam, quoniam permixta caede calentes 
turbabant saevi nullo discrimine turmas, 
temficas capitum quatientes undique cristas, 1315 

nec poterant equites fremitu perterrila equoram 
pectora mulcere et frenis convertere in hostis. 
inritata leae iaciebant corpora saltu 



undique et adversum venieniibus ora petebant 
et nec opinantis a tergo deripiebant i 

deplexaeque dabant in tenam volnere victos, 
morsibus adfixae validis atque unguibus uncis, 
iactabantque suos tauri pedibusque terebant 
et latera ac ventres hauribant supter equorum 
comibus et tenam minitanri &onte mebant. ■ 

et validis socios caedebaot dentibus apn 
tela infracta suo tingucntes sanguine saevi, 
in se fracta suo tinguentes sanguine tela 
permixtasque dabant equitum peditumque ruinas. 
nwn transverea ieros exibant dentis adactus i 

iumenta aut pedibua ventos erecta petebant, 
nequiquam, quoniam ab nervis succisa videres 
concidere atque graviieiram constemere casu. 
siquos ante domi domitos satis esse putabant, 
cffervescere cemebant in rebus agundis i 

volneribus clamore fuga terrore tumultu, 
nec poterant u]km partem redducere eorum ; 
diffugiebat enim varium genus omne ferarum ; 
ut nunc saepe boves lucae ferro male mactae 
diffugiunt, fera (ata suis cum multa dedere. i 

[si fuit ut iacerent sed vix adducor ut ante 
non quierint animo praesentire atquc videre 
quam commune malum Aeret foedumque futumm 
et magis id possis factum contendere in omni 
in variis mundis varia ratione creatis ■ 

quam certo atque uno terramm quolibet orbi] 
sed lacere id non tam vincendi spe voluerunt, 
quam dare quod gemerent hostes, ipsique perire, 
qui numero diffidebant armisque vacatwnt. 

Nexilis ante fuit vestis quam textile tegmen. i 
textile post femimst, quia ferro tela paratur, 
nec ratione alia possunt tam levia gigni 
insilia ac fusi ladii scapique sonantes. 



et facere ante viros lanam natura coegit 

quam muliebre genus ; nam longe praestat in arte 1355 

et soUertius est multo genus omne virile j 

agricolae donec vitio vertere severi, 

ut muliebribus id manibus concedere vellent 

atque ipsi pariter durum sufTeire laborem 

atque opere in duro dutarent raerabra manusque, 1360 

At specimen sationis et insitionis origo 
iptsa fuit rerura primum natura creatrix, 
arboribus quoniam bacae glandesque caducae 
tempestiva dabant puliorum examina supter ; 
unde etiam Ijbitumst stirpis committere ramts T365 

et nova defodere in terram virgulta per agros. 
inde aliam atque aliam culturam dulcis agelli 
temptabwt fructusque feros mansuescere terram 
cemebant indulgendo blandeque colendo. 
inque dies magis in montem succedere silvas 1370 

cogebant infraque locum concedere cultis, 
prata lacus rivos segetes vinetaque laeta 
collibus et campis ut haberent, atque oleanim 
caerula distinguens inter plaga currere posset 
per tumulos et convallis camposque profusa ; 1375 

ut nunc esse vides vario distincta lepore 
omnia, quae pomis intersita dulcibus omant 
arbusttsque tenent felicibus opsita circum. 

At liquidas aviura voces imitarier ore 
ante fuit multo quam levia carmina cantu 13S0 

concelebrare homines possent aurisque iuvare. 
et zephyri, cava per calaraorum, sibila primura 
agrestis docuere cavas indare cicutas. 
inde minutatim dulcis didicere querellas, 
tibia quas.fundit digitts pulsata canentum, 1385 

avia per nemora ac silvas saltusque reperta, 
per loca pastorum deserta atque otia dia. 
haec animos ollis mulcebant atque iuvabant 1390 



cum satiate cibi ; nam tum haec sunt omnia cordi. 

saepe itaque inter sc prostrati in gramine molli 

propter aquae rivom sub ramis arboris altae 

non magnis opibus iucunde corpora habebant, 

praesertim cum tempestas ridebat et anni 1395 

terapora pingebant viridantis doribus herljas. 

tum ioca, tum sermo, tum dulces esse cachinni 

consuerant. agrestis enim tum musa vigebat; 

tum caput atque umeros plexis redimire coronis 

floritnis et foliis lascivia laeta monebat, 1400 

atque extra numerum procedere membra moventes 

duriter et duro terram pede pellere matrem ; 

unde oriebantur risus dulcesque cachinni, 

omnia quod nova tum magis haec et mira vigebant. 

et vigilanlibus hinc aderant solacia somni, 1405 

ducere multimodis voces et flectere cantus 

et supera calamos unco percurrere labro ; 

unde etiam vigiles nunc haec accepta tuentur 

et numerum servare recens didicere, neque hilo 

maiorem interea capiunt dulcedini' fructum T410 

quam silvestre genus capiebat terrigenanim. 

nam quod adest praesto, nisi quid cognovimus ante 

suavius, in primis placet et pollere videtur, 

posteriorque fere melior res illa reperta 

perdit et immutat sensus ad pristlna quaeque, 1415 

sic odium coepit glandis, sic illa relicta 

Strata cubilia sunt herbis et frondibus aucta. 

pellis item cecidit vestis contempta ferinae ; 

quam reor invidia tali tunc esse repertam, 

Ut letum insidiis qui gessit primus obiret, i4>o 

et tamen inter eos distractam sanguine multo 

disperiisse neque in fructum convertere quisse. 

tunc igitur pelles, nunc aurura et purpura curis 

exercent hominum vitam belloque fatigant ; 

quo magis in nobis, ut opinor, culpa resedit. 1415 



frigus enim nudos sine pellibus excniciabat 

terrigenas ; at nos nJl laedJt veste carere 

purpurea atque auro signisque ingentibus apta, 

dum plebeia tamen sit quae defendere possit. 

ergo hominum gcnus incassum frustraque laborat 1430 

semper et in curis consumit ioanibus aevom, 

nimirum quia non cognovit quae sit habendi 

finis et omnino quoad crescat vera voluptas. 

idque minutatim vitam provexit in altum 

et Ijelli magnos commovit funditus aestus. 143S 

At vigiles mundi magnum veraatile templum 
sol et luna suD lustiantes lumine circum 
perdocuere homines annorum tempora verti 
et certa tatione geri rem atque ordine certo. 

lam validis saepti degebant turribus aevom 1440 
et divisa colebatur discretaque tellus, 
iam mare velivolis florebat puppibus ; urbes 
auxilia ac socios iam pacto foedere habebant, 
carminibus cum res gestas coepere poetae 
tradere ; nec multo priu' sunt eleraenta reperta. 144S 
propterea quid sit prius actum rcspicere aetas 
nostra nequit, nisi qua ratio vestigia monstrat. 

Navigia atque agri culturas moenia leges 
arma vias vestes et cetera de genere horam, 
praemia, delicias quoque vitae funditus omnis, 1450 

carmina picturas, et daedala signa polire, 
usus et impigrae simul experientia mentis 
paulatim docuit pedetemtim progredientis. 
sic unuraquicquid paulatim protrahit aelas 
in medium ratioque in luminis erigit oras. 1455 

namque alid ex alio clarescere et ordine debet 
artibus, ad summum donec venere cacumen. 





Primae frugiparos fetus mortalibus aegris 
didideiUDt quondam praeclaro nomine Athenae 
et recreavemnt vitam legesque rogarunt, 
et primae dederunt solacia dulcia vicae, 
cum genuere virum tali cum corde repertum, 
omnia veridico qui quondara ex orc profudit ; 
cuius et extincti propter divina reperta 
divolgata velus iam ad caelum gloria fertur. 
nam cum vidit hic ad victum quae tlagitat usus 
omnia iam ferme mortalibus esse parata 
et, proquam posset, vitam consistere tutara, 
divitiis homines et honore et laude potentis 
affluere atque bona gnatoram excellere fama, 
nec minus esse domi cuiquam tamen anxia corda, 
atque animi ingratis vitam vexare sine ulla 
pausa atque infestis cogei saevire querellis, 
intellegit ibi vitium vas eflicere ipsum 
omniaque illius vitio comimpier intus 
quae conlata foris et commoda cumque venirent ; 
partim quod fluxum pertusumque esse videbat, 
ut nulla posset ratione explerier umquam; 
pariim quod taetro quasi conspurcare sapore 
omnia cemebat, quaecumque receperat, intus. 



veridicis igitur purgavit pectora dictis 
et finem statuit cuppedinis atque timoris a 

exposuitque bonum summum quo tendimus omaes 
quid foret, atque viam monstravit, tramite parvo 
qua possemus ad id recto contendere cursu, 
quidve mali foret in rebus mortalibu' passim, 
quod fieret naturali varieque volaiet 3 

seu casu seu vi, quod sic natura parasset, 
et quibus e pottis occurri cuique deceret, 
et genus humanum fhistra pkniraque probavit 
volvere curarum tristis in pectore fluclus. 
nam veiuti pueri trepidant atque omnia caecis 3 

in tenebris metuunt, sic nos in luce timemus 
interdum, nilo quae sunt metuenda magis quam 
quae pueri in ttnebris pavitant linguntque futura. 
hunc tgitur terrorem animi tenebrasque necessest 
non radii solis nec lucida tela diei 4 

discutiant, sed naturae species ratioque. 
quo magis inceptum pergam pertexere dictis. 
Et quoniam docui mundi mortalia templa 
esse et nativo conststere corpore caelum, 
et quaecumque in eo iiunt fierique necessest, 4 

pleraque ressolui, quae rcstant percipe porro, 
quandoquidem semel insignem conscendere curmm 

ventorum, ex ira ut placentur, ut omnia rursum 

quae fuerint sint placatO conversa fiirore. 

cetera quae fieri in terris caeloque tuentur j 

mortales, pavidis cum pendent mentibu' saepe, 

et faciunt animos humilis forraidine divom 

depressosque premunt ad terram propterea quod 

ignorantia causanim conferre deorum 

cogit ad imperium res et concedere regnum. ; 

nam bene qui didicere deos securum agere aevom, 

si tamen interea mirantur qua ratione 



quaeque geri possint, praesertim rebus in illis 
quae supera caput aethcriis cemuntur in oris, 
rursus in antiquas referuntur religionis 
et dominos acris adsciscunt, omnia posse 
quos miseri credunt, ignari quid queat esse, 
quid nequeat, finita potestas denique cuique 
quanam sit rationi atque alte terminus haerens j 
quo magis eirantes caeca ratione fenintur. 
quae nisi respuis ex animo longeque remittis 
dis indigna putare alienaquc pads eorura, 
delibata deum per te tibi numina sancta 
saepe oberunt ; non quo violari summa deum vis 
possit, ut ex ira poenas petere inbibat acris, 
sed quia tute tibi placida cum pace quietos 
constitues magnos irarum volvere fluctus, 
nec deiubra deum placido cum pectore adibis, 
nec de corpore quae sancto simulacra fenmtur 
in mentes hominum divinae nuntia formae, 
suscipere haec animi tranquilla pace valebis. 
inde videre licet qualis iam vita sequatur. 
quam quidem ut a nobis ratio verissima longe 
reiciat, quamquam sunt a me multa profecta, 
multa tamen restant et sunt omanda politis 
versibus; est ratio caeli speciesque tenenda, 
sunt tempestates et fulmina ctara canenda, 
quid faciant et qua de causa cumque ferantur : 
ne trepides caeli divisis partibus amens, 
unde volans ignis pervenerit aut in utram se 
verterit hinc partim, quo pacto per loca saepta 
insinuarit, el hinc dominatus ut extulerit se. 
tu mihi supremae praescribta ad candida calcis 
ciurenti spatium ])raemonstra, callida musa 
Calliope, requies hominura divoraque voluptas, 
te duce ut insigni capiam cum laude coronam. 
Principio tonitru quatiu:itur caeruk caeli 



propterea quia coDcumint sublime volantes 

aetheriae nubea contia pugnantibu' vends. 

nec fit eniin sonitus caeli de parte serena, 

venim ubicumque magis denso sunt agmine nuties, loo 

tam magis hinc nagao fremitus fit murmure saepe. 

praeterea neque tam condenso coipore nubes 

esse queunt quam sunt lapides ac tigna, neque autem 

tam tenues quam sunt nebulae fumique volantes ; 

nam cadere aut bruto deberent poudere pressae 105 

ut lapides, aut ut fumus constare nequirent 

nec cohibere nives gelidas et grandlnis imbris. 

dant etiam sonitum patuli super aequora mundi, 

carbasus ut quondam magnis intenta theatris 

dat crepitum raalos inter iactata trabesque ; 110 

interdum perscissa furit petulantibus auris 

et fragilis sonitus chartarum commeditatur : 

id quoque enim genus in tonitru cogooscere possis : 

aut ubi suspensam vestem chartasve volantis 

verberibus venti versant pianguntque per auras. iij 

fit quoque enim interdum ut non tara concuirere nubes 

frontibus adversis possint quam de latere ire 

diverso motu radentes corpora tractim, 

aridus unde auris terget sonus ille diuque 

ducitur, exierunt donec regionibus aitis. lao 

Hoc etiam pacto tonitiu concussa videntur 
omnia saepe gravi tremere et divolsa repente 
maxima dissiluisse capacis moenia mundi, 
cum subito validi vend conlecta procella 
nubibus intorsit sese conclusaque ibidem 125 

turbine versanti magis ac magis undique nubem 
cogit uti fiat spisso cava corpore circum, 
post ubi comminuit vis eius el impetus acer, 
tum peiterricrepo sonitu dat scissa fragorem. 
nec miram, cum plena animae vensicula parva 130 

saepe ita dat torvum sonitum displosa repente. 



Est etiam ratio, cum venti nubila perflant, 
ut sonitus faciant. etenitn ratnosa viderous 
nubila saepe modia multis atque aspera fem ; 
scilicet ut, crebram silvam cum flamina cauri 135 

perilant, dant sonitum &ondes ramique fiagorem. 
fit quoque ut interdum validi vis incita venti 
perscindat nubem perfringens impete recto. 
nam quid possit ibi flatus manifesta docet res, 
hic, ubi lcnior est, in terra cum tamen alta 140 

arbusta evolvens radidbus haurit ab imis. 
sunt etiam fluctus per nubila, qui quasi murmur 
dant in fragendo graviter ; quod item fit Jn altis 
fluminibus magnoque mari, cum frangltur aestus. 
fit quoque, ubi e nubi in nubem vis incidit ardens 145 
futminis, haec multo si forte umore recepit 
ignem, continuo ut magno cla.more trucidet ; 
ut calidis candens ferrum e fomacibus olim 
stridit, ubi in gehdum propere demersimus Imbrem. 
aridior porro si nubes accipit ignem, 150 

uritur ingenti sonitu succensa repeote ; 
lauricomos ut si per montis flamma vagetur 
turbine ventorum coraburens impete magno ; 
nec res ulla n^s quam Phoebi Delphica laurus 
terribiLi sonitu flamma crepitante crematur. 153 

denique saepe geli multus fragor atque ruina 
grandinis in magnis sonitum dat nubibus alte. 
ventus enim cum confercit, franguntur, in artum, 
concreti montes nimborum et grandine mixti. 

Fulgit item, nubes ignis cum semina multa 160 

excussere suo concursu ; ceu lapidem si 
percutiat lapis aut ferrum ; nam tum quoque lumea 
exilit et claras scintillas dissipat ignis. 
sed tonitrum fit uti post auribus accipiamus, 
fulgere quam cemant ocuii, quia semper ad auris i6j 
tardius advcniunt quam visum quae moveant res. 



id Iicet hinc etiam cognoscere : caedere si quem 

andpiti videas ferro procul arboris auctuni, 

ante fit ut cemas ictum quam plaga pcr auris 

det sonitum ; sic fiilgOTem quoque cemimus ante 170 

quam tonitnim accipimus, pariter qui mittitur igni 

e simili causa, concur^ natus eodem. 

Hoc etiam pacto volucri loca lumine tingunt 
nubes et tremulo tempestas impete fiilgit. 
ventus ubi invasit nubem et veisatus ibidem 175 

fecit ut ante cavam docui spissescere nubem, 
mobilitate sua fcrvescit ; ut omnia motu 
percalefacta vides ardescere, plumbea vero 
glans etiam longo cursu volvenda liquescit 
ergo fervidus hic nubem cum perscidit atram, 180 

dissipat ardoris quasi per vim expressa repente 
semina quae faciunt nictantia fulgura ftammae ; 
inde sonus sequitur qui tardius adficit auris 
quam quae petveniunt oculonim ad lumina uostra. 
scilicet hoc densb fit nubibus et simul alte 185 

extructis aiiis alias super impete miio ; 
ne tibi sit fhidi quod nos infeme videmus 
quam sint lata magis quam sursum extructa quid extenL 
contemplatoi enim, cum montibus adsimukta 
nubila portabunt venti transversa per auras, 190 

aut ubi per magnos montis cumulata videbis 
insuper esse alils alia atque urguere supeme 
in statione locata sepultis undique ventis : 
tum poteris magnas moles ct^oscere eonim 
speluncasque velut saxis pcndentibu' stractas 195 

ceraere, quas venti cum tempestate coorta 
conplerunt, magno ind^antur murmure cjausi 
nubibus in caveisque ferarum more minantur; 
nunc hinc nunc illinc fremitus per nubila mittunt 
quaerentesque viam circum versantur et ignis 200 

semina convolvunt e nubibus atque ita cogunt 



multa Totantque cavis flatnmam fornactbus intus, 
donec divolsa tulserunt nube corusci. 

Hac etiam fit uti de causa mobilis ille 
devotet in terram liquidi color aureus ignis 
semina quod nubes ipsas pemiulta necessust 
ignis habere j etenim cum sunt umore sine ullo, 
tkmmeus est plerumque coios et splendidus ollis. 
quin etiam solis de lumine multa necessest 
concipere, ut merito rubeant ignesque piofundant. ^ 
hasce igitur cum ventus agens contrusit in unum 
compressitque locura cogens, expressa profundunt 
semina quae faciunt flammae fulgere colores. . 
fiilgit item, cum rarescunt quoque nubtia caeli. 
nam cum ventus eas leviter diducit euntis : 

dissoluitque, cadant ingratis illa necessest 
semina quae faciunt fiilgorera. tum sine taetro 
terrore et sonitu fulgit nuUoque tumultu. 

Quod superest, quali natura praedita cotistent 
Aitmina, declarant ictus et inusta vaporis ; 

signa notaeque gravis halantis sulpuris auras. 
ignis enim sunt haec non venti signa nequc imtnis. 
praeterea saepe accendunt quoque tecta domonim 
et ceteri flamma dominantur in aedibus ipsis. 
hunc tibi subtilem cum primis ignibus ignem 
constituit natura minutis mobilibusque 
corporibus, cui nil omnino ot>sistere possit. 
transit enim vatidum futmen per saepta domoram, 
clamor ut ac voces, transit per saxa, per aera, 
et tiquidum puncto facit aes in tempore et aurum, : 
curat item vasis integris vina repente 
dilTugiant, quia nimirum facite omnia circum 
contaxat rareque facit lateramina vasis 
adveniens calor eius et insinuatus in ipsum 
mobiiiter soluens diHert primordia vini. s 

quod solis vapor aetatem non posse videtur 



efficere usque adeo pellens fervoie comsco : 
tanto mobilior vis et dominantior haec est. 

Nunc ca quo pacto gignantur et impete tanto 
fiant ut possint ictu discludere lurrjs, 
disturbare domos, avellere tigna trabesque, 
et monimenta virum demoliri atque cremare, 
exanimare homines, pecudes prostemere passim, 
cetera de genere hoc qiia vl facere omnia possint, 
expediam, neque te in promissis pluta morabor. 

Fulmina gignier e crassis alteque puiandumst 
nubibus extructis i nam caelo nulla sereno 
nec leviter densis mittuntur nubibus umquam. 
nam dubio procii! hoc fieri manifesta docet res ; 
quod tum per totum concrcscunt aera nubes, : 

undique uti tenebras oranig Acherunta reamur 
liquisse et magnas caeti complcsse cavemas ; 
usque adeo taetra nimborum nocte coorta 
inpendent atrae formidinis ora supeme 
cum commoliri tempestas (ulmina coeptat. j 

praeterea persaepe niger quoque per mare nimbus, 
ut ptcis e caelo demissum fiumen, in undas 
sic cadit efTertus tenebris procul et trahit alram 
fulminibus gravidam tempestatem atque procellis, 
ignibus ac ventts cum primis ipse repletus, a 

in terra quoque ut horrescant ac tecta requirant. 
sic igitur supera nostrum caput esse putandumst 
tempestatem altam. neque enim caligine tanta 
obmerent terras, nisi inaedificata supeme 
multa forent multis exempto nubila sole ; i 

nec tanto possent venientes opprimere Jmbri, 
flumina abundare ut facerent camposque natare, 
si non extmctis foret alte nubibus aether. 
hic igitur ventis atque ignibus omnia pleiia 
sunt ; ideo passim fremitus et fulgura fiunt. 2 

quippe elenim supra docui permulta vaporis 



semina habere cavas nubes et multa necessest 

concipere ex solis radiis ardoreque eorum. 

hoc ubi ventus eas idem qui cogit in unum 

forte locum quemvis, expressic multa vaporis 375 

Bemina seque simul cum eo commiscujt jgni, 

insinuatus ibi vortex versatur in arto 

et calidis acuit Tulmen fomacibus intus. 

nam duplici ratione accenditur, ipse sua curo 

mobtlitaEe calescit et e contagibus ignis. z8a 

inde ubi percaluit venti vis et gravis ignis 

impetus incessit, maturum tum quasi fulmen 

perscindit subito nubem, ferturque coniscis 

omnia luminibus lustrans loca perciCus ardor. 

quem gravis insequitur sonitus, displosa repente 285 

opprimere uC caeli videatur templa supeme. 

inde tremor terras graviter pertemptat et altum 

murmura percummt caelum ; nam tota fere tum 

tempestas concussa tremit firemitusque moventur. 

quo de concussu sequitur gravis imber et uber, 290 

omnis uti videatur in imbrem vertier aether 

atque ita praecipitans ad diluviem revocari : 

tantus discidio nubis ventique procella 

mittitur, ardenti sonitus cum provolat ictu. 

est etiam cum vis extrinsecus incila venti 195 

incidit in calidam maCuro fulmine nubem ; 

quam cum peiscidit, extemplo cadit igneus ille 

vertex quem patrio vocitamus nomine fulmen. 

hoc fit idem in partis alias, quocumque tulit vis. 

fit quoque ut interdum venti vis missa sine ignl 300 

igniscat tamen in spatio longoque meatu, 

diim venit, amiccens in cuisu corpora quaedam 

grandia quae nequeunt pariter penetrare per auras ; 

atque alia ex ipso conradens aere portat 

parvola quae faciunt ignem commixta volando ; 305 

Don alja longe ratione ac plumbea saepe 



fervida fit glans in cursu, cum mnlta rigoria 
corpora dimittens ignem concepit in auris. 
fit quoque ut ipsius plagae vis excitet ignera, 
fngida cum venti pepulit vis missa sine igni, 
niminim quia, cum vementi perculit ictu, 
confluere ex ipso possunt elementa vaporis 
et simul ex Ula quae tum res excipit ictum ; 
ut lapidem ferro cum caedimus, evolat ignis, 
Dec, quod frigida vis ferrist, hoc setius illi 
semina coDCurnmt calidi futgoris ad ictum. 
sic igitur quoque res accendi fulmine debet, 
opportuna fuit si forte et idonea flammis. 
nec temere oranino plane vis frigida venti 
esse potest, ea quae tanta vi missa supemest, 
quin, prius in cuisu si non accenditur igni, 
at tepefacta tamen veniat commixta calore. 

Mobilitas autem fit fulminis et gravis ictus, 
et celeri ferme percununt fulmina lapsu, 
nubitms ipsa quod omnino prius incita se vis 
colligit et magnum conamen sumit eundi, 
inde ubi non potuit nubes capere inpetis auctum, 
exprimitui vis atque ideo volat impete miro, 
ut validis quae de tormentis missa ferantur. 
adde quod e parvis et levibus est elementis, 
nec facilest tali naturae opsistere quicquam ; 
inter enim fugit ac penetrat per rara viarum, 
non igitur multis offensibus in remorando 
haesitat, hanc ob rem celeri volat impete labens. 
deinde, quod omnino natura pondera deorsum 
omnia nituntur, cum plagast addita vero, 
mobilitas duplicatur et impetus ille gravescit, 
ut vemenrius et citius quaecumque morantor 
obvia discutiat plagis itinerque sequatur. 
denique quod longo venit impete, sumere debet 
mobilitatem etiam atque etiara, quae crescit eundo 



et validas auget viris et roborat ictuin. 
nam facit ut quae sint illius semina cumque 
e regione locum quasi in unum cuncta feTantur, 
omuia coniciens in eum volventia cursum. 345 

forsitan ex ipso veniens trah^ aere quaedam 
corpora quae plagis incendunt mobilitatem. 
incolumisque venit per res atque integra transtt 
multa, foraminibus liquidus quia transvolat ignis. 
multaque perfringit, cum corpora fulminis ipsa 350 

corporibus rerum inciderunt, qua teKta tenentur. 
dissoluit porro fkcile aes aurumque repente 
confervefacit, e parvis quia facta minute 
corporibus vis est et levibus ex elementis, 
quae tacile insinuantur et insinuata repente 355 

dissoluont nodos omnts et vincla relaxanL 
autumnoque magis steliis fulgentibus apta 
concutitur caeli domus undique totaque tellui, 
et cum temptwa se veris florentia pandunt. 
frigore enim desunt ignes ventique calore 360 

deficiunt neque sunt tam denso corpore nubes, 
interutrasque igitur cum caeli tempora constant, 
tum variae causae concurrunt fulminis omnes. 
nam fretus ipse anni permiscet fiigus et aestum; 
quorum utnimque opus est fabricandaad fulminanubi,365 
ut discordia sit rerum magnoque tumultu 
ignibus et ventis furibundus fluctuet aer. 
prima caloris enim pars et postrema rigoris, 
tempus id est vemum ; quare pugnare necessest 
dissimilis res inter se tm^bareque mixtas. 370 

et calor extremus primo cum frigore mixtus 
volvitur, autumni quod fertur nomine tempus, 
hic quoque confligunt hiemes aestatibus acres. 
propterea freta sunt haec anni nominitanda, 
nec mirumst, in eo si tempore plurima fiunt 37S 

fulmina tempestasque cietur turbida caelo, 



aucipiti quoniam bello (urbatur utriinque, 
hinc flaromis illinc ventis umoreque mixto. 
Hoc est igniferi naturam fulminis ipsam 
perspicere et qua vi faciat rem quamque videre, 
non Tyrrliena relro volventem carmina frustra 
indicia occultae divum perquirere mentis, 
unde volans ignis pervenerit aut in utram se 
verterit hinc partim, quo pacto per loca saepta 
insinuarit, et hinc dominatus ut extulerit se, 
quidve nocere queat de caelo fulminis ictus. 
quod si luppiter atque aiii (ulgentia divi 
terrifico quatiunt sonitu caelestia templa 
et iaciunt ignera quo quoiquesC cumque voluptas, 
cur quibus incautum scelus aversabile cumquest 
non faciunt icti tlammas ut fulguris halent 
pectore perfixo, docnmen morCalibus acre, 
et potius nutla sibi turpi conscius in re 
volvitur in fkmmis innoxius inque peditur 
turbine caelesti subito correptus et igni? 
cur etiam loca sola petunt frustraque laborant? 
an tum bracchia consuescunt firmanlque lacertos? 
in terraque patris cur telum perpetiuntur 
optundi? cur ipse sinit neque parcit in hostis? 
denique cur numquam caelo iacit undique puro 
luppiter in terras fiilmen sonitusque profundit? 
an simul ac nubes successere, ipse in eas tum 
descendit, prope ut hinc celi determinet ictus? 
in mare qua porro mittit ratione? quid undas 
arguit et liquidam molem coraposque natands? 
praeterea si vult cavcamus fulminis ictum, 
cur dubitat facere ut possimus cemere missum? 
si nec opinantis autem volt opprimere igni, 
cur tonat ex illa parte, ut vitare queamus, 
cur tenebras ante et fremitus et murmura concit? 
et simul in multas partis qui credere possis 



mittere? an hoc ausis sumquam contendere factum, 

ut flerent ictus uno sub tempore plures? 

at saepest numero factum fierique necessest, 

ut pluere in raultis regionibus et cadere imbris, 415 

fulmina sic uno fieri sub tempore multa, 

postremo cur sancta deum delubra suasque 

discutit infesto praeclaras fulmlne sedes 

et bene facta deum frangit simulacra suisque 

demit imaginibus violento volnere honorem? 410 

altaque cur plerumque petit loca plurimaque eius 

montibus in summis vestigia cernimus ignis? 

Quod superest, facilest ex his cognoscere rebus, 
presteras Grai quos ab re nominitarunt, 
in mare qiia missi vtniant ratione supeme. 4=5 

nam fit ut interdum tamquam demissa columna 
in mare de caelo descendat, quam freta circum 
fervescunt graviter spirantibus incita flabris, 
et quaecumque in eo tum sint deprensa tumultu 
navigia in siimmum vcniant vexata periclum. 430 

tioc fit ubi interdum non quit vis incita venti 
rumpere quam coepit nubem, sed deprimit, ut sit 
in maie de caelo tamquam demissa columna, 
paulatim, quasi quid pugno bracchique supeme 
coniectu trudatur et extendatur in undas ; 43S 

quam cum discidit, hinc proiumpitur in mare venti 
vis et fervorem mirum concinnat in undis ; 
versabundus enim turbo descendit et illam 
deducit pariter lento cum corpore nubem ; 
quam simul ac gravidam detrusit ad aequora ponti, 440 
ijle in aquam subito totum se inmittit et omne 
excitat ingenti sonitu mare fervere cogens. 
fit quoque ut involvat venti se nubibus ipse 
vertex conradens ex aere semina nubis 
et quasi demissum caelo prestera imitetur. 445 

hic ubi se in terras demisit dlssoluitque, 



turbinis iDinanem vim provomit atque pFOcellae. 
sed quia fit raro omnino montisque necessest 
officere in tenis, apparet crebrius idem 
prospectu maris io magQo caeloque patenti. 450 

Nubila concrescunt, ubi corpora multa volando 
hoc supero in caeli spatio coiere repente 
asperiora, moris quae possint indupedita 
exiguis tamen inter se comprensa teneri. 
haec faciunt primum parvas consistere nubes ; 455 

inde haec comprendunt inter se conque gregantur 
et coniungendo crescunt ventisque feruntur 
usque adeo donec tempestas saeva coortast 
fit quoque uti montis vicina cacumina caelo 
quam sint quoque magis, tanto magis edita fiilneat 460 
adsidue fiirvae nubis caligine crassa 
propterea quia, cum consisCunt nubila primura, 
ante videre oculi quam possint, tenvia, venti 
poriantes cogunt ad summa cacuraina raontis. 
hic demum fit uti turba maiore coorta 465 

et condensa queant apparere et simul ipso 
vertice de montis videantur surgere in aethram. 
nam loca declarat sursum ventosa patere 
res ipsa et sensus, raontis cnm ascendimus altos. 
praeterea permulta mari quoque tollere toto 470 

corpora naturam declarant litore vestes 
suspensae, cum concipiunt umoris adhaesum. 
quo magis ad nubis augendas multa videntur 
posse quoque e salso consurgere momine ponti j 
nam ratio consanguineast umoribus ollis. 475 

praeterea fluviis ex omnibus et simul ipsa 
surgere de terra nebulas aestumque videmus, 
quae velut haiitus hinc ita sursura expressa feruntur 
sufTunduntque sua caelum caligine et altas 
sufficiunt nubis paulatim conveniundo ; 480 

urget enim quoque signiferi super aetheris aestus 



et quasi densendo subtexit caerula nimbis. 

fit quoque ut huc veniant in caelum extrinsecus illa 

corpora quae faciunt nubis nimbosque volantis ; 

innumerabilein enim numemm summamque [vofimdi 485 

esse infinitam docui, quantaque volarent 

corpora mobilitate ostendi quamque repente 

inmemorabile pef spatium transire solerent. 

haut igitur mirumst si parvo tempore saepe 

montibu' tam magnis tempestas atque tenebrae 490 

coperiunt maria ac tenas inpensa superne, 

undique quandoquidem per caulas aetheris omnls 

et quasi per magni circum spiiacula mundi 

exitus introitusque elementis redditus extat. 

Nunc 3ge, quo pacto pluvius concrescat in altis 495 
nubibus umor et in terras demissus ut imber 
dectdat, expediam. primus iam semina aquai 
multa simul vincam consurgere nufaibus ipsis 
omnibus ex rebus pariterque ita crescere utrumque, 
et nubis et aquam quaecumque in nubibus extat, 500 
ut pariter nobis corpus cum sanguine crescit, 
sudor item atque umor quicumque est denique membris. 
concipiunt etiam multum quoque saepe marinum 
umorem, veluti pendentia vellera lanae, 
cum supera magnum mare venti nubila portant 505 
consimili ratione ex omnibus amnibus umor 
tolliiur in nubis. quo cum bene semina aquarum 
multa modis multis convenere undique adaucta, 
confertae nubes umorem mittere certant 
dupliciter ; nam vis venti contrudit et ipsa 510 

copia nimborum turba maiore coacta 
urget, de supero premit ac facit effluere imbris. 
praeterea cum rarescunt quoque nubila ventis 
aut dissolvimtur, solis super icta calore, 
mittunt umorem pluvium stiliantque, quasi igni 515 
cera super calido tabescens multa Uquescat. 



sed vemens imber fit, ubi vementer utraqiie 
nubila vi cumukta premuntur et impete venti. 
atque tenere diu pluviae longumque moiari 
consuerunt, ubi tnulta cientur semina aquaium 5 
atque aliis aliae nubes nimbique rigantes 
insuper atque omni vulgo de parte feruntur, 
terraque cum fumans umorem tota redhalat. 
hic ubi sol radiis tempestatem inter opacam 
adversa fiilsit nimborum aspargine contra, 5 

tum color in nigris existit nubibus arqui. 

Cetera quae sorsum crescunt sorsumque creantur, 
et quae concrescunt in nubibus, omnia, prorsum 
orania, nix venti grando gelidaeque pniinae 
et vis magna gell, magnum duramen aquarum, 5; 

et mora quae fluvios passim refirenat euntis, 
perfacilest tamen hacc reperire animoque videre 
omnia quo pacto fiant quareve creentur, 
cum bene cognoris elementis reddita quae sint. 

Nunc age quae ratio terrai motibus extet 5; 

percipe. et in primis tenam fac ut esse rearis 
supter item ut supera ventosis undique plenam 
speluncis multosque lacus multasque lucunas 
in gremio gerere et rupes deruptaque saxa; 
multaque sub tei^o terrai flumina tecta S^ 

volvere vi fluctus summersaque saxa putandumst ; 
undique enim similem esse sui res postulat ipsa. 
his igitur rebus subiunctis suppositisque 
teira supeme tremit magnis concussa ruinis, 
subter ubi ingentis speluncas submit aetas ; Si 

quippe cadunt toti montes magnoque repente 
concussu late disseipunt inde tremores. 
et merito, quoniam plaustri concussa tremescimt 
tecta viam propter aon magno pondere tota, 
nec minus exultant, ut scrupus cumque viai 5; 

fenatos utrimque rotarum succutit orbes. 



fit quoque, ubi in magnas aqtiae vastasque luctinas 

gleba vestustate e terra provolvitur iugens, 

ut iactetur aquae flQctu quoque terra vacillans ; 

ut vas interdum non quit constare, nisi umor SSS 

destitit in dubio fluctu iactarier intus. 

Praeterea ventus cum per loca subcava terrae 
coliectus parte ex una procumbit et urgct 
obnixus magnis speluncas viribus altas, 
incumbit tellus quo venti prona premit vis. 560 

tum supera terram quae sunt extructa domorum 
ad caelumque magis quanto sunt edita quaeque, 
inclinata tumeiit in eandem prodita partem 
protractaeque trabes inpendent ire paratae. 
et metuunt magni naturam credere mundi 565 

exitiale aliquod tempus clademque manere, 
Cum videant tantam terrarum incumbere molem I 
quod nisi respirent venti, vis nulla refrenet 
res neque ab exitio possit reprehendere euntis. 
nunc quia respiraift aitemis inque gravescunt 570 

et quasi collecti redeunt ceduntque repulsi, 
saepius hanc ob rem minilatur terra ruinas 
quam facit ; inclinatur enim retroque recelUt 
et recipit prolapsa suas in pondera sedes. 
hac igitur ratione vaciliant omnia tecta, 575 

summa magis mediis, media imis, ima perhilum. 

Est haec eiusdem quoque magni causa tremoris, 
ventus ubi atque animae subito vis maxima quaedam 
aut eKtrinsecus aut ipsa tellure coorta 
in loca se cava terrai coniecit ibique 580 

speluncas inter magnas fremit ante turaultu 
versabundaque portatur, post incita cum vis 
ezagitata foras erumpitur et simul altam 
diffindens terrara magnum concinnat hiatum. 
in Syria Sidone quod accidit et fuit Acgi 5S5 

in Peloponneso, quas exitus hic animai 



disturbat urbes et terrae niotus obortus. 

multaque praeterea cecidemnt moeDia siagiiis 

tnotibus in terris et multae per mare pessucn 

subsedere suis pariter cum civibus urbcs. 590 

quod nisi prorumpit, tamen impetus ipse aninuu 

et fera vis venti per crebra foramina terrae 

dispertitur ut hoiror et incutit inde tremorein ; 

frigus uti nostros penitus cum venit in artus, 

concutit invitos cogcns tremere atque movere. 595 

ancipiti trepidant igitur terrore per urbis, 

tecta supeme timent, metuunt infeme cavemas 

terrai ne dissoluat natura repente, 

neu distracta suum late dispandat hiatum 

adque suls confusa velit complere niinis. 600 

proinde licet quamvis caelnm terramque reantur 

incorrupta fore aetemae mandata saluti ; 

et tamen interdum praesens vis ipsa pericli 

subdit et hunc stimulum quadam de parte timoris, 

ne pedibus raptim tellus subtracta feratur . 605 

in barathrum reramque sequatur prodita summa 

fimditus et fiat mimdi confusa mina. 

[Principio mare mirantur non reddere maius 
naturam, quo sit tantus decursus aquamm, 
omnia quo veniant ex omni flumina parte. 610 

adde vagos imbris tempestatesque volantes, 
omnia quae maria ac terras sparguntque rigantque ; 
adde suos fonds ; tamen ad maris omnia summam 
guttai vix instar erunt unius adaugmen ; 
quo minus est mimm mare non augescere magnum. 615 
praeterea magnam sol partem detrahit aestn. 
quippe videmus enim vestis umore madentis 
exsiccare suis radiis ardentibu' solem ; 
at pelage multa et late substrata videmus. 
proinde llcet quamvis ex uno quoque loco sol 610 

umoiis parvam delibet ab aequore partem : 



largiter in tanto spatio tamen auferet undis. 

tum porro venti quoque magnam toUere partem 

nmoris possunt verreQtes aequora, ventis 

mia nocte vias quoniam persaepe videmus 6 

siccari mollisque luti concrescere crustas. 

praeterea docui iniiltum quoque tollere nubes 

umorem magno conceptum ex aequore ponti 

et passim toto terrarum spargere in orbi, 

cnm pluit in terris et venti nubila portant. 6; 

postremo quoniam raro cum corpore tellus 

est, et coniunctast, oras maris undique cingens, 

debet, ut in mare de terris venit umor aquai, 

in terras itidem manare ex aequore salso ; 

percolatur enim virus retroque remanat 6; 

matcries umoris et ad caput amnibus omnis 

confluit, inde super terras redit agmine dulci 

qua via secta semel liquido pede detuUt undas.] 

Nunc ratio quae sit, per fauces montis ut Actnae 
expirent ignes interdum turbine tanto, & 

expediam. neque enim mediocri clade coorta 
flammea tempestas Siculum dominata per agroa 
flnitimis ad se convertit gentibus ora, 
fumida cum caeli scintillare omnia templa 
cementes pavida compiebant pectora cura 6» 

quid moliretur rerum natura novarum. 

Hisce tibi in rebus latest alteque videndum 
et longe cunctas in partis dispiciendum, 
ut reminiscaris summam rerum esse profundam 
et videas caehim summai totius unum 6; 

quam sit parvula para et quam multesima constet, 
nec tota pars, homo terrai quota totius unua. 
quod bene propositum si plane contueare 
ac videas plane, mirari multa relinquas. 
numquis enira nostrum miratur siqiiis in artus 6; 

accepit calido febrim fervore coortam 



aut alium quemvis morbi per membra dolorem ? 
opturgescil enim subito pes, aiTipit acer 
saepe dolor dentes, oculos invadil in ipsos, 
existit saccr ignis et urit cotpore serpens 
quamcumque airipuit partim, re^tque per aitus, 
nimirum quia suat multarum semiua renim, 
et satis haec tellus nobis caelumque mal) fert, 
unde queat vis immensi procrescere morbi. 
sic igitur toti caelo tenaeque putandumst 
cx inlinito satis omaia suppeditare, 
unde repente queat tellus concussa moveri 
perque mare ac tenas rapidus percurrere turbo, 
ignis abundare Aetnaeus, flammesccre caelum ; 
id quoque enim fit et ardescunt caelestia templa, 
et lempestates pluviae graviore coortu 
sunt, ubi forte ita se tetulerunt semina aquaium. 
' at nimis est ingens incendi turbidus ardor.' 
scilicet et fluvius quivis est maximus ei 
qui non ante aliquem maiorem vidit, et ingens 
arbor homoque videtur, et omnia de genere omni 
maxima quae vidit quisque, haec ingeDtia fingit, 
cum tamen omnia cum caelo terraque marique 
nil sint ad summam summai totius omneni. 

Nunc tamen illa modis quibus inritata repente 
flamma foras vastis Aetnae fomacibus efflet, 
expediam. primum totius subcava montis 
est natura, fere silicum suffulia cavemis. 
omnibus est porro in speluncis ventus et aer ; 
ventus enim fit, ubi est agitando percitus aer. 
hic ubi percaluit calefecitque omnia circum 
saxa fiirens, qua contingit, terramque, et ab ollis 
excussit calidum flammis velocibus ignem, 
taUit se ac rectis ita faucibus eicit alte. 
fert itaque ardorem longe longcque favillam 
difieit et crassa volvit caligine furaum 



extruditque simul mirando pondere ■''"fB ; 
ne dubites quin haec animai turbida sit vis. 
praeterea magna ex parti mare montis -ad elus 
radices frangit fluctus aestumque resorbeL 695 

ex hoc usque mari speluncae montis ad altai 
perveniunt subter fauces, hac ire iatendumst 

et penetrare mari penitus res cogit aperto 
atque efflare foras ideoque extollere flamnMm 
saxaque subiectare et arenae tollere nimbos. 700 

in sumrao sunC vertice enim crateres, ut ipsi 
nombitant; nos quod fauces perhibemus et ora, 

Sunt aliquot quoque res quarutn unam dicere causam 
non satis est, verum piuris, unde una tamen sit ; 
corpus ut exanimum siquod procul ipse iacere 705 

conspicias hominis, flt ut omnis diceie causas 
conveniat leti, dicatur ut iUius una. 
nam neque cum ferro nec frigore vincere possis 
interiisse neque a morbo neque forte veneno, 
verum ahquid genere esse ex hoc quod contigit ei 710 
scimus. item in multis hoc rebus dicere habemus. 

Nilus in aestatem crescit campisque redundat, 
unicus in terris Aegypti totius amnis. 
is ligat Aegyptum medium per saepe calorem, 
aut quta sunt aestate aquilonea ostia contra, 715 

anni tempore eo qui etesiae esse ferunlur, 
et contra fluvium flantes remorantur et undaa 
cogentes sursus replent coguntque manere. 
nam dubio procul haec adverso liabra feruntur 
flumine, quae gelidis ab stellis axis aguntur. 710 

iUe ex aestifera parti venit amnis ab austro, 
inter nigra virum percocto saecla colore 
exoriens penitus media ab regione diei. 
est quoque uti possit magnus congestus harenae 
fluctibus adversis oppilare ostia contra, 715 



cum mare pennotum vends ruit intus harenam ; 

quo fit uti pacto liber minus cxitus amni 

et proclivis item fiat minus impetus undis. 

fit quoque uti pluviae foraan magis ad caput ei 

teinpOTe eo fiant, quod etesia flabra aquilonum 730 

nubila coniciunt in eas tunc onmia partis. 

Bcilicet ad mediam regionem eiecta diei 

cum convenenint, ibi ad altos denique montis 

contnisae nubes cogTintur vique premuntur. 

forsitan Aethiopum penitus de raontibus altis 735 

ciescat, ubi in carapos albas descendere ningues 

tabificis subigit radiis sol omnia lustrans, 

Nunc age, Avema tibi quae sint loca cumque lacusque 
expediara, quali natAira praedita constenL 
principio, quod Avema vocantur nomine, id ab re 740 
inpositumst, quia sunt avibus contraiia cunctis, 
e regione ea quod loca cum venere volantes, 
remigi obUtae pennarum vela reraittunt 
praecipitesque cadunt moUi cervice profusae 
in tenam, si forte ita fert natura locomra, 745 

aut in aquam, si forte lacus substrattis Avemist. 
is locus est Cumas aput, acri sulpure montes 
oppleti calidis ubi fiiniant fontibus aucti. 
est et Athenaeis in moenibus, arcis in ipso 
vertice, Falladis ad templum TVitonidis almae, 750 
quo numquam pennis appellunt corpora raucae 
comices, non cum fumant altaiia donis ; 
usque adeo fugitant non iras Palladis acris 
pervigili causa, Graiura ul cecinere poetae, 
sed natura loci ope sufficit ipsa suapte. 755 

in Syria quoque fertur item locus esse videri, 
quadripedes quoque quo sjmul ac vestigia primum 
intulerint, graviter vis cogat concidere ipsa, 
manibus ut si sint divis mactata repente. 
omnia quae naturali ratione geruntur, 7^ 



et quibus effUnt causJs apparet origo ; 

ianua ne forte his Orci regionibus esse 

credatur, post hinc animas Acherantis in oraa 

ducere forte deos manis infeme reamur, 

naribus alipedes ut cervi saepe putantur 7 

ducere de latebris serpcntia saecla ferarum. 

quod procul a vera quam sit ratione repulsum 

percipe ; nam de re nunc ipsa dicere conor. 

Principio hoc dico, quod dixi saepe quoque ante, 
in terra cuiusque modi rerum esse figuras ; 7 

multa, cibo quae sunt, vitalia, multaque, morbos 
incutere et mortem quae possint adcelerare. 
et magis esse aliia alias animantibus aptas 
res ad vitai rationem ostendimus ante 
propter dissimilem naturam dissimilisque 7 

texturas inter sese primasque figuras. 
multa meant inimica pcr auris, multa per ipsaa 
insinuant naris infesta atque aspera iactu, 
nec sunt multa parum tactu vitanda neque autem 
aspectu fugienda saporeque tristia quae sint. 7 

Deinde videre licet quam multae sint homini res 
acriter infesto sensu spurcaeque gravesque ; 
arboribus primum certis gravis umbra tributa 
usque adeo, capids faciant ut saepe dolores, 
siquis eas supter iacuit prostratus in herbis. 7 

est etiam magnis Heliconis montibus arbos 
floris odore hominem taetro consueta necare. 
scilicet haec ideo terris ex omnia surgunt, 
multa modis multis multarum semina rerum 
quod permixta gerit tellus discretaque tradit 7 

noctumumque recens extinctum lumen ubi acri 
nidore ofTendit naies, consopit ibidem, 
concidere et spumas qui morbo mittere suevit 
castoreoque gravi mulier sopita recumbit 
et manibus nitidum teneris opus efituit ei, 7 



tempoTC eo si odoratast quo menstrua solvit 

multaque praeterea languentia membra per artus 

solvunt atque animam labefactant sedibus intus. 

denique si calidis etiam cunctare lavabris 

plenior et laveris, solio ferventis aquai Soo 

quam facile in medio fit uti des saepe ruJaas I 

carbonumque gravis vis atque odor insinuatur 

quam facJle in cerebruro, nisi aquam praccepimus ante 1 

at cum membra domus percepit fervidu', nervis 

tum fit odor viri plagae mactabilis instar. 805 

nonne vides etiam terra quoque sulpur in jpsa 

gignier et taetro concrescerc odore bitumen ; 

denique ubi argenti venas aurique secuntur, 

teirai peoitus scrutantes abdita ferro, 

qualis expiret Scaptensula subter odores? 810 

quidve mali fit ut exhalent auiata metaJla I 

quas hominum reddunt ^cies qualisque colotes ! 

Donne vides audisve perire in tempore parvo 

quam soleant et quam vitai copia desit, 

quos opere in tali cohibet vis magna necessis? 815 

hos igitur tellus omnis exaestuat aestus 

expiratque foras in apertum promptaque caeli. 

Sic et Avema loca alitibus stimmittere debent 
mortiferam viro, de teira quae surgit in auras, 
nt spatium caeli quadam de parte venenet ; 8w 

quo simul ac primum pennis delata sit ales, 
impediatur ibi caeco correpta veneno, 
ut cadat e regione ioci, qua derigit aestus. 
quo cum conruit, hic eadem vis IUius acstus 
reliquias vitae membiis ex omnibus aufert. 815 

quippe etenim primo quasi quendaro conciet aestum ; 
posterius lit uti, cum iam cecidere veneni 
in fontis ipsos, ibi sit quoque vita vomenda 
propterea quod magna mali fit copia drcum. 

FitquoqueutLnterdumvishaecatqueaestusAvcnii S30 



aera, qui inter avis cumquest teiramque locatus, 
discutiat, prope ud locus hic linquatur inanis. 
cuius ubi e regione loci venere volantes, 
claudicat extemplo pinuamm nisus inanis 
et conamen utrimque alarum proditur omne. 
htc ubi nixaii nequeunt iusistereque alis, 
scilicet in terram dekbi pondere cogit 
natura, et vacuum prope iam per inane iacentes 
dispergunt animas per caulas cotporis omnis. 

frigidior poiro in puteis aestate fit umor, 
rarescit quia terra calore et semina siquae 
forte vapoiis habet praprii, dimittit io auras. 
quo magis est igitur tellus effeta calore, 
fit quoque frigidior qui in terrast abditus umor. 
frjgore cum premitur porro omnis terra coitque 
et quasi concrescit, fit scilicet ut coeundo 
exprimat in puteos si quem gerit ipsa calorem, 

Esse apud Hammonis fanum fons luce diuma 
fHgidus et calidus noctumo tempore fertur. 
hunc homines fontem nimis admirantur et acri 
sole putant supter terras fervescere raptim, 
nox ubi teiribili teiras caligine texit. 
quod nimis a verast longe ratione remotum. 
quippe ubi sol nudum contractans corpus aquai 
non quierit calidum supera de reddere parte, 
cum superum lumen tanto fervore &uatur, 
qui queat hic supter tam crasso corpore terram 
percoquere umorem et calido satiare vapore? 
praesertim cum vix possit per saepta domorum 
insinuare suum radiis ardentibus aestum, 
quae ratiost igitur? nimiium terra magis quod 
rara tepet circum fontem quam cetera tellus 
multaque sunt ignis prope semina corpus aquaL 
hoc ubi Foriferis teiram nox obruit umbris. 



extempto penitus frigescit teira coitque. 865 

hac ratioae fit ut, tamquam compressa manu sit, 

exprimat in fontem quae semina cumque habet igms, 

quae calidum faciunt aqiiae tactum atque 3Eq>0Tem. 

inde ubi sol radiis terram dimovit obortus 

et rarefecit calido gliscente vapore, 870 

rursus in antiquas redeunt primdrdia sedes 

ignis et in teiram cedit calor omnis aquai. 

frigidus hanc ob rem fit fons in luce diuma. 

praeterea solis radiis iactatur aquai 

umor et in lucem tremulo rarescit ab aestu ; 875 

propterea fit uti quae semina cumque habet ignis 

dimittat ; quasi saepe gelum, quod continet in se, 

mittit et exolvit glaciem nodosque relaxat 

Frigidus est etiam fons, supra quem sita saepe 
stuppa iacit dammam concepto protinus tgnt, SSo 

taedaque consimili ratione accensa per undas 
conlucet, quocumque natans impeUitur auris. 
niminim quia sunt in aqua permulta vaporis 
semina de teiraque necessest funditus ipsa 
ignis corpora per totum consurgere fontem 885 

et siraul exspirare foras exireque in auras, 
non ita multa tamen, calidus queat ut fieri fons, 
propterea dispersa foras erumpere cogit 
vis per aquam subito sursumque ea conciliari, 
quod genus endo marist Aradi fons, dulcis aquai 890 
qui scatit et salsas circum se dimovet undas ; 
et multis aliis praebet regionibus aequor 
utilitatem oppoitunam sitientibu' nautis, 
quod dulcis inter salsas intervomit undas. 
sic igitur per eum possunt erumpere fontem 895 

et scatere illa foras, in stuppam semina qnae cum 
conveniunt aut in taedai corpore adhaerent, 
ardescunt facile extemplo, quia multa quoque in se 
semina hal)ent ignis stuppae taedaeque latentis. 



nonne vides etiam, noctuma ad lumina linum goo 

nupei ubi extdnctum admoveas, accendier ante 
quam tet^t flammam, taedamque pati ratione ? 
multaque praeterea prius ipso tacta vapore 
eminus ardescnnt quam commlnus imbuat ignis. 
hoc igitur fieri quoque in ilto fonte putandumst 905 

Quod superest, agere incipiam quo foedere fiat 
naturae, lapis hic ut fcrnim ducere possit, 
quem Magneta vocant patrio de nomine Gral, 
Magnetum quia fit patriis in finibus ori:u5> 
hunc homines lapidem mirantur; quippe catenam 910 
saepe ex anellis reddit pendentibus ex se. 
quinque etenim Lcet interdum pluresque videre 
ordine demissos levibus iactarier auris, 
unus ubi ex uno dependet supter adhaerens 
ex alioque alius lapidis vim vinclaque noscit : 915 

usque adeo permananter vis pervolat eius, 

Hoc genus in rebus firmandmnst multa prius quam 
ipsius rei rationem reddere possis, 
et nimium longis ambagibus est adeundum ; 
quo magis atteotas auris animumque reposco. 920 

Principiq omnibus ab rebus, quascumque videmus, 
perpeluo fluere ac mitti spargique necessest 
corpora quae feriant oculos visumque lacessant. 
perpetuoque fluunt certis ab rebus odores ; 
frigus ut a fluviis, calor ab sole, aestus ab undis 925 
aequoris exesor moerorum litora propter. 
nec varii cessant sonitus manare per auras. 
denique in os salsi venit umor saepe saporis, 
cum mare versamur propter, dilutaque contra 
cum tuimur misceri absinthia, tangit amaror. 930 

usque adeo omnibus ab rebus res quaeque flueater 
fertur et in cunctas diniittitur undique partis 
nec mora nec requies interdatur ulla fluendi, 
pcrpetuo quoniam sentimus, et omnia semper 



cemere odorari licct et sentire sonare. 935 

Nunc omnis repetam quam. raro corpore sint res 
commetnorarc ; quod in primo quoque carminc claret. 
quippe etenim, quamquam multas hoc pertinet ad res 
noscere, cum primis Imnc ad rem protinus ipsam, 
qua de disserere adgiei^or, firmare necessest 940 

nil esse in promptu lusi mixtum corpus inani 
principio fit ut in spekmcis saxa supeme 
sudent umore et guttis manantibu' stillent 
manat item nobis e toto corpore sudor, 
crescit barba pilique per omnia membra, per aitus. 945 
diditur in venas cibus onmis, auget alitque 
corporis extremas quoque paitis unguiculosque. 
frigus item transire per ae» calidnmque vaporem 
sentimus, sentimus item transire per aurum 
atque per ai^entum, cum pocula plena tenemus, 950 
denique per dissaepta domorum saxea voces 
peiYoIitant, permanat odor fiigusque vaposque 
ignis, qui ferri quoque vim penetrare suevit 
I denique qua circum Galli lorica coerceL 
1 et, tempestate in terra caeloque coorta, 955 

I morbida visque simu) cum extrinsecus inginuatur, 
' in caelum teirasque lemotae iura facessunt, 
quandoquidera nil est nisi raro corpori' nexu. 
Huc accedit uti non omnia, quae iaciuntur 
corpora cumque ab rcbus, eodem praedita sensn 960 
atque eodem pacto rebus sint omnibus apta. 
principio terram sol excoquit et facit are, 
at glaciem dissolvit et altis montibus altas 
extructasque nives radiis tabescerc cogit. 
denique cera tiquefit tn eius posta vapore. '965 

ignis item Uquidum facit aes aurumque resoM^ 
at coria et camem trahit et conducit in unum. 
umor aquae porro ferrum condurat ab igni, 
at coria et camem mollit durata calore. 



barbigeras oleaster eo luvat usque capeHas, 970 

effluat ambrosius quasi vero, et nectare tinctus ; 
qua nil est hotnim quod amariu' frondeat esca. 
denique aiDaTacinum fiigitat sus et timet omne 
ungentum ; tiam saetigeris subus acre venenumst, 
quod nos interdum tamquam recreare videtur. 97S 

at coDtra nobis caenum taeterrima cum sit 
spurcities, eadem subus haec iucunda videtur, 
insatiabiltter toti ut volvantur ibidem. 

Hoc etiam superest, ipsa quam dicere de re 
adgredior quod dicendum prius esse videtur. 980 

multa foramina cum vaiiis sint reddita rebus, 
dissimili inter se natura praedita debent 
esse et habere suam naturam quaeque viasque. 
quippe etenim varii sensus animantibus insunt, 
quorum quisque suam proprie rem percipiC in se ] 985 
nara penetrare alio sonitus alioque saporem 
cemimus e sucis, alio nidoris odores. 
praeterea manare aliud per saxa videtur, 990 

atque aliud lignis, aliud tntnsire per aurum, 
argentoque foras aliud vitroque meare. 
nam fluere hac species, illac calor ire videtur, 
atque aliis aliut citius transmittere eadem. 
scilicet id fieri cogit natura vianim 995 

multimodis varians, ut paulo ostendimus ante, 
propter dissimilem naturam textaque rerum. 

Quapropter, bene ubi haec confirmata atque locata 
omnia constiterint nobis praeposta parata, 
quod superest, facile hinc ratio reddetur et omnis 1000 
causa patefiet quae ferri pelliciat vim. 
principio fluere e lapide hoc permulta necessest 
semina sive aestum qui discutit aera plagis, 
inter qui lapidem femimque est cumque locatus. 
hoc ubi inanitur spatium multusque vacefit 1005 

in medio locus, extemplo primordia ferri 



in vacuum prolapsa cadunt coniuncta, lit utque 

anulus ipse sequatur eatque ita corpore toto. 

nec res ulla magis primoribus ex elemeDtb 

indupedita suis arte conexa cohaeret loi 

quain validi ferri natura et fngidus horror. 

quo minus est mirum, quod dico, ibus ex elemeutis, 

corpora si nequeunt e ferro plura coorta 

in vacuum ferri, quin anulus ipse sequatur ; 

quod faciC, et sequitur, donec pervenit ad ipsum loi 

iam lapidem caecisque in eo compagibus haesit. 

hoc iit idem cunctas in partis, uude vacefit 

cumque locus, sive e transverso sive supeme 

corpora continuo in vacuum vicina feruntur. 

quippe agitantur enim plagis aliunde nec ipsa 103 

sponte sua sursum possuol consurgere in auras. 

huc accedit item (quare queat id magis esse, 

haec quoque res adiumento motuque iuvatur) 

quod, simul a fronte est anelli rarior aer 

factus inanitusque locus magis ac vacuatus, los 

continuo fit uti qui post est cumque locatus 

aer a tergo quasi provehat atque propellat. 

semper enim circumpositus res verberat aer ; 

sed tali fit uti propeilat tempore ferrum, 

parte quod ex una spatiura vacat et capit in se. 103 

hic, tibi quera memoro, per crebra foramina ferri 

parvas ad partis subtiliter insinuatus 

tnidit et inpellit, quasi navem velaque ventus, 

denique res omnes debent in corpore habere 

aera, quandoquidem raro sunt corpore et aer 103 

omnibus est rebus circuradatus adijositusque. 

hic igitur, penitus qui in ferrost abditus aer, 

sollicito motu semper iactatur eoque 

verberat anellum dubio procul el ciet intus 

scilicet ; ilie eodem fertur quo praecipitavit 104 

iam semel et partera in vacuam conaraina sumpsit. 



Fit quoque ut a lapide hoc ferri natuia recedat 
interdum, fugere atque sequi consueta vicissim. 
exultare etiam Sainothracia feirea vidi 
et ramenta simul ferri furere intus ahenis 1045 

in scaphiis, lapis hic Magnes cum subditus esset : 
usque adeo fligere ab saxo gestire videtur. 
aere interposito discordia tanta cie£Uur 
. propterea quia nimiruni imus aestus ubi aeris 
praecepit fetrique vias possedit apertas, 1050 

posterior iapidis venit aestus et omnia plena 
invenit in feiro neque habet qua tranet ut ante. 
cogitur ofTensare igitur pulsareque fiuctu 
ferrea texta suo ; quo pacto respuit ab se 
atque per aes agitat, sine eo quod saepe resorbet. 1055 
illud in his rebus mirari mitte, quod aestus 
non valet e lapide hoc alias impellere item res. 
pondere enim fretae partim stant ; quod genus aurum ; 
et partim laro quia sunt cum corpore, ut aestus 
■pervolet intactus, nequeunt inpellier usquam ; 1060 

lignea materies in quo genere esse videtur. 
interutraquc igitur ferri natura locata 
aeris ubi accepit quaedam corpuscula, tum fit, 
inpellant ut eam Magnesia dumine saxa. 

Nec tamen haec ita sunt alianim renim aliena, 1065 
ut mihi multa parum genere ex hoc suppeditentur 
quae memorare queam inter se stnglariter apta. 
saxa vides primum sola colescere calce. 
glutine materies taurino iungitur uno, 
ut vitio venae tabularum saepius hiscant 1070 

quam laxare queant compages taurea vincla. 
vitigeni latices aqiiai fontibus audent 
misceri, cum pix nequeat gravis et leve olivom. 
purpureusque colos conchyli iungitur uno 
corpore cum lanae, dirimi qui non queat usquam, 1075 
oon si Neptuni fluctu renovare operam des, 



non, mare n totuni velit ehiere omnibuB nndis. 

denjque non anro res aurum copulat una 

aerique aes plumbo fit uti iungatur ab albo? 

cetera iam quam multa Ucet reperire ! quid ergo? 1080 

nec tibi tam longis opus est ambagibus usquam, 

nec me tam mnltatn hic operam consumere par est, 

sed breviter paucis praestat comprendere multa. 

quonun ita texturae ceciderunt mutua contra, 

ut cava conveniant plenis haec illius illa 1085 

huiusque inter se, iunctura haec optima constat. 

est etiam, quasi ut anellis hamisque plicata 

inter se quaedam possint coplata teneri ; 

quod magis in lapide hoc fieri ferroque videtur. 

Nunc ratio quae sit morbis aut unde repente 1090 
mortiferam possit cladem conflare cooita 
morbida vis hominum generi pecudumque catervis, 
expediam. prinium multarum semina rerum 
esse supra docui quae sint vitalia nobis, 
et contra quae sint morbo mortique necessest 1095 

multa volare. ea cum casu sunt foite coorta 
et perturbarunt caelum, tit morbidus aer. 
atque ea vis omnis morborum pestilitasque 
aut extrinsecus ut nubes nebulaeque supeme 
per caelum veniunt, aut ipsa saepe coortae 1100 

de terra surgunt, ubi putorem umida nactast 
intempcstivis pluviisque et solibus icta. 
nonne vides etiam caeli novitate et aquarum 
temptari procul a patria quicumque domoque 
adveniunt ideo quia longe discrepitant res? iios 

nam quid Brittanni caelum difierre putamus, 
et quod in Aegypto est qua mundi claudicat axis, 
quidve quod in Ponto est differre, et Gadibus atque 
usque ad nigra virum percocto saecla colore? 
quae cum quattuor inter se diverea videmus mo 

quattuor a ventis et caeii parlibus ess^ 



tum color et facies bominuro distare videntur 

largiter et morbi generatim saecU tenere. 

cst elephas morbus qui propter flumina Nili 

gignitur Aegypto in media neque praeterea usquam. 1 1 1; 

Atthide temptantur gressus oculique in Achaeis 

finibus. inde aliis alius locus est inimicus 

paitibus ac memMs : varius concinnat id aer. 

proinde ubi se caelum quod nobis forte alienum 

coramovet atque aer inimicus serpere coepit, ii» 

ut nebula ac nubes paulatim repit et omne 

qua graditur conturbat et immutare coactat ; 

fit quoque ut, in nostnim cum venit denique caelum, 

coiTumpat reddatque sui simile atque alienum. 

haec igitur subito cladea nova pestililasque trij 

aut in aquas cadit aut fruges persidit in ipsas 

aut alios hominum pastus pecudumque cibatus, 

aut etiam suspensa manet vis aere in ipso 

et, cum spinmtes mixtas hinc ducimus auras, 

iUa quoque in corpus pariter sorbere necessest. 113C 

consimili ratione venit bubus quoque saepe 

pestilitas et iam pigris balantibus aegror. 

nec refert utrum nos in loca deveniamus 

nobis adversa et caeli mutemus amictum, 

an caelum nobis ultro natura coiuphim 1131 

deferat aut aliquid quo non consuevimus uti, 

quod nos adventu possit temptare recenti. 

Haec ratio quondam morborum et mortifer aestus 
Anibus in Cecropis funeatos reddidit agros 
vastavitque vias, exhausit civibus urbem. ii4( 

nam penitus veniens Aegypti finibus ortus, 
aera permensus multum camposque uatantis, 
incubuit tandem populo Pandionis omnei, 
inde cateivatim morbo mortique dabantur. 
principio caput incensum fervore gerebant 114; 

et duplicis oculos suffusa luce rubentes. 



sudabant etiam fauces intrinsecus atrae 
sanguine et ulceribus vocis via saepta coibat 
atque animi interpres manabat lingua cniore 
debilitata malis, motu gravis, aspera tactu. ii 

inde ubi per fauces pectus compleTat et ipsum 
morbida vis in cor maestum confluxerat aegris, 
omnia tum vero vitai claustra lababant. 
spiritus ore foras taetrum volvel>at odorem, 
rancida quo perolent proiecta cadavera ritu. ii 

atque aniroi prorsum tum vires totius, omne 
languebat corpus leti iam timine in ipso. 
intolerabilibusque malis erat anxius angor 
adsidue comes et gemitu commixta querella. 
singultusque frequens noctem per saepe diemque 1 1 
corripere adsidue nervos et membra coactans 
dissoluebat eos, defessos ante, fatigans. 
nec nimio cuiquam posses ardore tueri 
corpons in summo suramam fervescere partem, 
sed potius tepidum mantbus proponere tactum ii 
et simul ulceribus quasi inustis omne rubere 
corpus, ut est per memlH^ sacer dum diditur ignis. 
intima pars homtnum vero flagrabat ad ossa, 
flagrabat stomacho tlamma ut fomacibus intus. 
nil adeo posses cuiquara leve tenvequc membris ii 
vertere in utililatem, at ventum et frigora semper. 
in lluvios partim gelidos ardentia mor1x> 
merabra dabaot nu^um iacientes corpus in undas. 
multi praecipites lymphis putealibus alte 
inciderunt ipso venientes ore patente : ii 

insedabiliter sitis arida, corpora mersans, 
aequabat multum parvis umoribus imbrem. 
nec requies erat ulla mali : defessa iacebant 
corpora. mussabat tacito mediciua timore, 
qnippe patentia cum totiens ardentia morbis ii 

hinW versarent oculorura expertia somno. 



multaque pmeterea mords tum signa dabantur, 

perturbata animl mens in maerore metuque, 

triste supercilium, furiosus voltus et acer, 

sollicitae poiro plenaequc sonoribus aures, 1185 

creber spiritus aut ingens raroque coortus, 

sudorisque madens per collum splendidus umor, 

tenvia sputa minuta, croci contacta colore 

salsaque, per tkuces mucas vix edita tussi. 

in manibus vero nervi trahere et tremere artus 1190 

a pedibusque minutatim succedere fiigus 

non dubilabat. item ad supremum denique tempus 

conpressae nares, nasi primoris acumen 

tenve, cavati ocuti, cava tempora, frigida pellis 

duraque, in ore trucei rictum, frons tenta tumebat. 1195 

nec nimio rigidi post artus morte iacebant. 

octavoque fere candenti luraine solis 

aut ettam nona leddebant lampade vitam. 

quoTum siquis ibei vitarat ftmera leti, 

ulceribus taetris et nigra proluvie alvi 1200 

posterius tamen hunc tat>es letumque manebat, 

aut etiam multus capitis cum saepe dolore 

corraptus sanguis expletis naribus ibat : 

huc hominis totae vires corpusque fluebat 

profluvium porro qui taetri sanguints acre 1305 

exierat, tamen in nervos huic morbus et attus 

ibat et in partis genitalis corporis ipsas. 

et graviter partim metuentes limina leti 

vivebant ferro privati parte virili, 

et manibus sine nonnulli pedibusque manebant izio 

in vita tamen, et perdebant lumina partim : 

usque adeo mortis metus his incesserat acer. 

atque etiam quosdam cepere ablivia renim 

cunctanun, neque se possent cognoscere ut ipsi. 

multaque humi cum iijiumataiacerentcorpomsupra 1315 



corporibus, tamen alituum genus atque ferarum 
aut procnl apsiliebat, ut acrem exeiret odorem, 
aut, ubi gustarat, languebat morte propinqua. 
nec tamen oranino temere illis solibus uUa 
comparebat avis, nec tristia saecla ferarum 
exeibant silvis, languebant pleraque morbo 
et moriebantur. cum primis lida canum vis 
strata viis animam ponebat in omnibus aegre ; 
extorquebat enim vitam vis morbida membiis. 
[incomitata rapi certabant funera vasta.] 
nec ratio remedi commuDJs certa dabatur ; 
nam quod ali dedeiat vitalis aeris auras 
volvere in ore licere et caeli templa tueri, 
hoc aliis erat exitio letumque parabat 
illud in bis rebus miserandum magnopere unum 
aemmnabile erat, quod ubi se quisque videbat 
implicitura morbo, morti damnatus ut esset, 
deficiens animo maesto cum corde iacebat, 
fiinera respectans animam amittebat ibidem. 
quippe etenim nullo ccssabant tcmpore apisci 
ex aliis alios avidi contagia morbi, 
lanigeras tamquam pecudes et bucera saecla. 
idque vel in primis cumulabat funere fiinus. 
nam quicumque suos fugitabant visere ad aegros, 
vitai nimium cupidos mortisque timentis 
poenibat paub post turpi morte malaque, 
desertos, opis expertis, incuria mactans. 
qui fiierant autem praesto, contagibus ibant 
atque labore, pudor quem tum cogebat obire 
blandaque lassorum vox mixta voce querellae. 
optimus hoc leti genus ergo quisque subibat. 

inque aliis aUum, populum sepelire suorum 
certantes : lacrimis iassi luctuque redibant ; 



inde bonam partem in lectum raaerore dabantur. 
nec poterat quisquam reperiri, quem neque luorbus 1250 
nec mors nec luctus temptaret tempore tali, 
Praeterea iam pastor et armentarius omnis 
et robustus item curvi moderator aratri 
languebat, penitusque casa contnjsa iacebant 
corpora paupertate et morbo dedita mortL 1:55 

exanimis pueris super exanimata parentum 
corpora nonnumquam posses retroque videre 
matribus et patribus natos super edere vitam. 
nec minimam partem ex agris is maeror in urbem 
confluxit, languens quem contulit agricolarum 1260 
copia conveniens ex omni morbida parte. 
omnia conplebant loca tectaque ; quo magis aestus 

confertos ita acervatim more accumulabat. 
multa siti protracta viam per proque voluta 
corpora silanos ad aquarum strata iacebant 1265 

interclusa anima nimia ab dulcedine aquaium, 
multaque per populi passim loca prompta viasque 
bnguida semanimo cum corpore membra videres 
hoirida paedorc et pannis coopeita perire 
corporis iuluvie, pelli super ossibus una, 1270 

ulceribus taetris prope iam sordique sepulta. 
omnia denique sancta deum delubra replerat 
corporibus mors exanimis onerataque passim 
cuncta cadaveribus caelestum templa manebant, 
hospitibus loca quae complerant aedituentes. 1175 

nec iam religio divom nec numina magni 
pendebantur enim : praesens doloi exsupeiabat. 
nec mos ille sepulturae remanebat in urbe, 
quo pius hic populus semper consuerat humari ; 
perturbatus enim totus trepidabat, et unus 1230 

quisque suum pro re praesenti maestus humabat. 



multaque res subita et paapertas horrida suasit ; 
□amque suos consanguineos aliena rogorum 
insuper extructa ingenti clamore locabant 
subdebantque faces, multo cum sai^ine saepe 1285 
rixantes potius quam corpora desererentur. 




Introductory, 1-145. 

Vinta ii addrased at tht ti/e-tetl^nvittg pmeer thnmgkeut tht realmt 
ef deing, and w besmgki to ghie the poet aid ■Bikile ke seti forlh in verse 
'the nature o/tkings'; and may ske nteanuihile also keep baci ferct 
Mars /rom ■mar, tkat thi Roman /olk may enjoy calnt Jieaee, and Ikiis 
Memmitts, his cauntrfs sa/egiuird, kave leisure to con tke verses tkat 
fm- kim are laade. 1-43. 

I. Aetieadum : ' the AeneadaeA i- e. the Romaiis. The short 
forin of Ihe gen. pl. o£ the firat declj(rf. Gk. -Jjw, -&r) is arehaic ; it 
is confined to a few wotda of Grcel$origin, nouns in -gena and •co/a, 
and patronymics in -des. Lucretius ' his both agricelum (4, 586) and 
agricolarum {t,\\(i\ and 6, 1260). The form Aentadum,fiT&t metwitb 
bere, was used later by Vergil, Ovid, and the poets o£ the decline.' — 
Kenctrix: Venus, as ancestress of Ihe Komaus. Veneration waa 
p^d lo VeDus Genetrix particularly by tlie Caesars, who claimed 
descent from het. Julius Caesar embellished his new forum by a 
templc to ber, in which was placed a statue of the goddess by Arcesi- 
lausj and a representation of her was also stamped on coins. See 
Milchell, 'Hist. of Ancient Sculpture,' p. 666. Theie b a sUtue 
crf Venus Genetriz (Venere Genetrice) at Florence. — divom: -um 

> In Ihe iKKa A. uandi for Allen and GreeDough'i GriUDmiir, G. for Gildcf 
ilseve'1, H. lor Harkneu' ; edd. u lued lor 'edilon.' The oltus abbrevutioH 
■iU, it ii ihoughi, be readil) ui 



in tbe gen. pl. oE the second decl. <s not a contracted form, but the 
original Ilalian ending, which in Latin became -oi» after v. It nas 
later in I.atin superseded by -orum. See Roby, 'Lattn Granimai,' 
3 365. Lucr. has dearum but once (6, 54), though divam and deum are 
found many times withqnt difierence of meaning. The poet's chotce 
between the diSerent forms was perhaps governed by the metre. — 
VDluptas : Venus as goddess of love could with propriety be called 
kominum diwmque voluptas ; for the ancient mythology pictured the 
gods vrith the same joys and passions as men. Sec the stiikii^ pas- 
sage in Cic. N. D. I, 16, 42. Cf. 6, 94 requiet heminum dhiomjut 
w^u/Am, where Calliope is invoked. a. alma: ' increase-givii^.' 

The gliding movemeni of the verse well suits the sense. 

Venus : the Epiciireans believed not at all in the Inflaence of the 
Divine over the affairs of men. Why, then, does Lucretiua begin his 
poem wilh an invocation to VcnusP The qucstion is not an easy one 
to answcr. It wos the custom of the poets to preface an; important 
work with an address to the gods or some particular divinity for 
inspiration. Prose writers, too, sometimes {□llowed their eiample. 
Vairo opens the ' De Re Rustica ' with a laboied prayer to the gods 
of the farmer. Whatever miy b>ve been the motive of such invo- 
cations at first, after tlie dcclinc of thc old religion in Greece and 
Rome to educated readers and hearers they no longer suggesied 
any thought of the realpresence of theDivine; they f umished merely 
an occasion for the digniiied displayof a bitof literary finery. Hence 
the spirilless invocation of Ovid at Che beginning of the Metamor- 
phoses ; instances of the Hke, with many others, some graceful and 
some dull, may be found in the writings of his contemporaries and 
the poets oE the decline. Of similar character is Lucretius' address 
to Calliope, quoted above. But while Lucretius in thus openii^ his 
poen was conforming to the eiample of the poets Erom Homer to 
Ennius, with him it was not a matter of display or trifling. These 
lines breathe an intense eamestness. Fllled witb bright images, Ihey 
hurry the thought along with resblless force. What, then, tbe secret 
of their power ? 

Lucrettus conceived of the world as under the reign of law (see 
n. to I, 586). Not chaiice, but fixed order, — Inconsistent as thia 
may appear by the side of his doctrjne of the atom, — seemed to him 
the key to the mysteries of the operations of nature. To him, M 
tb thinking men of all ages, the strangest thing in all the mecha- 


4-] NOTES 219 

nismof d>e muvcTse was the prodnctton andongoingof life. Whencx 
its origmi la a fortuitoos combination ot atoms, indeed. Vet wa» 
it not a part of tlie great systcm of law f Unconsdously, perhaps, 
poet-philoaophec as be was, LncretiuB came lo see in natnre a myste- 
rious, elasive, but all-pervading principle, almost a personality, that 
presi<led over being. Before the majestj oi this generative power 
be paoted in awe. For him its range and aweep were aea and carth 
and sky, wherever living thlng might be. Spring was the glad sea- 
Mn [rf ita quidcening advcnl, and all nature owned its genial sway 
<>ee Li:|. This principle, all-perTasive, all-persaasive, the poet in- 
Tokes under the name of Venus, — not as an empty forni of words, 
ttor to get aid (ront it as a divine personality, but by rapt contem- 
pladon of its power to draw inspirition for his tbeme. In all this, 
however.with true poetic skill he does not present as with abstrac- 
tions. With the address to Venua he interweaves mythologic con- 
ceptions tiiat had tbetr centre in her. Thus he addresses ber aa 
' ancestreas of tke Komans,' — a phrase to ttckle the ears of his fellow- 
couatrymen. He pictures her as bringing the War-god under ber 
contro], and bids her keep him from the fray; and touches here and 
there reveal to us Venus as goddess of love. In exalting Venus, 
moreover, he pays honor to the Memmii, o£ whom she seems to have 
bcen the patron goddess ; their coins bear image of her (see Munro, 
* LucrctiuE,' ]d ed. L 32B}. Thus wiih the poetic spirit deeply siirred 
within him, the poct has skilfally wrought into combination a grand 
pJiilos[q>hic idea and conceptiona which would enlisc the interest and 
sympathetic attention of his readers, particnUrly Mcmmius, lo whom 
^ poem was addressed. This invocatton to Venus ia transiated l^ 
Dryden in a spirited version (Aldine ed. of Dryden, tii. 145). It is 
initated by Spenser, ' Facrie Queene,' Bk. 4, Canto 10, st. 44-47. 
Cf. abo Chaocer, the second song of Troilns in ' Troilns and Cres- 
sida,' Sk. 3, near the end. Consnlt Sellar, ' Roman Poets of the 
Republic,' p. 343 tt tiq. 3. fTugifeTciitlB: found only here. 

4. coBC^bru ! ' caoseet to teem with life,' fer ' fillest with thy pres- 
CDCe'; the latter rendering is Munro's. Both icnderii^ are in- 
volved in the meaning of tbe word here, as Venus is the universal 
life principle. Catcelttrart Grat meant ' to crowd,' ' to caose ' a 
place 'lo throng' with beings; then 'to fill,"cause to abound,' a 
aense in which it is used 5, 1331. — per te: 'tbtough thee'; the 
pbraae ezpresses indircct agency, while at geuerel))' jniplies thc 


220 LUCRETIUS [1. 4- 

direct eiercise o( power. — quoniam etc. : this claDse (often misnD- 
derstood) stand», in Ihought as in poaition, closely connected with «»• 
telibmt. — Bnimantunl : stetns in i preceded by a dentiJ, eicept those 
of one syllsble, are EometimeB in the poets found with gen. pl. in -ta». 
The reason may lie in the requirements of the verse, thoi^h parent 
and a few others lu«e the gen. pl. in -«m m prose. Cicero «rote oiu- 
mantium. Cf. n. to 3, 573. g. czortum : 'rising up ' into eiist- 

ence. Exeriri is often employed by Lucr. in this philosophic sense. — 
himina: poetic use of pl. wbere prose and thc English idiom would 
prefer the sing. Perhaps there is in the pl. a distribntive force that 
Ivought before the Latin mind the conception of rays. 

B. caell, 7. tellus, 8. ponti : the three grand divisions of Ihe onl- 
verse, frequently met with in classical and even in modem writers. 
By considering caelum as composed of air and aelktr, the atmos- 
pliere and the pure upper air, thc poct clsewhere assumes the four- 
foid structure of the world recognized by philosophers and poets 
alike. This last division is closely connected wfth the idea o£ the 
foar primal elements, earth, water, air, and fiie, which after the time 
of Empedoclea, held so important a place in cusmological specula- 
tlons. Ovid also, in his account of the creation (Mct. I, 1-124), first 
mentions the three parts of the universe, then the fonr. Cf. z-3, 
above; 5, 416-17, 449, f/ jf^. ; \,^\^ et uq. 7- auavis : Lucr., as 

the other I^lins of the classical period, wrote the acc pl. of r-stems 
\a-et ox-it indifiercntly. Tbe ending -eis, rarely foond eicept in Prae- 
Augustan inscriptions, was incorreclly printed in old editions. Cf. 
frugi/ereittit above. — daedala : Ihe epithet may refer eithcr to tbe 
earth^s power of manifotd production, or lo its variegated appearance 
resulting therefrom. Edd. quote here the eiplanation of ' Paulns 
ei Festo,' p. 63. 6, daaialaai a varietate rerum artifieierumgue dictam 
ette apud LiOTetiiim tfrram, apud Eiaiium Minervam, apud Vergilium 
Ctrten, facile iit inldUgere, evm Graece SaiMutir «gnificet variare. 
Tr. ; ' manifold of worlu,' a meaning that well suits the active force of 
tuMMittit. Cf. S, 234 natura daedala rerum ; 4, S51 veriaruM daedala 
lingua. S. Tldcnt:afavorite wordofour poet. Cf. ^ 1004-5, and "■ 
10. April as the first montb of Spring was regarded by tbe Roman* 
as eacred to Venus. So in all ages apring-time and Love have been 
associated. Cf. the graceful lines of Tennyson in ' Ixicksley Hall.' — 
pstefactut: — fatefacta etl. Est after a word ending in a vowel or M 
oflen lost tfae initial e, being pronounced and written with the precad- 


ing word. Thts usage is CEpecially common in tlie comic poets. 
II. reHrata: 'unbarred.' The sera was a strong wooden or icon 
bar that was placed across the front dour c^ the Roman housc at 
nlght, and fastened to the posts on either side. — favoni: the gen. 
sing, of noima in -«(( and -i»m in Lucr. always ends in t. Tbe gen. 
ending h Grst appeared toward the close of the Republic. and did not 
Iwcome coramon till the earlier part of the Empiie. Favoniua (fr<Kn 
/laieB, 'quiafinitt rebut itascmJiius '], also called Zephyrua after the 
Greek, was the west wind, Che blowing of which marked the opening 
c^ spring. Cf.^t^lin. N. H. iS, 34, 77, iic {vintus) ver inchaat aferit- 
qiu lerras tenui fiigere saiuber, hic vitit pulandi Jrugesque curandi, 
arbores terendi, fema ititerendi, olecu tractandi ius daiit adfiaiuqut mllrU 
ciunt exereeiit. See also id. 16, 25, 39. 13. aliriae . , . volticres: 

like the Scriptural " fowla of the aii " ; cf. 5, S25. Jturton, ' Anat- 
omy of Melancholy,' Part 3, sec, z, memb. i, quotes II. 12-13, and 
comparea with them quotations from maiiy writers, ancient and mod. 
ern, on tlie powcr of love. Munro compares Chaucer, ' Cant. Tiles ' 
Prol.: — 

" And Bmale fbwlcs nuVcn nelixEie . . . 
Soprikeih hem nature in here CDTageL" 

13. perculame etc! cf. 1, 261 meiuei perculi,i aaoellai. Observo 
the force oi fer here, 'smltten through and through." Fer alonc 
and per in composicion have ihe aame relation in meaning as oul 
'throagh' and 'thorough,' whJch are merely diSerent fonns of one 
original word. 14. Alliieration, not uncommon in the Latin poets 

oC all periods, is a maiked feature in thc versc of Lucretius, aa well 
as that of Ennius and Naevitis. It is, honevei, so akilfully employed 
by our poet that it never becomes cloying, and is often very cffective. 
Here the hard alrokes of the/-aound through Che ear aid the mind m 
forming a vivid conceplion of the bounding of the herds ovcr the 
fields. Cf. s. 993. See also Peile, 'Introd. lo Greek and Lalin Ety- 
mology,' 3d od. ch. 6, 15. capta agreea miih the subject to be 

■upplied for seguitur Irom quamque. The ordinary conatruction WOUld 
be quaeque {fecui) . . . te seguitur qua eam inducere fergis, or quo 
quamque irui. per. 'rafla . . . U scq. Cf. i, 318. See Roby, ' Grammar,' 
1432, 6. After 15 mosC of the edd. before Lachmann inserted tlie 
spurious line Illiceirisjue luis imiiis nalara aniiaantum, which crept 
into the text from, an attempt to raake capta etc. intclligible. 
ao> generatim: 'kind by kiiid.' — aaecla; Lucrctius always has 


222 LUCRETIUS [1. 21- 

the ayncop^ted fonii. ai. quae : the necessary Engli^ trans. 

' ihou ' faiU to hring oot the relation with the preceding thought 
which the relative in the more accurate and subtle l.atiD idiom 

rerum naturam ; Lacrettus uses naiura in many different tenses- 
Here and in zj by naiura rirum is meant what we often understand 
by 'nalure,' — the sum and Eystem o£ thiiigs exislenl; as Humboldt 
delines it ('Cosmos,' tr. by Otte> Introd.): " Niture considered ra- 
tienally, that is lo say, submitted to the process of thought, is a 
unity In diversity d( plienomena ; a harmony, btending together of 
all created things, however dissimilar in (orm and aitributea; one 
gjeat whole {ri tS») animated with tbe breath of life," Oftcn oor 
poct perBOnilies nature, regards her as a mysterions living presence, 
that " makes herself felt as a pecuhar ind independent power." Cf. 
espedally 2, 1090-91 : ' If you keep in roind these thinga well 
thoi^t out, nature untrammelied at once and free from haughty 
masters ts seen of her own accord by herseif without the power of 
the gods to do all things.' The idea of a will liehind all mOTemenC 
is so firmly impressed upon the minds of men that, strive as they may 
lo believe in pure chance or necessity, they generally end by peraonl- 
fying aomething. Fate in antiquity was only a personification d 
natural law. It is a signilicant fact thaC matcrialists of our own time 
often spell matter and evolution with capital letters. Evolution, a 
proceas, takes thc place of a deily, and rnalter is thought to contain 
ihe " promise and potency of all terrestrial life " (Tyndall). " It 
seems almost a matter of taste whetherwe wbrship the mascutine God, 
the teminine Nature, or the neuler All." Lange, ' Hist. of Material- 
ism,' tr. iii, 340. On Lucretius" conception of Nature as a person- 
ality, aee Ritter, ' Hist. of Ancient Philosophy,' Bohn's ed. iv. 87-88. 
Lucr. also nses the word nalura to express 'natnrat consttlntion ' of 
a thing, ' substance,' and the like. 

33-3. qnicqnam . . . exoritur neque flt . . . qQicqnain ob- 
aerve the chiasmus. A. 344, /; G. 684 ; H. 562. A like arrange- 
ment of words often adds a charm to English style, aa in Mi]Ion'8 
"dulcet symphonies and voices sweet" ai. luminis oraS : a 

favorite eicpresaion of Lucr., by which he suggests the dim border- 
land between that which is and Ihat which is no(, the existent and the 
non-existent. See Munro's nole. 35, de Tcrum natura: wbence 

Lncr. drew Ihe tiile of ttis work caa otily be conjectured. n*^ ^t- 


26.] NOTES 223 

mrt vas (he subject of many Greek works, in both prose and verae, 
froDi the time of Anaximajider dovm. It stood as title probably to 
the philosophic poem oi Xenopbanes, certainly to tha,t of Pa.rmeni- 
des, and the most iraportant one of Erapedocles. Empedocles' wipl 
^iwtt both furnished a model and gave inspiration to our poet, who 
in sever^ places shows traces ci its influence. See 1, 716 et tiq^ 
and nn. Epicums also left a trea.tise in thirty-seven books having 
the same title. See Diog. Lacrt. 10, 17, 27. Fragments of it are 
txtant in the work of Philodcraus. deciphercd froni the charred rolls 
discovered at Herculaneum. Moreover, prior to Lucretius, AmafiTiias 
Bet foith in barbarous Latin the physical doctiines of Epicurus, 
thoi^ under what title or titles is not knovm. On the whole, then, 
the title df rmmt Hahtra being in harraony with the stibjects chosen 
for their works by his philosophic predecessors, probably suggested 
itself to onr poel as the one best suited to his theme ; and thns was 
not, as it has been asserted, taken directly from Epicnrus' *((>) ^&- 
nmt. — panifere: lirst applied to the writing of puetry perhaps by 
Ennins. See the famous epigram on himself given in Cic. Tusc. Disp. 
I, 15. 34 (Vah)en's edit. of Enn. p. 162) hic-vestntm panxit maxima 
factapatnan. See n, lo r, 117. Cf. I, 933; 4, 8. 

afl. Memmiadae : like Scifiiadas (3, 1034), a word of irregalar for- 
tnation, having 3 Greek patronyraic tennination addcd to a Latin 
stera. Galus Heramius, to whom Lucretius dedicates his poera, and 
of whom he speaks in terra» of the sincerest regard, was a prominent 
figure in the politics of the tin». The Memraian gens was of ple-- 
l>eianorigin,andof littlenotetill the Jugurthinewar. Abont thal time • 
Gaiiu Menunins, the grandfather of Lucretius' friend, made hiraself 
famous by strcnuous and nnyielding opposition to the arislocratic 
party. He enposed its comiptions, impeached several of its lead- 
ing nten, and Gnally as candidate for the consnlship met a violent 
death at tbe hands of a mob led by Satnminus, — the inddent re- 
ferred to by Cic. in Cat. 4, 2. After this the name Is oCten met with in 
Ronuui annals till the ciose of the Republic. The Memmius referred 
to here was a ma« of power, bal utterly lacking in principle. The 
date of his birth is not known ; but he was plebeian tribane in 66, and 
won distinction by opposition to the tFiuniph demanded by Lucullos 
returning vidorious fiom the war with Mrthridates, on the groand that 
the boaty had been vrrongfully tuined to private gain and the war 
uuiecessarily protonged. Thc charges were so well sustained that, 


224 LUCRETIUS [I. 26- 

notwitbstanding Lucullus' popularity, the triuTnph maa obtuDMl 011I7 
with the grcatest dilHculty. As praetor in 58 Meininias ehowed tbe 
same spirit and cour^e, which, however, were devoted to purely pat- 
tisan and selfish ends. Though he bitterly atlacked Julius Caesar U 
this lime, later seeing it would he to his advantage to join Caesar's 
parCy he shamelessly went over to it, and accepted the aid of his 
former enemy in presenting himself as candidate for the consulship 
in J4. He soon praved failhless to Caesar, and beiug Impeacbed 
for elcction bribeiy he left Rume in disgrace, and went to live at Mity- 
lene. This happencd after Lucretius' deilh. Hcuunius had Bome 
power as an orator; but Cicero says of hiiu that his adherence ta 
Greek models and his dislilce of hard work interfered with hU success 
[n this direction. He dabbled in verses of questionalile proprlety, and 
hii life was grossly inunoral. Proliably it was the dash and audacity 
Ot his public career that attracted the admiration and drew Che syni' 
pathy of the (jujet poet-philosopher, whose earnest patriotism per- 
haps imagincd in him a greaC reformer. It does not seem tha.t he bad 
anyspedal likiDg for EpJcurean views; Indeed, the opposite mighc be 
inferred from one of Cicero's lelters (Ad Fam. 13, l). Nor was he 
famous as a patron of literaCure. But from wtiat we know ol hia 
character and life, we may suppose that he was one who would gladly 
welcome the doctrine of ecemal deatb, and a world withoy a deity. 
— nostro: 'our' in the sense of 'our fellow-countryman ' ; a cora- 
mon ase. It may be that personal friendship is implied. — amni: 
with nuuns Iike UMfiui the distributive sense of 'onrnu* applies ti) 
parts instead of units. Here the meaning is 'at every momcnl' or 
'point' 'of iime,'i. e. 'always,"ever.' The phrase should be taken in 
close conncctinn with ornaium. 

ag. moenera : old spelling for mtmera. By the nse of occasioiud 
archaisms his style an antiqne aroma. — militiai: tbe gen. 
of the lirat decl. in Lucr. has veiy ofcea Ihe old ending ai, which is 
■canned as a spondee. A. 36, a; G. Z7, Rem. i ; H. 49, 3 ; Roby, 
356, (c). 31 el leq. This contiast between Love and War as pow- 

en shaping the world's desiiny suggesis the antithesis between Love 
and Strife (*iAla ur «iAiJthi and Ntwot) that runs through tlie phlloso- 
phy of Empedocles. 31. Mavora : old and fuller fonn of ifar$, 

found also occasionally in the later poets. 34. vulnere amoris: 

vulmti amorii became later a stock phrase in Roraan literature. Its 
origin ia to be Craced in thc conccpcion of Copid (Eros) by the later 


49-] NOTES 225 

Greek poets, wlio represented him as anned with arrows and torches. 
See Theocritus, Id. 23, and d. Ov. Triat. 5, i, 23. 35. cervice : 

Le. Afartis. — re^sta: for ripesiia, ' thtown back.' It has been con- 
Jectured that in this description the poet had in mind sonte painting, 
perhaps one of thoge thaC fotmed parc of the dccoralion of temptes. 
36, visus ; £or octUos. 37. Order of trans. ei spiritus {i!/ius) re- 

sufini fitndet ex tuo ore. 38. hunc : governed by circum in cir- 
eumfitsa; tufer Is used adverbially : 'shed thyself about him and 
above.' 39. loqueUas ; the suffix -ila is in good hss. wtitten •ella 

when the pteceding syllable is shoit. Thus lllquetta, gulrelta is a better 
spelling than logiieta, querita, commonly given in tbe dictionaries. 
On the othcr band, we should write l&tita, sai^ta. Se<: Robj, 177, i\ 
Lachmann, n. to Tjicr. 3, 1015. 4a indata: 'glorious'; an epj- 
thet rarely applied to a divine being. Lnct. uses it also with refer- 
cnce to Epicurus (3, 10) and Memmius (5, S). 

41-43. Variaua conjectures have been made regarding the time to 
which these lines refer. That of Munro is the most likely to be 
correcC ; he thinks " that Lucr. was wtiting these lines towards the 
close of 695. or four years before his de^Ch, when Caesar was consul, 
and had formed bis coalilion with Pompey. Memmius was then, 
praetor designatus, in fierce opposicion to Caesar, and at IbaC time 
on tbe side of the Senate with Cicero, and doubtless Lucretiua. 
There was almost a lelgn of tetror." 41. boc: interptet ftom 
11. 24-5. 41. Hemmi: for the fotm see n. on tt /avimi. 

43. desBe: = deessi ; e -^- t \% ofien contracled to l. So in syn- 
copated petfects, as deterunt for detet/irunt, dtleerunt. So generally 
derat, dest for detrat, deesl. Cf. I, 711, derrasse for deerrasst, In 3, 
S61 deerrarunt both vowela are retained, buC are scanned as one. 
44-49. The aix lines printed here in the old editions = 2, 646-^51. 
laaac Vossius was cl|,e first lo nolice that they weie inserted here to 
show the inconsistency of the poeC in addressing a divinity aC the 
bcginning of Ihe work in which he maintains that ' every natute <rf 
Ihe gods mnst in itself oC necessity enjoy immartality indeepcst peace, 
far removed and wichdrawn from concetni of oursj fot ftee ftom 
every pain, from dangers free, powerful in its own resources, in notb- 
ing needful of us, it is neicher won over by favors nor stirred by 
anger.' Lachmann and Munro agree tbat afier 43 a few lines have 
been lost that furnished the transicion to what foMows. In tiiem Mera- 
mius must have been addresied. 


226 LUCRETIUS [I. 50- 

3. Unfoldirg o£ the Pnrpose and the Snbject 

of the Foem. 
Tba PupoM, br tka Aid of Beaaon, to frM lUBUnd ftmi tha IHa 

7Sf Poet bidt Maamitu liittn io TVjie Xeasen, and kiid whHe it shall 
teU of Ike Primal ElemenU b/ Things. 50-61. 

5(k quod snpetcst: a common expTession in LqO'., indicating the 
Completion o{ a topic and introdudng a final stateraent. It ia eqniva- 
lent lo an adverbial acc. ; lit. 'as to what remains'; tr. 'for the TesL' 
51. verun ntionem; i.e. the Epicnrean philosophy. Itwasnotalone 
the ancient materialists that thooght they had found the true reawn | 
Hacckel speaks of the " unassailable truth " of tbe Theory of De- 
scent. Seethe'NaturalHist.of Crealion/traiw., ii. 334. 50. dia- 

posta : cf. repoila above ; diipSstti could not stand in hexameler vene. 
54. ratione : ratio in Lucr. has many different meanings. The most 
important are ' order,' ' system,' as bere ; ' reason,' as in 51 ; ' wiy,' aa 
in aliqiia ratimi and the like. 55. primordia: "the first.begii»- 

nings,' i.e.the atoms, the piimal 01 ultimatc clements of things. Lucr. 
does not use the «'ord aitmi {Gk. ^afur, ' that which cannot be cut '), 
which was introdoced into Laiin by Cicero; see Plut. Cic 40; Cic De 
VyR. I, 6. Primffrdia (oncc wrilten ordiaprima, 4, z8) is tbe favorite 
term of the poet ; but is frimdrdldrHm, frimdrdfii cannot be used In 
hcnmcter verse, in thc gen., dal., and abl. he subatitulea printfpUntm 
and prindplii. It corresponds to nl ckpx»^ of Epicurus. As synonyms 
Lucr. has gtititalia eerpora 'begetting bodies,' eerpora frima 'first 
bodies,' lemitia rerum ' aeeds of things,' and ctinc/arum txordia rerum 
'ihe beginningsof all tbings,* because all things are madeQpof atoma; 
also materiem and effrpora materiai, because he conceived af malter 
only (s composed of atoma. He uses the sing. prtncipinm in cbarac- 
lcrizing the physical systems of oiher philosophers, as l, 707 ; primor- 
dium is not found in Lucr. C£ n. on i, 525 plenum. 56. unde : = 

e quibm. Unde is oflen used this way, of persons as vrell as things, 
in both prose and vene ; so in Gk. W*t and I6*mf. — omnia: goes 
with res. — natur» creet etc. : with the personificaliom of nature here 
cf, BiichncT, 'Force and Matter,' trans., p. 88: " Nature, the »11- 
engendering and all-devouring, is iis own beginning and end, binh 
aod death j she produceil man bj her own power, and takes him again." 


63.] NOTES 227 

57. qno : = t» giuu, aa often. Ijke tindt, quo is sometinies applied to 
persons ; c£ Cic. De Sen. 23, E3 illos . . . quo quuUm me projlcisctn. 
ttm kaud sane quid facile rclraxcrit. 54~7' Senec2 quoEea these 

lineB, and says o( the thought (Ep. Mor. 95, lo-ii) errai enim, ti liH 
illam [fhilompAiam) pulas tatilum terrettres operas fromittere : altiia 
sfirai. ' Totum* inquit (pkilosopkia.\, ' mutidum scruiornee meintra cen- 
tu&emaim mortale amtinte tuadere vobii ae disiuada-e conlmta. tnagna 
me vecant tupraqut ves potita! Cf. below 127 et seq. 58. mate- 

fiem : of Ihis word Lucr. ases two atema, materie and maferia, without 
diSerence of meaning ; the former is found only in the uom. and acc. ; 
the d-stem is met wilh twice iti the acc, often in tbe gen., a fcw times 
in the abl., but doea not occur in Lucr. in the nam. — rebus: dat. 
after jwinWu. 51). reddunda: archaic for reddenda; so i, 707 

gignuiidit. H. 239. 60. Buemna: contracted pcifect; so 1, 301 ; 

4, 369. See n. on 70 iitritat. For pronunciation, see n. on 116 dis- 

When kuman life lay grOBtlling under religioit, it vias a Creek 
whofrst forctd from JValurt ktr secrets, and made men able io Iram- 

thjreligion underfoot in turn. 62-79. 

' ta et seq. For the attitude of the Epicnreans toward rcligion. see 
Introd. The conception of the Divine and ihe beliet in a hereaftcr aie 
deeply itnpressed upon the conslitution of man. It is a characteristic 
of hnman nalure to hate one whom yoa have injured (Tac. Agr. 43). 
The Epicureans, however sjncere may have tieen their search after the 
truth, in doing violence to the instinctive outrcaching of the soal after 
God and immortality, felt enraged at the manifestation in others of 
tbose beliefs they themselves afEected to contemn. The spirit of this 
passage is well shown Ijy Taylot Lewis, ' Plato against the Atheists,' 
EKCursus llx.i "Thc very efEorts of the Epicnreans to ridicule the 
Tulgar fears, and lo make light oftheterrors of the unseen Hades, show 
how deeplythese avrful tniths, whatever theirorigin, had penetrated the 
human soul, Even the style in wliich Lucretius spealis of them betrays 
a secret trepidation, and, instead of philosophic indif[erence, manifests 
that bitter batred which proceeds from a mind at once deeply tioubled, 
anxious, and yet unable to shake off those feara which Its philosophy 
affects to despise." Hcnce the repetltion throughout the poem of the 
indifEerence of the goda regarding the affairs of men, and tlie gronnd- 
lessneas o£ the fear of deatb. Ct below 151-8; 3, 16-37 and nn.i 


328 LUCRETIUS [1. 02- 

5, 1161-1145 uidnn.; z, 54 «tc. BnTton'adiscussionof religiotn mel- 
anchoiy, ' Anat. of Melan. ' Part 3, bcc. 4, conlaini loany quaint and 
snggeatire observations on tbe fears Insptred liy religion or tbe laclc of 
It. Oa. ante ocnlos : a farctble expression in emphatic poeiiiun; 

tr. ' in plain aight." 65. Buper : adv., as in 39, ' overhead,' ' above.' 
The poet secms to haire seen in imagination some vast lowering pres- 
ence like the cloud-forms so graphicaily described in 4, 119-143. 
W. Qraius homo : Epicuriis. For his philosophy see Introd. ; on Ihe 
extravagant praise bcslowed on him by his followera, sce n. on 3, 3 
U. — inortalis with ixidos. % — contra ; adv., in sense = cotUra iilam. 
In Lucr. amira, antt,poil, tuptr, lupera {sufra), and jwMir are oflener 
adverbs than prepositions. Cirmm, txtra, inter, profttr, propttr are 
also frequently adverbs. Holtze, 'Kyntaiis Lucrelianie Lineamenta,' 
c>^>. 4,gives abundant illustrationsof the different uses. 68. fama: 
Benlley, whoTB Lachmann follaws, reads^na instead oifama; be- 
cause, as Lachmann sa.ys,sdlktl /ama ium omnii natstario magna 
est. Fama not only has the authority of the MSS., but also gives 
better sense ; for it was nol so much the existence of gods or 
sbrines of the goda as the unfounded slory of them, that inspired 

70. Inritat : inritdt for inritavil ; so 6, 587 disturbSi for diiturbavil. 
See Roby, 'Gr.' 66j. Thc coniracled perfect in the third pers. 
sing. and first pcrs. pl. of the india is rare; for examples see Neue, 
' Formenlehre,' zA edtt. ii. 534. Cases lilce inrildt mtist l>e carefully 
distinguishedfromiWJd((Enn. Ann. quat . . .vtrsdl in pectort fixa, 
Cic De Sen, i, i ; Vahlen^s Enn. 340) and tiie like, where the original 
a of conj. I is retained in ihe preaent tense. Instances of ihe Uller 
nse are not uncomnion in Flautus, and ate occasionally mct wilh in 
tbe poets <A the Augustan Age. See Corssen, ' Aussprache,' iA edit. 
ii, 488 ; also Neue, ut tup. ii. 433-4. 73. viv. vis bq. : a striking 

expression, espedaliy for one who considered mind and sou! only a 
form of matter. 73. procesBit : sugipiy illi, rcferring to Epicu- 

rus; %aperagna/it below. — moenia mundi : the fire-bell, or aether, 
that many of ihe ancients thought formed the outer enveloplng poi^ 
tion of the world Epicums did not assign to thia definitely Ihe . 
nalure of gre; in his letter to Pythocles (Diog. Laert. 10, 25, 88) he 
eays thal the world is a kind of extent girt by th« heaven, embracing 
both stars and earth and all things visibie ; Ihat it is separaled from 
tlie infinite, and is confined within a limit, in texture eithei raic 01 


79.] NOTES 2^9 

densc, by the dissolutioD of whjch all things embraced >a it will be 
involved in deatruction. Cf. Plut. Plac. 2, 7, 3. This limit or envelop- 
ing sphere Lucr. identiRed with the aelher, in which, aa the ouler place, 
the lighter, fiery elemcnts o£ the world gathered. See 5, 454-494 and 
nn,; cf. also 1, 1066. By muudi here the poet probably means the 
world, not the tmiverse (for which mundus was ofteu used by the 
Stoics, but never by the Epicureans) nor the heavens. The Epicu- 
reans believed in an iniinite number of worlds ; see Lucr. 3, 1052 
tt siq. " Epicurus carried himself in thoughl beyond this visible ani- 
verse, and well knew that there are innumerable other worlds besides 
the one we inhabit, and that the heaven does not form the extreme 
boundary of the whole nature of things." Dr. Mosheini'3 note on 
Cudworth'3 ' Intellectual System of the Unjverse,' iii. 4S1. The Sto- 
ii:s taught that Ihe world and the nniverse are the aame, — a compact 
sphere, bounded by aether, outside of which space extended on all 
sides to infinity. See n. lo 958, Cf. Manilina i, 194 '' f^-i Plin. 
N. H. 2, I, I. 74. omne iminensum: 'ihe inuneasurable uni- 

verse'; cmnc, as oftcn in Lucr., = ri rar, 'the univcrse,' as dts- 
tinguished from murn/ut. ~ racntc animoque: see n. on 3, 94. 
75-77. ' Whence as canqueror he btings back report o£ what can 
rise into existence, what cannot ; in short, on what principtc for each 
thii^ ils powcrs and limit deeply fixed have been marked oS.' These 
llnesare repeated with alight changes i, 594-6; J 88-96; 6, 64-66- 
Infinile power can only be conceived of as an atiiibute of the Di- 
vine ! hence, perhaps, the poefs anxieiy lo impress the thought that 
everything is limited, finite ; thaC tl)ere is no infinite power in any- 

79- opteritur: no rulc can be laid down as to the assimilation of i 
before /. Cf. 6, 92 praiscribta, — ezaequat etc. : This positiou of the 
Epicureans is suggestive of the parallel the Stoics were fond of draw- 
ing between the wise man and the gods. Cf. Sen. Dc Prov. i, 5 bonui 
tanport tantum a dea differt; see also Ep, Mor. 73, 11-14; Epic. 
Dis. I, iz, zfi. The Epicurean dodrine, however, was based upon the 
belief that goda as well as men are of limiled powers, and that men 
are practically the highest existences ; the Stoic, upon this, that th« 
gods are like men subject lo fate ; and that the wise man, being pos- 
scssed of reason, has in himself all resources for ' living happily and 
well.' Could even a god be more independent than that ? Both con- 
ceptions reflect Che anthropbmorphic tendcncy of the ancient Greek 


230 LUCRETIUS [1. 79- 

tuid Konun beUe&. Not imlike the sentiment ol the text is that oE 
tbe Italiaa Poroponaiius (died 1525), who dectared " philosophen 
alone to be goda of Che earth, and as i£[ removed from all other 
men, of whaCevei condicion, aa real men are from painted men." See 
Lange, ' HisL of Maieiialism,' Am. edic 1, 225. 

J-ear iu>t impUty iit Ihui eatling away riUgion ; rtligian Afndf itu 
ciaaed tkt fsuiest crimei. Wittiess Ifhigenia,iiain Sy ha" sire to afptasi 
JXana'i wrati. 8o-[Ol. 

So. Illud : refers to something folloiting, — a common use in both 
pro&e and verse. A. 102, i ; G. 192, Rem. l; H. 450^ 3. Hludinkit 
retus is a favorite phrase of our poct in introducing a Dewpoint. CL 
1, 370; I, 1053 j 3, 370 etc. Si. inpia: lesscommon thao the m- 

■imilated fbrm imfia. Thc early Romans met with stem disfavor anf- 
thiiig tliat tended to weaken the hold of the old religion upon the 
people. Cato the Censor viewed wilh alarm the stay of Caraeades and 
his fellow-phiiosopheis at Rome, though they were on piiblic busincss. 
In the poet's day, however, the educated classes no longer accepted lit- 
erally the mytha of the old faith, and the public religious ritea became 
merely an instrument in tbe handn of designing politicians foi contiol- 
lit^ the credulous masses. It isnot likelythatMemmiusandhisfriends 
would have been greatly shocked hy any doctrine the poet might pio- 
pound ; buC this pass^e shows wonderful skill in meetii^ possible 
prejudices,and arousing the feelii^ to a favorable receplion of what- 
ever might follow. 83. Indugredi : = ingraii. Indu and endu are 
old forms for in. The Twelve Tables have endff wiih l)oth acc and abl. 
Ennius uses endo with Che acc, indo with the abl. Plautus has indu 
only in the verb indaudin. Lucr. has indu manu {2, 1096). enda mari 
(6, 8go) and indu manui {5, loi), besides indu in several compounds. 
The old form .survived to tbe Classical peiiod in such words as indi. 
gcB, indigena, industria. — quod contra : = h Toirarrlvr ' whercas on 
the conCrary.' Contra is here an adv., as generatly in ante-classical 
writers; fuadia meiely a connecting link beCween the clauses,as in gued 
si at the beginning of sentences and clauses and the like ; it nas origi- 
nally an adv. acc^ or perhaps, as sorae raainiain, an abl. in the sense 
of qua re, quam ot rtm. Cf. Cic De Sen. 13, 84 ; De Am. 34, 90 and 
Reid's n. Cf. also use of t in Thuc 2, 40 t tou tAXeit h^\a itir 
6piim itT\., and the 'which' ofCen in vulgar English. See Roby 1897 
and foot-n. (or the common view thaC fued is govemed bere by tanira oat 


90.] NOTES 231 

of place. Cf. I, 321 quodnunc. 84. Tiiviai virginis: Diana (or 
Ilecate), whom the Rotnana completely identified witli the Greek Arte- 
mis. She was called Trivia virge or sini|>ly Trivia, because wor- 
■hipped and invoked at places where three ways met Cf. Verg. Aen. 
4, 609 noclurmiguf Hecati treoiis ululala per urbes. 

85. Iphianassai ; Ipkiauana = 'Y^iinaaim, Homeric fot 'I^tyffdo, 
Iphigenia, the daughter of AgamemuQn a.nd Clytemnestra. When the 
Grecian flect was galhered at Aulis in Boeotia for the expedition against 
Troy and detained by atoims, Chalcas bcing summoned declarcd that 
Agamemnon iiad given ofEence to Diana, and Ihat this could be 
Uoned for only by the sactifice of his daughter Iphigenii lo the 
goddess. Thereupon, under pretence o£ mariiage to Achilles, the 
mald was brought to Aulis ; but just as she was about lo be offered 
up Diana bore her on high to Tauris, where shc liccanie a priestess in 
the temple. This is the common fotm of Ihe lcgcnd; but Lucr., to 
add force to his argument, assumes Ihat she wos teally saciificcd as a 
viclim. The story of Iphigenia was a favorite theme of the classic 
wrlters. It formed tlic basis of a master tragedy by Eutipides, 
and in modem times has been splendidly handlcd by Racine in his 
' Iphiginie en Aulide,' and by Goethe in the ' Ii)higcnie auf Tauris.' 
SG. prima virorum : = tii nprra ritr irSpiir. The use of the paiti- 
tive gen. after the neuter p1. of an adj. is very common in Lacr., tak- 
ing the place of tlie ordinary constr. of a noun with adj. in a::reement. 
Madvig, ' lat. Gr.' 284, Obs. j ; A. 116, 4, * ; G. 371, Rem. 7 ; H. 438, 5. 
Prima virorum = primi mrorum ; trans. keeping the poetic constr. 
'first of men,' 'foremost of mcn.' Thc partltive idea in such cases 
often entirely ^sappears ; cf. I. 659 vera viai = vcras viat. Cf. Verg. 
Aen. 1, 422 and ConiBgton's note. 87. simul ; for simulae ; so 89 be- 
low. Cf. Cic.Arat. 348 (%<^) quae limul ixistant, cirnes. — infula: the 
fillct wom by pricsts and victims alike was made by twisting loosely 
together strands of red and white wool ; Ihese were lidd into a band 
of wool \vitla) that cDdrcled the head, and were allowed to hai^ 
down. The sacrifice is hete described as in the Roman fashion; for 
which consult Ramsay, 'Manual of Roman Anliquities. p. 340 W siq. — 
comptus : aftcr circum in circundata. 88. Order of trans., ix 

titraque ntalaruin, pari parte ; ihe atrands of the infula hung down of 
equal length. 

8g. parentem : i.e. Agamemnon. go. Bensit: the subject is 

Iphlgeiiia. — bunc praptei: on Ihe order see A. 263, d.; G. 404; 


232 LUCRETIUS [1. 90- 

11.569,11.1; on the usesof/r^/^r see n. to 65. — femiin: thesacri- 
ficial knife. 91. suo : ' o£ her.' 94. patrio : i.e. pairis. — 

princeps : =prima ; cf. Liv. ii, 4 HanmM princepi ik prodium 
ibat, ultimut comrrte prmlio cxctdciat. Iphigenia was oldest of the 
children of Agamemnon. WiCh this line Lambinns compares Eurip. 
Iph. Aul. IZ2Z rpJrrn a' lniXtaa -mipa i[iil ah twS' jfit. Sce also 
Munro'a nate. 95-98< ln these lines edd. notice the subtle con- 

trast between the joyful wcdding-scene for which the giil supposed she 
had come to Aulis and Ihe terrible realily of her doom, — a contrast 
heightened by Ihe studied use of terms common to both marriagc and 
sacrifice. 95. sublata etc. : there is an implied reference to ihe 

symbolic seizure o£ Ihe bride froro her mother in the wedding ccrc- 
inony, and perhaps to the carrying of Che bride over the tbreshold of 
her husband. For this and the other marriage ccremonies alluded to, 
see Becker, ' Gallus ' exc l , sc l ; also Kamsay, ' Man. of Rom. Antiq.' 
gS. deducta: Chis word was also used of the ceremonious conduct- 
ing of the bridc to her new home. — Bacroniin ; one form of the 
Roman raairiage was celebraled by the sacrifice of sheep (Becker, 
ut !up. p. 1 58}, and could not be properly concluded wiihoul the lak- 
ing of auspices. 97. claio : refers to sound; ' clear-ringing.' — 

comitari : passive. — Hymenaeo : ' nupcial song.' As Che bride the 
eveniiig of the wedding day together with her husband left her (alher's 
house, a thraug with torches chancing the marriage-song escorted thera 
to Iheir new home, and sang as they entered it. Catullus (Carm. dx) 
has left us a splendid specimen of the carmin nuptiale, in the forra 
of a choral chant, with youths and maidens responding aliemately. 
98. casta inceste : 'sinless sinfuliy.' For the pironomasiacf. 3, 1015 
intignikis iitii/ptis ; 2, lo^ initumere ttumero ; l, 1086. 99. mac- 

tatu : found only here. 100. exituB: i.c. (rom Aulis. — feliz 

fauatusque: tbese words were of Cen coupled together in old formu- 
las of prayer, to which the early Romans attached great significance, 
and with whjch they began all Iransactions or work of importance. Cf. 
Cic. Div. I, 45, 102 hominum, guae vocattt imina ; guat maiorts noslri 
quia valtrt ttnsebant, iiicirco omniiut ribusagtndis 'gucdbonum, faus- 
tum , felix fortunalumgut tsstt ' pratfataiittir, 

Nor let liire ta/es of seers affris^ht ; thesewith lAtir thrtalettings «/ 
eternal woes sini Ife in misery. beciaae men inoa unt tke trutk aboul ike 
soul and Ihe hereafler. 102-1 26. 

loa. Tutemet : i.e. Memmius. The emphalic particte met was 
not attached diiectly to lu, but oniy to ibe already stiengtbened form 


113.] NOTES 233 

taU, giving either tulenut or tutimit, — both, honever, rare. — vatum: 
Muiiro's explanation of the word is the beat. Accordiiig to him vatet 
was "the oldest name for poets," which later "fell inlo complete con~ 
tempt, and was discarded for poeia. Virgil ajid succeeding writers 
made vaUt once more a. name of honor, and denotcd bj it an inspired 
bard, — something higher Ihan/Ar/a. With L,ucr. here and in 109 it is 
a term of contempt, to denole apparently singers of old prophecies 
and denouncers o( coming ills." 103. terriloqnis : found only 

here; see n. on i.vj^iUvifragis. — desciscere elc. : this and Ihe pre- 
cedtng line probably do not imply any distruiit of Memmius' courage 
on the part of the poet, but through him are intended to reach and with 
tbe following lines remove the natural timidity of many readers. Mem- 
mius, however, as already temarked, seems not lo have been inclinL-d 
toward Epicureanism. «5. somnia etc. ; cf. the words of ihe 

Epicurean in Cic. N. D. I, 16, 42 exposuifere nim philosopkonoH hidi- 
cia,sed deliraatiutn tomnia. Nec etum niulta absurdiara sunt la, giiae 
poetarum vocibmfusa ipsa suavilale nocutrunl, etc. Cf . also Pers. Sat. 
3, 83. 106. timore : cf . 3, 37 and n. 107. finem : alwajrs fem. 

in Lucr. log. religionibus : i.e. the religiuus iears inspired by the 

seera. iio. ratia:'way.' — nsta.'aAi: = resistendi. iii. poenaB: 
acc. after the neuter of the gerumiive with tsl. This constr. is vety rare 
eicept in Luci. and Varro ; it resemblea the use of the acc. after ver- 
bal noims in tio, common In Plaulus. Roby, ■ Gr.' Vol. II. Pref. p. btxii. 
el teq. gives full list of cxamples. Sce also Kiihner, ' Ausfiihr. Gram. 
d. Lat. Sprachc,' § 130, :, * (li. 543) ; A. 294, c; H. 371, 1. 1, i), n. 
Cf. I, i^; I, 381; 2.492; 2. 11Z9; 3. 39>i 4. 777i S. 43i 6, 917. 
Itl. ignoratur: in making ignorance the cauae of unhappiness Lucr. 
was in sympathy with ihe general spirit of ancient philosophy. After 
the time of Socrates most of ihe schooU, whatever their othcr diSer- 
ences, based virtue on rational action, and in consequence held aUo 
Ihat only thewise could be really happy. — oatura anim»i: this forms 
the subject of book third. See n. to 3, 161. 113, nata sil : i.e. 

formed along with the body and bom wlth il, the Epicurean view. — 
an : on the omission of u/rum see A. zii,^; H. 35J, 2. — nascenti- 
bus: supply hominibiis. — insinuetur: iBjifwiaKf ' to steal into,"force 
one's way into,' is a favorite word of Lucr. It is used by him wilh 
dat., or with se and accwith/w or in, acc. with /tr or in wilboul olher 
acc, or with simple acc. as 1 16 below ; 4, 1030 ; 5, 73. The belief thaC 
souls find their way into human bodies at birth belongs to the doc- 


234 LUCRETIUS [I. 114- 

trine of pre-enstence and transmigration taugbt by the Pythagoreans, 
Plato, and others, Cf. 3, 670 rfwy. and nn. 114. Tbis line is to 

be talcen in connection with nala sit as emliodying the poet'a view. 
The arguments against the immortality of the soul are givcn at length 
3, 4i;-829, 115. I.e. whether the soul spenda eternity in Hades. 

116. pecudea alias; i.e. animals as well as men; see n. t0 3,6ii. 
This tine and 113 were perhaps suggested by the verses <A Enniui 
(preserved by Varro, L. L. 5, 59 ; Vahlen's edit, Ann, 10-13) ' — 

(na paiire wlel gcDua pnnla condeon^iluni 
D4J1 animani ; «t pogi inde vcnil diviuilut puUia 
ipsi sniina. 

For the thought of 116 cf. Tennyson, 'Two Voicea'! — 

" tt mny 1» llul no life is Ibund, 
Which on]y ID one enEine bound 
Falls off, bul iiydes always rouniL" 

117. EtittiuB : Q. Ennius (b. 239 B.c at Riuliae in Calabria, d. 169) 

was"in letters what Scipio was in action, the mostvital representa- 
live of his epoch. It was to him, not to Naevius or Plautus, tbat (he 
Romans looked as the father of their literalure." Of his writings only 
fragments remain. The mosl imporlint was the Aimales, the lirst great 
Latin epic in hexameler verse, celebrating Ibe achievements of thc 
Koman people from Aeneas down to the poet'a own time. Locr. 
looked to Ennius as his ma.ster in verse, and shnws in many passages 
traces of his influence. Vergil likewise and others found in Ennius, 
if not a model, at least a poet of whom many verscs could be with 
fitnesa transferred and imitated, Znnius was a Pythagorean. He 
boasted, It is said, that the aoul of Homer, hiving passed through 
many bodies, among which in parlicular was that of a peacock, had 
come into his own. With Ihis in mind Horace calls him alt^ He- 
mtrus, though there is reference also to the Homeric flow of his epic 
verse ; see Hor. £p. z, I, 50 and Macleane's note. In the Pythago- 
rean view of melempsychoais the passing of souls through the bodies 
of fowls foT some reason held a very important place, — a belief iineiy 
satirized by Lucian in tbe ' Cock.' The best acpount of Ennius is 
in Prof. Sellar's ' Roman Poels of the Republic,' ch. 4. 118. HeU- 
COne : the favorite bome of the muaes. See n. on 3, 1037 Htlico- 
madam. Enniua was the fiist to introduce the Greek verse-forms and 


115-] NOTES 235 " 

principlcB ot compo»tion to the Romans. 119. dueiet : cluh-e is a 
defective Tcrb, having no perfect slem. It is a favorite word o£ Lucr, 
but it is not found in Cic nor the Augustan wrilers except in quota- 
tions froDi the earlier period. Tbe root-nieaning (cf. Gk. xKittr 
Lat. {c)latt^), is often obscure, and cltiirt, as here, almoat = tsst' 
See Netie, ' Formenlehre,' iL 426. lao. etsi : d nLni, 'axiA yet,' 

■lightly corrective of the precedlng statement, — a use not uncom- 
mon tn both prose and verse. So in prose quantguani 13 often uscd, 
especially by Cic — esse : = exislere. — Acberusia etc.: the poet 
had in mind a passage from Ennius' tragedy ' Andomache,' part ot 
which is preserved by Vhito (L. L. 7, 6 Muller ; see Vahlen's Enn. 
p. 102) : — 

'AchenjDua l^mpla Alta Orci, sincta, salvele, fnfera, 
pdllida lcti, □bniibila tenebni dtriB, utemis loca. 
— templa: in the earlier writers, particularly Ennius, and after him 
Lucr., whom in Ihis usage Manilius iraitales, timptum often has the 
derivative meaning of a 'space marked oS ' (root lem, cf. t'^>rvtt). 
Varro (L. L. 7, 6) remarlts that it may be applied to places in the 
heavens or on the eaith or under the earth. This signification of ttm- 
fla was especially common in Ihe language of augury, referring either 
to the divisions of ihe sky or to places chosen for observation ; for tho 
lalter use cf. Liv. 1,6. Trans. by ' places," regions,' ' quarters,' accord- 
ing to the connection. lu. 'though in our passage thither neither 

our Eoals nor bodies hold togelher.' 113. aimulacra: exactly 

what these 'images' or 'idols' were supposed to be it is difiicult lo 
•aj. Thej se«n to have been conceived of as intangible, immalerial 
fonns, just iilce the body in appearance, which went to Hades wliile 
the soul departed elsewheie. According to the inplied meanii^ <A 
tbe present pasEige the amMlaera were in the lower world, while the 
Bonl passed on through living bodies. For Enniua supposed Hnmer^s 
Boul was in himself, but speaks of the ' image ' {ifedrm) as appearing 
to bim. A like separation of soul and image is perhaps implied in 
Vei^. Aen. 4, 385, where in substiince Dido says that when death shall 
havc severed soul and body, as a shade (iimlira) shc will be present in 
all places, while report of Aeneas' sufferings will come to her to the 
' lowest parts of Hadcs {ad imi» manes) ; but see Conington's nn. 
Edd. quote here Serv. ad Aen. 4, 654 deprehcHdMnt tsst quod limula- 
crum, quod ad noslri corporit effigiem ficliim, injeras pttit ; tt esl specits 
corparea, guat tumpotcst langi, sicutvtntus. This line is imitated t^ 


236 LUCRETIUS [t. 124- 

Vergfl, 1S4. tmde ; = e qmbiu loca. — MmpeT florentis : prop- 

erlv a compoand like ' e7er-blooming.' — Homeii: see n. on 3, 10J7. 
Ennius' account o£ this vision was at the opening of the Aniwia; 
cf. Ann. 6 . . . vimt Himtrui ad/sse peeta. laj. lacrimas: cf. 

Acn. 2, 271. Hades was representcd as a place of dcepcsl gloom ; 
Ihe shades often wept at the sight of those from the brigbt upper air. 
Cf. the touching scene in Hom. Od. II, 1545 el leq., wbere Ulysses 
greets the shade of his mother; Verg. Aen. 6, 295 rf uq.; aUo Tib. 
1. I0.3S- — 

Ceibenw Bl Stygile mvita lurpis a/\}aK ', 

Efnt ad obKum pBllida [luba luuL 
There was a legend that PTthagoras, in a visit to the Lower World, 
found Homer and Hesiod in torment on account of their sayings 
about the gods. — salsas: " the tears nere douhtless in regret for 
life," says Munro. i>6. Ennius' instructor was his noster-poet, 

Homer. So Dante makes Vergil his guide and teacher. 

Tlia Bntdect, — neWoiId, t^BooL 

7%e imel lelli Hmo he must discloie Ike tntth about tMngs ahirBi, aboul 
the mind and soul ; vihinee too tkose visions come that in i/eefi or sitkness 
■weigh men down toith dread. 127-135. 

n?. cum : correlative with 130 tum. — BUp. de rebus: c£. 54; s, 
iiSS-iig3 & nn. izg. quaeque : the pl. of guisqut is often met 

with in Lucr., sometimes with a substantive, often in the neuter alone, 
as hcrc. Here quaeque almost = omms res; trans. 'things severally.' 
130, cum prtmis ~ imprimis. — Mgaci : Lucr. is fond of this word. 
The literal meaning ' keen of scent,' used of hunting-dogs, nukes !t an 
appropriate term for thc tracking out of knowledge. 131. uode: 

i.e. r quibus relmt, elementis. 133, Ordcr of trans. ei quae rts, nobit 

odfectis morbo, obvia (naiis) vigilanliiut, el {neHs) tefiultis samno, lerri^ 
ficet menles. 134-5. Cf. 4, 734 i 4, 7S7 elteq.; 5, 1169-1178 and nn, 

Macrobiua (Sat. 6, i, 48) compares Verg. Aen, 1,2^ et fntrii Anehisof 
gremio amfleOitur oisa. 

Hard is the lask ; but led on iy ttaeet /riendshi/^s joy and hope he ■will 
fress on to unfold his thane. 136-145. 

136. animi: gen.after^^/i/. Thisconstr.isfoundwithseveral verbs; 
cf. PlautMil. io63 7w^u7<»>) miseram animi excruciasf Cae). 

146.] NOTES 237 

ap.Cic. Fam. 8, ^ego guidem vehementir aK^mi fendeo. It seeins 
to be a survivat from Ihe locativc case, like belii, domi. See Koby, 
1:68, 1321. Once at least, \iovreva, /aHert appears to be accompa- 
nied by a gen. o£ separation attcr the Greelc constr., Plaut. Ep. s, 2, 57 
Mec lat ixaadibam, nec lermonit fallebar lamen. See Kiihner, 
'Auafiihr. Gram.'ii. 347. Trans.<i«./i//.'nor docs itescape my mind.' 
— obscura ; Lucr. uses this word bui once in its literal sense, 4, 431, 
eiicurum . . . cacumen. Cf. i, 922; i, 933; 4,S; especially 1, G39 
and n. — reperta : ' discoveries,' rarely found outside of Lucr. 
137-91 1^° difficulties Lucr. had to contend with were doubltess 
great. His predecessors in philosophy had written in a barbarous style 
(Cic Acad. i, a, 5; Fin. 3, 12,40; Tusc. Disp. 2, 3,7; 3, 15.33; 4. 3. 
6-7), and EheLatin in his time faad properlyBpeakingnophilosophical 
vocabulary. To Che fact that he had to coin or use in nen sense many 
tenns was added the difficulty of expressing philosophic tlioughts in 
verse. Ilis skill in surmounting boih otstacles is attested by every 
page of tlie poem. Cicero also complains of Ihe poverty o£ Ihe Latin 
tongue ; see N. D. i, 4, 8 complures enim Graecis instifuiimibm erudiH 
ta, guae didieeranl, cum (iviius suis (ommunicare non pt^enaii, guod 
Ula, quae a Graecis aecepiisent, Latine dUi posse diffiderent ; aUo Tusc. 
Disp. z, 15,35. But when his patriotism gets Ihe tKitcrof him hc does 
nut hesitate toaffirmthecontraiy ; sce DeFin. 1,3, la Latinam linguam 
ntmmai^non inopem, utvulgo futarent, sed locupletiorem eliasn esse puim 
Craecam ; cf. also id. 3, z, 5. See InCrod. 138. multa : see n. on 

\ii feenas. 141. amtcitiae : ttie use of this and similar expres- 

siona regarding the relation tietween Lucr. and Memmius is thought to 
give a clue to the poet's social position. See Inirod. 143. de- 

nium: yiixti fosiim, 145. penitus: with cenvisere, Tial occulUu 1 

trans. ' entirety,' ' thoroughty,' as generally in Lucr. 


i. From nothing noChing is produced. 146-ZI4. 

Htis dread and darkness ef the mind must be dispelled hy knov^edge 
e/ natiire and /ur laws ; o/which tkefirst prineiplt is,tkatnau^t/rom 
nothingever comts fy divine pmaer. 146-158. 

146-S. These tines scveral times occur, lieeping always prominent 
tlie thought ttiat physicat luiowtedge bas no end in itsel^ but is aimpty 


238 LUCRETIUS [I. 146- 

a means of Mcuting peace of mind. Upon this ethical pBtpose of 

all sdence Ihe Epicureans taid gteal Btress. See Zeller, ' Stoics, Epi- 
cureans, and Sceptics,' ch. 17. 146. animi: the gen. would natu- 

rally come either beforc lerrerem or after tiiibras. G. 6Sa ; H. 564, 
I. II. A word standing in the same relation to two others, however, is 
oflen placed between thein, — a usagc by the old grammarians called 
coniunctie. Sce Corniticius ad Hcrcnnium 4, 3E conivnctio eil cum 
ialerposiliotu i/erbi et iuperiores arationis fartes compreheniiiailur ei 
in/eriarei, hoc medo : Format dignitas aul morbo defioreseU aut vetuitale, 
This arrangement of words is espccially common in Cicero. Cf. Cic 
De Am. z, 8 cum summi viri tum amicissimi and Reid^s note. 
148. species ratioque : ' aspecl and law,' wel] distinguished by Munro 
as " the outwatd fomi and aspect " aud " tbe inner law and principle 
afler which nalure develops herself." See n. to 586. 149. 'The 

warp uf whose design we shall begin with this first principle '; cE. 418; 
6, 42 ; cuius is scaoned as a monosyllable. 

150. So Democritus taught; see Diog. Laert. 9, 44 AoiHi U . . ■ ftq- 
Biv Tt /k toO )iii Srrai flrnr9ai ; and Epicurus in hia ietter to Herodo- 
tuB says (id. lO, 24, 3S] rpurar ftlr Sri otiSir ■ytwiTiu ln tsS fi^ Irrot. 
That noihing can be produccd from nothing was a dodrine common to 
all Ihe aiicient physicisls as well as to modern materialistB. Who first 
definilcly formuIaCed it is not known ; before the time of Arislotle it 
secms to have become current as a physical axiom. This line of Lucr. 
has been interpreted to mean that nothing can happen without ade- 
quate cause (see Tait and Stewart, 'The Unscen Universe,' p. 131),— 
a teaching that held a prominent place in the Sioic philosophy; but 
a comparison with the statement of ^icunis, whom Lucr. eo closely 
fullowed, shows clearly that the reference is lo the coming oE the 
exislent out of the non-existent. Cf. Haeckel, ' Nat. Hist. of Crea- 
tion,' ch. I : " Never yet has an instance been observed of even the 
smallest particle of m^tter having vanished, or even of an atom being 
added to the already eiisting mass." Praclica]Iy,indeed, in the hands 
of ihe expeHmenter matter is indestructible, and is hence inferred tu 
be without lieginning ; but the modern materialisls ire as a tule less 
dogmatic regarding ils elemal eiistencc Ihan the ancient. See 
Haeckel, ut sup. ; Hcrbert Spencer, ' First Principles,' Part 2, ch. 4. 
The denial that by any agency maller can come into exiatence from 
rothing involves necessarily ils eternal pre.existence ; and this vio- 
'stes the law of causality. For matter, in the ordinary acceptatioa of 


159-] NOTES 239 

the term, whcthcr conceived of as divteible <nto atoms ot as a hDmo- 
geneous miss, has in itsclf no creative principle. It is, therefore, a 
product, and as such musl have had a cause, a, creator. The ver; fact 
of its divisibility, and the adaptation of the smalleat porlions to One 
another, ehown in the Jaw of multiple ptoportions in chemistry, point 
to a creative aod intelligent cause. The Atoms bear " all Ihc charao- 
teristics of manufactured articles." See Wainwright, 'Scientific 
Sophism»,' chs. 8 and lO; Flint, ' Anti-Theistic Theories,' p. 61; 
Bownc, 'The Philosophy o£ Herbert Spencer,' ch. 3 ; Lewis, 'Plato 
aigainBt the Atheists,' Diss. L. pp. 272-285; Biichraann, 'Befliigelte 
Worte;' Bajcter, 'An Enquiry inta the Nature of the Human Soul/ 
V0I. ii. ; but especially Stillo, ' Concepts and Theories of Modem 
Physic»,' The tiillest discusaion is in Cudworth, ' Intellectnal Sys- 
tem ol the Universe,' chap. I and chap. 5, with Mosheim'» able dis- 
sertation given in Harrison's edit. vol. iii. i^a divinltus: not 

esisential lo Ihc maiim ; the poet taltes every opportunity to impres» 
the disregard of the gods found in his system. 151. ita ; looks for- 
ward to thc ynoi^lause, 'under these conditions,' almoat ' f or thia 
reaaon.' 153. opemm: attracted into the relative clause from its 
natural constT., ntiiAa ii^mi yErrt. A,200,i; G. 618 ; H. 445, 9. For 
Ihethought cf. 5, n83rfJ«7. andnn. 155. nil : Lucr. has n^ and 

the forma from ntlum as suits the metre ; also aec Ailum ; cf. 3, 220 
and Q. The old editions have nMl and nihiium ; bot Lachmann has 
clearly shown (n. to I, 159) that Lucr. used the contracted form. 
157. undei as in 131, where sce n. 158. The position of Lucr. ia 
exactly that of Biichner : " That the world is not govemed, as is fre- 
quently ezpressed, but that the changes of matter obey a necessity in 
it which admits of no eiception, cannot be denied by any person 
who is bat supeHicially acquainted wttfa the natural Bciences." ' Force 
and Matler,' trana. p. 5. No ancient materialrst ever aurpassed this 
in positiveness of assertionl — qnBeqne : 'severally*; eeen.10129. 
— sine : poatpositive, as often in poctry, 

The fieet procads tagiot tix proofs, cr more froptrly apflieatiens, ef 
the prineipU laid dmon. 

(l) If iMings ■were producedfrom motking, then ■weuld te no need ef 
seed, nor ceriainty in prodacts. 159-173- 

IS9- flerent: scipply rei from foltowing rebus. — omnibn*: The 
early poets in their acansion often took no account of the final s. 


240 LUCRETIUS [I. 159- 

It was oFten omitled also in the older inscriptions, as those of ' the 
Scipios. At that time to glide over the final 1 in speaking vas re- 
garded as a marlt of refinement, — as, indeed, it seems to be considered 
by some to-day ; but nhcti Cicero wrote it was already in bad taste. . 
Cf. Cic. Orator 161 quin etiam, quadiam subrusticum tnditur,alim autem 
felitius, ewian verhorum , qurrum eaedem trant poslremat duae litterae, 
fuae sunt in ' oplim h J' ', postremam lUteram detrahebant, nssi vaealit 
insequeiatur. The tendency of the language. however, was lixed, and 
s final with other final consonanla has entirely disappeared in Italiao. 
A. 375. a ; G. 72J ! H. 608, I. n. 3. 160. genuB : supply rerum. 

The hmiting genitive with genus is often omitted ; cf. i, 447 ; 3, 483. 
k Tlie argument here is precisely that of Epicurus : 'First, indeed, 
(we are to admit) that nothiog is produced from the non-existent ; 
£or (if it could be) everytbing wouid be produced from everything; 
o£ seeds, at least, nothing would have need-' Sce Diog. Laert. 10, 
24,38. iBi. inBTe: tiie abl.ends regularly in (',336,890; innr:;is 

occasionallyfound in other writers. See Roby, 'Gr.'4Z9. Neue gives 
full list of examples, ' Formentehre,' i. 229-23^ 1S2. Bquaml- 

genim r gen. pl.; cf. 2, 1083 md n. on i drvom. This word is first 
met witli in Cicero's translation of the ' Phaenomena ' of Aratua, 3*8 
(574) exin squamigeri serfentes ludere fisces, whence the poct likely 
drew it ; for he seems lo have studied with admiration thjs youthful 
work o£ Cicero'E, and in many instances to have been indebted to it. 
t6% vmvMm.: rimiWMt-and/fiWirj' are bothtame animals as opposed 
to genus/erarum ; the former word refers to the larger sort, especially 
plough-oxen and horses ; the latter to thc smaller, as the lesser cattle, 
stieep, goats etc. See Diiderleln, 'Lat. Synonyms.' 164. tene- 

lent : like passet above and the following subjunctives, a verb of an 
apodosis whose protasis is to be suppliedfrom 159. iCO. ferre etc.t 
amnes arbores amnisfructus (i.e. miniafrvcluum gmera) ferre fosseiil. 
167. ubi: almost = si ; 50 atso mm is sometimes ased to introduce 
a conditional clause. — genitalia corpora: see n. to ^^ fr/mirrdia. 
iSS. qui : old abl. with the force of an adv. : ' how could things have 
a fixed, unvarying moCher^' i6g. atnunc: 'butasitis.' Atis 

often nsed 10 introduce an objection to a preceding statement, some- 
tlmes correcting the false with the true as here, sometimes bringing 
forward a conflicting slateraent that is to be mel, as 803. where see n. 
— BemiiiibllB : Lucr. uses treare wich de and abl., ex and abl., or 
eimple abl. Cf. 155, 646. 170. inde : with nM = ex ee . . ..iu 


gm. — exit: supply quicqui from aaasqtu in 171; see n. to ij 
capta. 171. corpora prima : see n. on 1, t^^primordia. 173. ccr- 
tis : ' parlicular.' 

(z) That tksHgs da nat rise from nothitig it evidetU from thc fixid ua- 
SBHs ia Tiihich all products mab^e. 174-1S3. 

174. Calor« = aestali; ao frigus is sometimes used for hianps, as 
Verg. Ecl. 5, 70 anl/focum sifiigustril. Tlius in Greek MXirot \% found 
£or 6ifBs, i^Bx" for X"l^'- '75- lundi ; see n. to 351. 178. tem- 
pcBtates : here = lEpai, ' the due seasons.' Tcmfistai in the singular 
refers to unseasonable as well as seasonable, bad as well as good, 
wcalher; the meaning must be determined from the context, as in 
the case of vaUtudo, which means good health or bad health accord- 
ing lo the connection. Cf, on the one hand 2, 32 cuni trmpcstas ad- 
ridet ; 4, 169; 5, 1395; on the other i, 761 tcmpestate coaita ; 6, 376; 
'"V 6, 45S.t( iBo. exorerentur : as in 5 cxi/rtum, where see n. iSi. apa- 
\io : i.e. tempare. — alienis part. : 'the wrong seisons.' 183. con- 
cilio : ' union *'; abl. of separation, while Ismpare is an abl. o[ means. 
184. poirb: 'again.' 

(3) I/ things andd came frcm nething, liiiing thcHgs •wauld spring at 
anct to maturity, mmld nied no timi frr growth. 1S4-191. 

1S6. infaDtibu': see n. on \yiomnibu'. 187. arbusta: for atie- 
res, as often in the poels ; driSrcs cannot stand in hexameter veise ; 
see 353 and n. 189-190. The te^tt is here comipt and diflicult. 

Lachmann reads . . . ut par esl semine certo crescere, resqut genus ser' 
vant; which gives a grammatical though inelegant constr. Munro 
supposes that after iil words have dropped out, which he supplies, ao 
that tlie linea read : — 

paulatim crescunt, ut par est, tempore certo, 
res quonia.m crescunt omnes de aemine certo 
crescentesque genus servant ; ut noscere possis 
in which, while tho Mss. reading is preaerved, there is both good 
aense and good constr. Mnnjo supposes a brealt in Ihe text to have 
arisen from the concurrence of two ifhes having similar endingS. 
189. ut par eat: 'as is naiural.' 191. sua de materia: the nvan- 
tng is not that there are different kinds of matter, but that in the case 
of eveiy living thing there are shapes and groups of atoms a^)ted to 


242 LUCRETIUS [I. [92- 

Douiish it. The eEfects of dtSereBt kinds ot food are disctused 4, 633 

(4) Tiere wotdd ie ne tieed ef raiHfirplaitts mrfoodfor animals. 

igr certis imbribna: 'fixed seasons of rain.' 193. submit- 

tere : ' put fortli ' ; a. favorite word of our poet in tliia connection. Cf. 
I, 8. IM- secreta cibo : samure is ofien followed by the abl. with 
a, ab ; Bometinies bj the abl. with ex; rarely and only in poetry by the 
simple aM. as here and in Hor. Od. i, i, jz seiemuat popsdo. Lucr. 
has the gen. of separation in z, S43 secreta teporis etc For the thought 
cf. T, 1038. 197. ut . . . videmus: i.e. ul muHis verits muUa ele- 
meata communia esst mdemia. See n. to 823-6. 19S. principiis: 

iox primorJiis ; see n. to SS- 

{5) There weuld ie no fxed size far things ; me>t vxMld ie giinti. 

igg. deniqne : ' again.' Tbis word Is used by Lucr. for the most 
part not to introduce the last argumentof a series, or a genera1i»ition, 
but simply to present a new point. This use is more akin to the origi- 
nal force o( denigue, which at lirst referred merely to successioD in 
time; the meaning 'finally' is more eommon in prose, and is not 
unknown to our poet; see e. g. 1, 17. aoa qui = tU ei. — per 

vada : the implication is that the deep sea would be to them but a 
ford. The poet had in mind some monster like Polyphemus, so 
graphically described by Vergil as wading out into the middle of the 
aei, ' and yet the Ullowa did not touch his lofty sides.' See Aen. 3. 
£64-5. loi. manibus, etc. : like the giants who of old in the war 

with the gods were said 10 have piled Ossa on Pelion in the attempl to 
Bcale Olympus. aoa. Eaecla : i.e. saecla hontinum, in the sense of 

' generations.' 204. gignundis : see n. on 59 nft^Hnd'11. aoO. qt)o: 
see n. on 169 seminibus. — quaeqne : supply res. , atyj. proferrier ■ 
archaic for profcrri. The ending -ier was the earlier form ; h- for r, 
the passive sign, being added to the active Infin., perhaps gave first 
•ri-er, which by dissimilation became ri-er. Aflerwards the final r was 
dropped for euphony, and the' contraction of -it produced i, thc cora- 
mon- ending o£ the passivc infin. in the classical period. This ex- 
planation, however, is not accepted by all Latin etymologists, but 
seems t^ most probable yet given. See Roby, 614, 615. The earlier 


217-] NOTES 243 

form is frequenllr met with in inscriptiona, and in Prae-Augustaa 
poett7, sometimes «ven in the later pocts. 

(6) Tke spontaKtotts producls of llu earth iixmld far turpaa tkose 
cherished by human lail. 208-214. 

308. postremo: notice nith what Ekill the poet varies the words 
inlrodaclng the various points, so Ihat a format enumeration is prc- 
served without marriiig thc poctic effecl ; 174 pnulerea, 184 necforre, 
.192 huc. ir/q dmigue, 20S foslreme, MQ. m«nibuB: not dat, but 

abl. of means or instrument. 3IO. esse etc. : mp^iy fattndum tU. 

313. qilaeque : See u. to 129. 

2. To nothing nought returns. 215-^64. 
aij. corpora: for eerpora prima. — disBoIuat : generajl}' after f, 
g, 1, i, and r the semi-vowel v has the force of a consonant. But in 
tolutrt and compounds, and a few other nords, it ia often treated by 
the poels as a vnwel. Thus here disslUitat. 'Sta other exceptions ^relicuo; ^ byf) censegiic. Siitmus (1,60; 1,301 andoften) 
is sometimes pronounced as a. dissyllabie. somelimes as a trisyl- 
lable. See Roby, 94, 2. aiS. interemat ; this spelling, for the 

dassical pertod, rests on better hss. anthority than inltrimat, though 
Brambach (' Latin Orthography ' Trans.. p. 97) and thc Latin diction- 
aries prefer the lattcr. So we should wrile iitgiego, inttUigo, fertmo. 
See Munro, • I,ucr.,' p. 33. Cf. Feslus, p. 217, Mull. Wilh the 
IhoDght cf. the teaching of Dcmocritus given in Diog. Laert., 9, 44, 
' and not anything is destroyed into the non-eiistenL' For the modem 
view o£ the indestruciibility of roatter see nn. to 150, 483. 

( I ) j/ Ihings could be rtsohed inlo rtolhing, they might withoui force 
suddtnly disappearfro^i sight and perish uUtrly. 217-224. 

ai7-S. Ct the argument of Epicunis : ' And if that which disap. 
pears were destroyed into the non-existent, all things wonld perish 
ulterly, since there would not be things into which Ihey could be 
resolved ' [Diog. Laert., 10, 24, 39 mil t\ iifetlptra t) rb iipari(intrBP 
tit rb ^j) Ir, inivTa &r ira\Axn ri wpiyfuiTat, oiiT Imir rir its & 
tiiKim). Cf. also Cudworth, ' Inlellectual Syslem,' ch. i, § 28. 
aai. quod nunc ' whereas in trulh,' forms a Iransition from tbe 
false to the true view, lilie 169 at minc. See n. on 82 fuad toutra. 
saa. donec : «ith the indic, as generally in Lucr. — lctu : see n. on 


244 LUCRETIUS [I. 223- 

528 plagit, IS3. inania : = inauia leca. All thii^ were supposed 
to contain void, as only thc atoms were thought to be perfectly solid. 
See 433 tt stq. 334. nulliua: i-e. nulliiu rti. — videri: Munto 

notes that videri here has ihe fotce of iiic, as in Greek ^wtvBu is 
oFten used for tliw. 

(2) Injiniti fasl Hmt must have rtduced aU things te neught. 

318. redducit 1 in texts of ctassical writers generally written rr- 
ducil. But red was the primitive (otm of the partide re, in its origin 
an abl. case ; so in early Latin compounds eilher bave the fiill fonn 
red, or lenglhen the vowcl to compcnsate for Ihe loss of d; thus 
rcddveere, reccidere (always in Lucr.) or reducere, reeidere. Later the d 
was dropped without compensation. See Roby 160,6 and 7. 130. 
mare: obj. of toppeditant, which is here used IransiCiTely. — in^n- 
uei : -ri is an old ending of the nom. pl. of n-stems, common during tlie 
second cenluty B. c, and occurring occasionally till the AugusCan age. 
M unro tikes ingemai as opposed lo extema = ' its own native . . . 
from without.' »31. unde «eth. sid. pas. : suggeslive of Verg. 

Aen. I, 608 potus dum sidera pascit. C£. 1034; See 5, 5^3-5 and n, 
333. debet: for ntcesse est, to indicate a necessaiy rcsult or conse- 
quence; tians. ' must.' Often thus in Lucr. ; cf. 2, iizo; 3. 1S7 etc. 
333. ^vra.v.tapw.^-consiimpsisse ; the 1 was dropped, the ihree s's 
bccanie one. In Ihe older poets this contiaction was not uncommon 
in tenses formed from perfect slems ending in /, ss or x; it is oc- 
casioiially met with in the iater wrilers. Cf. 3, 650 abslraxe ; 5, 
^^^'i prntTcixe ;~Xic«. Sat. i, 9, 73. For other examples see Neue, 
' Fotmenlehre,' ii, S35-S. — anteacta i ptonounced as a Iriayllable, 
anfeacta ; the parts are writlen separately *■, 298. Lucr. is fond of this 
word. — dies : ' time,' ' lapse of daya.' Cf. 322, 557. 334. fuere : 

supply res or elattenta. 235. haec rerum . . . aumina: i.e. the 

world, as distinguished from summa rerum, tbe universe. 33G. 

ceite: emphatic by position, 'beyoud doubt.* 337. The form of 

the reasoning is worthy of note. An infcrence of fact introduced by 
igitur followa a conditional senlence. Some modem naterialists build 
giganlic fabrics of cerlain knowledge upon an ip. 

(3) T%t satne cause leould avail te destroy all Ihings. 238-249. 

338. denique: asin 199. — votgo: 'withouC distinction.' 240. 

ininus aut magisi the Latin more often has wagit ant minus ca 


2SO.] NOTES 245 

magis minunie ot magii ac minui, like the English ' more or less.' It 
seems more natural to think of the grealer first. — indnpedita; for 
the form sec n. to 8z indugredi. Construe with matiries; the thought 
b Ihal matter, betng imperishable, and in itself 'llnked togelber in 
mutual cntanglement,' keeps ihings in extstence against destmctive 
agencies. ^ 341. letl : depends on causa. 243. quippe : liere a 

conj. 'aince,' 'inasmucb as.' — «bi . . . quorum : i.e., 1« guibut . . . 
eanim. — nulla: tmlla eleminia. 344. at nunc : see n. to 169. 

nezuB : the differenC kinds of itexus and tbeir ELgnificance are ex- 
plained 814-829; 2, 581 rf leq.; 2, yooel ag. !»45. canstant: = 

tunt, a common use in Lucr. — aetema, etc.: arguments for the 
etemity o£ matter are given 4*3-634- a49- ««p. mat : see n. 
on I, S5/rwii)rilK». 

(4) WAen ihingi perisk tkey only ehange form hy fhe first tlenunlt 
tnleting into iievi cvmlanations. 2^0-264. 

350. pater aether : the notion of Ihe sk; as father oE all goes back 
to Ihe primilive religion of the Indo-European folk. Tbey saw in 
the bright open hcaven the Gymbol both of power and of infinity. 
Wiib childlike aimplicity they lumed to it with worship as the giver 
of ligbt and life. the vlaible manifestation of that unseen power that 
moved ihrougbout all nature ; for the unretiecting mind ot both cbild 
and savage associates all movement with a will. The sky aoon be- 
came more than a symbol ; it seemed itself a personality, a veritable 
god, thaC ruled the on-going of the seaions, the sweep of tempests or 
the coming of the rain and sunshine ; whose favor mlght be won or 
anger averted by men'3 aclions. Hindoos, Grecks and Romans alike 
sbared as common heritage the worship of the Sky-Father as chief 
of ail the deities. For the Vedic Dyaushpitt, the Greek Ztii na-Hlf,. 
and the Latin Juppitee are essenlially the same being ; the three 
names bave a common origin in div or dyu ' to shine,' and falar 
'father.' In Greek as well as Latiii the so-called impersonal verbs 
referring to the weatber once had aa subjects Ztii and Juppiler, im- 
plying che direct agency of the deily in all Ihe processes of nature. 
Corresponding to the conception of Ibe heaven as fathet arose tbat 
of earlh as mother. For does she not leceive into her bosom the 
dew, the sunlight and the sbower? and does sbe not supply to life 
kindled from the sky all forms of nourishment ? So Ihe early l)elie& 
<rf Gteece and Rome were permcated with the thougbl of sky and 


246 LUCRETIUS [I. 250- 

earth as the parentsof all; when nowtheoldreligioni became a thing 
of Ihe paat, abandoned as superstitions by the higher classes ai soci- 
ety to the ignoranc and credulous, the fonns of worship wete sliil 
keiJt up. Many, indeed, patlicularly the Stoics, tried by rationalistic 
eiplanations to adapt the old mytha about gods attd heroes to their 
philosophic views. Cf . e.g. 2, 652-660. Bat thcy were inwrought into 
the folk-iife of both Greece and Rome. Attempts to exptain them to 
accord with natnral law were never popular. Finally, discarded as 
beliefs they remained as poeCry. To Ennius, Lncretius, to C^tullus, 
Vergil and Horace, goda and goddesRes were bul stuff for poctiy, — 
conceptions about which were githered associations bright and beauti- 
ful, or sad and stern, traditions of power and passion that gave scope 
for all sorts of poeiic license. But in thia and like passages the per- 
sonification ot sky and earth doubtless meant far more to Lucr. than 
to most of his contempoiaries, on account of its philosophical signifi- 
cance. Under the beauty of descripCion Hes a deep and wide-reaching 
tnith. Cf. n. on I yenus. 351. matris terrai. Ct z, 589-460; 

S, 821 ; Vergil has imitated this passage, Georg. 2, 325-7 : 
Tuu pAlcr Dmtiipotcnt f«CDn£s imbribiit ulber 
CDniii|iB in gremium lutae dcBccndit, el omnii 
Magnue alit, inapic comDuxtu CDrpore, lelui. 
»53. ipsae : supply arbores. Ct. 352 UOat and n. «55, puerii : 

'children.' Florire, meaning 'to abound wilh,' is followed by the 
ordinary constr. with verbs of plenty. Cf. 5, I442. 357. pin{rui : 

EubstanCive tn the abl, limicing fessae. 3C0. artubus : Lucr. has 

artibus but ODCe, 5, 1077. 3Ci. mentes: for (Brda or ptctora. 

Cf. I, 13. afix penitus: see n. to 145. videntnr: sapply 

ftrire. 363, Blid : a collaCeral form of aliiul, like elis tat alius, ali 

for alii. See Roby, 373 ; Neue, ' Formenlehre,' ii. 214. In the lime 
of Lucr. these forms were already archaic. See Draeger, ' Hist. Syn- 
tax d. Lat. Sprache,' Einl. p. xii. 064. inorte . . . •Ilena: i.c. 

alferius rei interitu, as Lambinus explains. That the death of one 
thlng is Ihe birth of another was a maxim of Ihe ancient phyucists. 
Munio quotes oiie form of it in Greek from Arist. Met., z, z, p. <K>4, 
b. 5 i^ earipw ^8aiA tnipta tirt\ -fiptea. Of the doctrinc itself he 
well remaiks Ihat " as hcre appiied to this world of ours, it is perhaps 
haidly consistent with what is said below 556, that the process of 
destiuclion is much qutcker than thal of conslruction. Elsewhere 
Lucr. aigoes at gieat length and with much eameslness that this 


28i.] NOTES 247 

world is of quite recent fomalion, and again Ihat it not onlj can but 
Diust and will be destroyed in a moment of time. What then be- 
comes of tliis unvaiying equality, at ieast Ihus unconditionally applied, 
ntc ullam rrta ffigni etc ? " In the doctrine here staled by Luct. seems 
to lie an anticipation l)y ihe anclent philosophers trf the modem doc- 
trine of thc conservation of forc«. 

ii. Elemental Parts of the Universe, Matter 


I. MattcT esiats, composed of Invisible Particlea, 
-the Atoms. 265-328. 

7Mi is shtmm fya numher of illustraiions, dnaintjrom ihtmiad{^^\- 
197 ) ', smtUs, hiot, cald and sounds (293-304) ; lit moisttire Ihat c^lecli 
in garments spread imt niar the sea (305-310); the impereeptible wearing 
fliaflf of Jinger-rings, ploughrshives, pmiements, statues near the citygcUes 
(311-321) ; tit ttaseen processes of growth anddecay (323-328). 

265. Nuncmg:e; 'nowheed,'acommon expression in Lacr.,mark- 
ing a transition to a new topic. 267. nequa : often written ne gua. 

269. tute : emphatic for tu. Cf. loz tutemet and n. aya confite- 

sre : necessest confiteari is 3. formula freqnently mel with in Lucr. For 
conatr. see A, 331,/, Rem,; H. 502, i. Uecessesl is a!so followed by 
the infin., as 30Z. — cssc = exislere, as often. — videri ; passive. 
271. poTtus ; for cortus cA mss. I^chmann has caufei. Munro de- 
tcnds the reading/orfttron the gronnd Ihat "thewind beats against 
Ihcm (the liarbors), and prevents all ingress to Bhips ; renderii^ them, 
therefore.more dangerous thantheopen sea." 372. niit: niere\a 

Lucr. is several times transilive, a use rare except in poetry. Cf. t, 
zS^andz^z; 5,1325: 6,726. 375. Bilvifragia: fonnd onty here. 

Lucr. displayed boldness and power in the formation of new com- 
pounds. Some of them became iixed in Latin speech. Among the 
new words may be mentioned terriloguis (i, 103) ; fiuctifrage (1, 305) ; 
rarefieri (l, 6^); auctifid (2, m) i pcnipolentum (2, 878; J. 789); 
primigenum (2, 1106)1 sensiferos (3, 240); cinefactum (3, 906); fri- 
pectora (5, z8) ; Ifnisamna (5, 864); frugiparos (6, i) ; eonfervefacit 
(6, 353) ; vaeefit (6, 1005; 6, 1017) ; palefiel (6, 1001). 277. caeca: 
' hidden,' ' invisible,' 278 : see n. on 6 catli ctc. aBi. et :' used 

as a particle of conipari3on,'lhan'i cf. 2,416. In this sense ac [alque) 


248 LUCRETIUS [1. 287- 

is more cammon. — aquae . . . natura : = aqua. Lucr. is fond of 
such expTcssions. Cf. 2, 818 Holura ceteris; 3, 191 naiura mellis and 
the like. «87. malibua: i.e./iHr/u', 'the pient.' aBg. gtandia 

8axa : explained by Munro as- the stones of the bri^e swepl along by 
the cuTTcnt. — Tuit etc : ' it dasbes to destruction everything that anv- 
where hinders its naves.' For j^iMYvn/ see n. to 3, 787. igo- de- 

bent : ' must ; ' see n. to 131. 395. etiam atque etiam : ofien 

used by Lacr. in an emphatic restatemcnt of his point at the dose of 
an ai^ument or illustralion. »97. aperto: see n. on gij aperlh. 
agg. venientls : the parliciple is much more vlvid here than the infini- 
live would be. A. 292, e; G. 536; H. 535, I. 4. 301. usurpare : 
as in 4, g7S«jJCTim*iiJ-<tr»r/iir#'toperceive'; a prae-Augustan use. — 
suemua: here a dissyllable. See n. 10 i, 60. 304: Cf. Sen. Ep. 

Mor. 106, 8 ittimquid est dubium, an id, guo quid tangi poltst, corpui 
litT 305. fluctitrago: foundonly bere. 306. eaedem : acaiiiied 
aOdein. — serescnnt ; found only here ; derived, not from leretau, as 
is sometimes stated, but froro a simple slem, perhaps lero-, from which 
ser-enus also cnmes. See VaniJek, 'Etymol. Worterbucb,' p. 1223. 
307. umoraqnai: cf. also i, 349 liquidus umitr; 2,J97 umor afuae; 
3, 427 umirr aquai. All these eipressions, like natura aquae above, 
are somewhat pleonastic. 311. «nnifl : tbe connection suggests the 
earlier meaning oC anaus 'a circuil.' See Var. L. L. 6, S ttmpta a 
hruma ad bruwiam, dum sel redil, vocalur annus ; quod, ul farvi drculi 
anuli, lic mi^gm' dicebantur eireUts ani, undi animt. But Ihe poet had 
in mind the ordlnary meaning, or he would hardly have osed the word 
redeunlibai. Cf. 5, 644, and n. 313. Gubter : i.e. on the inside. — 

habendo; kaiere'to weat ' is not cominon. C(. Tib. 4,2, 14 Verlum- 
nut Olympo millt Aaiel grnalui, mille decenUr habet ; V\V. I, 1 1, 8 Sa- 
tini aureat armillas magni penderii larvo gemmatosque magna specit 
anulos haiuerint. 313-4- Cf. 4. 1186-7, also Ov. Ep. ei Pont. 4, 

10, 5-6 : 

AtteritBr prosa vomer adunctu haiiiD ; ^-^^ 

andlTb. 1,4, \h Longa dits molli saxa peredil aqua. C(. also P)ut. IW 
IJb. Educ. 4, irrariirtt fiirfhf SSaret wjrptii ■MAafmwri, and thefrag. 
of ChoeriluE, ir^piir icaiXa6'« fiarlt BSarat MiXtxttlf- The.thought 
has become trite in the modern literalures. 313. BtHicidi : for the 

fomi, see n. to njiveni. Lachmann has shown Ihal slilicidum is the 
better spelling of the word, Ihough slHIieidium is generally found in 


the uss. 315. stimta viaram : see n. to 36. Th« phrase in- 

cludes not merety tbc strcels of dties, but >1so tbe paved highways, 
as the yia Appia. — propter : see n. to 90. 317. signa : statues 

of the gods were ofteo placed near the city gates (o receive the wor- 
ahip of those who enlered. See Pausanias 4, 33, § 4. This custom is 
thoughl 10 esplain Ihe reference in Acts 14, 13 B t( Wftit toE Aii» reB 
inn *^ T^t nfAmt, nipws koi ati^i^am J*l Taii -wvKAna Myitta, 
irir Toii Sx^" f6t\tr titir. The Greeks appear to bave touched or 
kissed tbe chin of statues, tbe Romans Ibe right hand. A paratlel to 
tbe fact noticed by Lucr.maybe seen in many European chnrches and 
catbedrals. The rigbt foot of the bronze slatue rA St. Peter in 
St. Peter's at Rome is almost entirely worn away by the kisses of 
devotees. 318. Balutantum . . . meantum! hysteron proteron. 

Forthe spelling seen. to i, ^animaiUum; priuterquemeanlum,^tha.'ps 
a tmesis ; but see n. to 66 amlra. yn. spccicm : = msHm ; ' the 

nature of vision has jealously shut oul our seeing.' 313. dic»! as 

in 233. 3*6. veaco : ' corroding.' Veicus, connected in derivalion 
with veici»- (iwi/<i>, ve-es-CB, veao-, VaniCek, ' Etym, Worlb.' p, 28), 
haa lost tbe astive scnse except here and in a veiy few otber pas- 
sages. See Munro's note. 337. quoque : qudque, as above 320. 

3*8. natura ^eiit : see n. to 56. Tbe metapbor here, as Munio 
lemarks, is takcn from tbe goverimient of a state. 

3. Tbere is Void, in which Atoms move and 
are acted on. 3J9-417- 

Tiire ii vMd (329-334). If there 'were nnt, meHm vieuld not bt 
pBssible (335-345)- Besides, all tkings are penetrable, admitting olher 
bcdies into tkem cr Ihrmgh them (346-357). Things a/lhe lante liie 
differ (■« weigkt (358-369). 

339. Btipatai 'packed ti^ether*; a common word in Lucr. 330. 
inane : a substantive, = t^ tttriy, which was deSned by Arist. (Fhys. 
4, I, 6) as Tixai itrriptiiiirat ffi/iaroi, 'place devoid of body.' For 
' void ' Lucr. also has T/acuum, once vacans in 444 itiane vacansque. 
He uses also spatium, locut, and the like, but less definilely, to desig- 
nate [he room or space tn which things exist, 331. In muL rebns: 
' in muiy respects.' 333. sumyna rerum : hcre = the universe. 

334- This line is doubtlcss spurioiks. It was first rejecCed by Bent- 
ley. 335, quodeBHCt : \. t. iiiane ixiiteret. 336. otScium : ' property.' 
339. quoniam : guSntam could not begin the linc, and hence docs not 


2SO LUCRETIUS [1. 540- 

stand in its regalar place as first word lA Ihe clause. In prose, bow- 
ever, it often yields its posilion to an emphatic word. Cf. 345 ; 4, 
933- 34C- aublima : luiiimui was a. rare coilateral form of suUimia. 
Lucr. does not use tlie ialter. On the other hand, suilimt is the 
common form of the adv., and tuiiimifer is rare. With the thieefotd 
diviston of the world cf. 273. 341. mutu modis tnnltis : Lucr. is 
fond of thig expression, the alliteration and paronoraasia of which 
eeem to have stniclc bis fancy. The Latins in general showed afond- 
□ess for placing near together words that sounded alike. Cf. A. 344, g; 
C. 683; H. 563. 343. non . . . priv. carer. etc. : i. e. on the 

principle ihat a thing cannot be said to be deprived of that which it 
never possessed. — sollicito : with the dcrivational meaning (la/ius, 
cognate with BXer, w h o 1 e, and ciins part. ot cierc) ' wholly in molion,' 
'restless.' So 3, 733; 6, 1038 and 1185. 346. solidae: tididui, 

Munro observes, is the technical term of our poet for what is " per- 
fecily sotid and impenctrable, that is, his first-beginnings ; in this sense 
no rts can be lolida." See n. to IZ3. 347. cum : hardly nccessary 
here, as the simple abl. of cha.racteristic would have fuUy exprcssed 
the meaning. Trans. 'endowed with,' ' having.' Thia pleonastic use 
of i-B/n is not uncommon. See Roby, 1881; Madvig, 258. 350. 
omne : not 'evcry' nor 'whole,' but ' throughout,' 'every part of.' 
351. Otiserve the chiasmus; see'n. to 22-13. — fundunt : Lucr. is 
fond of this word. Cf. 175; Cic De Sen. 14, 51 Jiindit /riigem spia 
orditu structam. 353. totas: supply arbnrii fiom arbasta above. 

In 253 Ihe use of irbSri! ia avoided by supplying ipsae from preceding 
arlmribus. See n. to 1S7. 356. inanla.' see n. to 223. — possint; 

Munro's reading for/iujm/; a judicious cliange. So below 593, S97> 
^5- 35S '^ "9- ^*"' ^^ ^'^ other Epicurean ai^uments re- 

garding the void see Zeller 'Prae-SocFIiil., ii., ziS; 'Stoics, Epica- 
reans and Sceptica ' ch. 17. 360. glomere : the 0, short by nature, 
is here made long. 361. par est : ' it is natuial.' 363. deoisum : 
scanned dedrsum. The Epicurean view that matter tenda downward 
by its own weight is explained z, 134-215. 363. inaius : substan- 

tive, dep. on natura ; natsira itianii, Wke nalura aguai, mellis, aniMi, 
etc, is somewhat pleonastic 364, que : ' and yet,' mildly adversa- 
tlve 1 a ose sometimea found in boih prose and veiae, more frequently 
after a negatjve. 365. nimirum: 'beyond doubt,' emphatic. 

This is a favorite word of Lucr. in introdudng a stiot^ a 
3fi8. est = eiistit ; emph^c by position. 


3»3] NOTES 251 

II is assrrtid Ihal motion catt tait place mithnil void hy tht disptaee. 
mait fffmatier, butfalsely ^or withmt void there could be no tegirtning 
efmotion (370-3S3). Wrong loa is thi tiolion tA.1l vihen two bodUs slart 
aparl, Ihe air between them wai prruiously Iheri condensed ; iht air 
nishes in to JUl tke void, but could uot itself eondense unless Ihcri v>ert 
void in il (Z&A-397)- 

370. niud 1 see n. to 80. — vero : substatitive. 371. Ariatotle 

and the Stoics combaied the notion that void is necessary for motion. 
Cf. Sen. Nat, QuaesL 2, 7 Quidam (i. e. Democritus et Epieuref) aera 
ditcerpunt et in particulas didmunl, ila ut illi inani permisceant, argu- 
menlum autem exittimant non pieni corporis, sed multum vatui habenlis, 
quod (Oiibus in illo tam facUis motus, quod maximis miHimisque per 
Utum transcursus esl. Sed fallunlur, nam aquarutn quoque similis 
facilitas esl, nec dt umtate illarum dubium est, quae sic eerpora accipiunt, 
til semper in canlrarium acccptis refiuanl. Hanc noslri circumttan- 
liam, Graici irrmpimiuixv (e. g. Arist. Phys. 8, lo, IZ) adptllant, 
quae in aere tfuoqut sicut in aqua ft, circumtistit enim omne cerpus a 
quo impcUitur: nihil ergo opus erit admiilo inani. 373. post : bere 
an adv. 374. quo : = >'« ^»17;. 377. tolum : trans. aa adv. 

A. 191; G. 324, Rem. 6; H. 443 and n. i. {i). 381. corpora: see 

n. on III poinas. 381-a. aqt . . . aut: a dilcmma, in which 

each proposition involves a conCradiction ; aut , . . aut is used 
with propositions nutually eiclasive. The Epicureans admitted the 
reality of motion and the eiistence of void) Melissns took the other 
hom of the dilemma and, denying the existence of void, sought to show 
Iheretrom the impossibility of molion. His reasoiiirg is inleresting. 
" Every movcmenl presupposes a void ; tJiat which can reccive 
another into itself is void; that which cannot receive another ia full ; 
that which moves can do so only in ihe void, Biit the void would 
be non-eiistent, and the non.enstenC does not exisL Consequcntty 
there is no void, therefore no moCion." See Zeller, ' Prae-Socratic 
Philosophy,' i. 635. As regards the soundness of the dilemma the 
philosophers of to-day are not mucb more able to pronouncc with 
certainCy than in the time of Epicunis, for each of the statemencs 
must be treated as an induction; and in the present limited range of 
ecientific knowledge, when evea the atom of which men speak wilh 
so much positiveness rests on an hypothesis, certainty regarding theni 
is unattain^ble. 383. uu.tJiin: = inUium; so also 2, 269 initum 

molus; Irans. 'the beginningof motion.' /nil. mo. docs nol = Vxi 


252 LUCRETIUS [1. 384- 

«ipii<r<Bi, to which it beara an appareiit Tesemblance, and which Js ex- 

pressed in LatJn \tj princifium mclm, ' principle q£ motion.' Void is 
looked upon not as the cause but as the necessary condition of move- 
ment. Cf. Ariat. Phys. 3, i, 2. 384. de ; ' after ' ; but see Munro's 
note. 390. ille ; as is above, tefeis to arr, The air rnshing in can- 
nol fill the entire space at once ; it will first flow inlo the various parts, 
one after another, ihen finally tbe whole spacc will be taken up by 
iL — omnfa : i.e. omtiia loca ; tmtius mighl havc been expected from 
the preceding liKum ; but Lucr. has both forms of the pl. Wilh the 
■ change of gender here cf. I, 351-2 arbusla . . . tolai; i, 450 rtbus , , . 
horum. ygt. id fierl: i.e. that air is found tietween bodies im- 

mediately after separation. 395. denserier ; see n. to 207. Lucr. 

has only forms of densere, though many edd. read 5, 491 dinsabunt. 
So above comlcHseat, which is (he only (orm of the f-stem of the com- 
pound known. 397. trabere : intrans.; 'todraw' into 'itsel£': = 

Many olker arguments tkerr are; hut enmah. Fffr old age wmld 
mertake tis ere ail could be fresented on anji one topie of our themt 

398. causando multa : 'by urgingmany objections.' 400. pos- 
Sum : this properly expresses the conclusion of a conditional sen- 
lence ;n which comrnimorando takes the place of a protasis. The 
Latin requires the historica) teoses of verbs of ability, propriety, 
necessity, and obligation in the apodoses nf conditional sentences to 
take the indic., whatever the mode or form of Ihe protasis. In 
likc manner ibe pttstTit fossum is often used in both prose and verse. 
Cf. below 411. In such cases trans. possuiii 'Imight,' ' I could.' 
401. coniaderc : this rare «ord in its literal meaning ' Co scrape 
togeiher,' ' gather together,' is found 6, 304 and 444. lu a figurative 
sense it is uscd only here ; and in his choice o£ tbis term perbaps the 
poeC wished to imply tbe diflicultyof the act. 403. Bagaci: see n. 
to 130. '403. tute : emphaCic from posilion as weli as in form. 
404-j. ut eaius persaepe naribiis irrveniunt quietes ('lair') montrvagae 
/eraietc. The simile carriesout thesu^estion ratagaei: iHteetaicoa- 
cessive, 'Chough covered.' Cf. Cic. De Sen. 11, 37 Appiui regibatet 
eaeeus et senex, f though both blind and old.' 406. instiCenint: the 
e ia short, as ofien in the perfect in Lucr. Of course insanrual, fM- 


417] NOTES 2S3 

slfitrunl and tbe like could not stand in hexarneter verse ; iHit as is 
shown hy Munro, and bf Wagner, n. on Ter. Eun. 30, the shortening 
o( the vowel did not always arise from the necessity of the metre; 
d. 5^74/u^n/r /ruA/ wasprobabljrnotanuncommonpronunciation. 
407, slid: seen. 10263. W- insimiare! seen.toii^. — uide: = 
■ ex eii. 410. pigraris : not from pigror, hut contr. for figraverit ; 
the deponent form is found but once, Cic. Att. 14, i, 2. The mood 
of pigr. and recu. is of course subj. — ab re: 'from the stibjecC.* 
411. de plano : apbrase from the law-courCs, refcrring lo dedsions 
rendered informally anywhere, as distinguished from those ex Ixo 
luperiore, i-e., from the elevated seat of the judge in formal trial. Out 
of the technical meaniQg ' off the bench,' ' infomully,' came the use 
heie, = 'readiiy,' 'easily.' 413-417. In antiquity the diaplay of 

firm self-coniidence was reckoned almost a virCue. Livy aays o£ Rom- 
nlus (i, ■to)eumfaclitvirmagniji(ustumfactontmBsUiUatorhauimi«or, 
a characterization that well exemplifies the Roman spirit. In philos- 
ophy the earlier Stoics and Epicureans showcd an uncompromising 
dogmalism, which, professing to know the whole truth, treated with 
contempt al] thebries bul their own. Amoi^ Che poets the aame spirit 
was manifested for the most part in liold prophecies of immortalily 
for their productions ; Ennius, Vergil, Ilorace, Ovid, Fropertius, and 
Martial foretold the honors Ciiat posterity would pay to tbem. So, too, 
Shalcespere has aiid, — 

■■ Not laarble nor Ihe gilded monunKnu 
Ofprincei shalL oudut Ihis powBrAi] Thymfl. 

In Lucr. tbere wai no touch of vanity or overweening self-assertion. 
dred by his great design of freeing men from ttie ills of superscilion, 
and fully believing tliat he \flA found the truch, he wcnt boldly to pro- 
clauning ' the true reason ' as Ihe greacest boon and blessing. Cf, i, 
921-gjo ; X, -jyi. 4ia. fontibu' ; see n. on 1 59 umaiM. The ref- 
erence ib. fonl. maj. is to the abundant teachings and writings of E]ii- 
curus. Cf. n. to 3, 10. 413. pectorei see n. to 3, 140. 415. 

vitai claustra: 'life's fastnesses.' Cf. 3, 396; 6, 1153. 4)6. tibi; 
a loose use of the dat. with the predicate as a whole, uhere a pronom- 
Inal adj. (i^j) might havebeen expected. 417. sit . - ■ iniSM: for 
the mood see A. 327 ; H. 520. — copia; *stote.' 



3. Matter and Toid alone make np the universe. 


T%ere ii matter, Iktre is vMd (41S-429). Baidet matter an/i void 
there is ns ihird natttre (430-448). Whatever exiiti ts either a property 
er an accident ofmatter artd veid (449-482). 

418. 'Bot now to proceed to weave throughoot in Tcrse the design 
begun.* 419. ut ett : ' as it is," as it stands.' Munro in hia ^rd 

edit. takes per se with ut eit and trans. ' all nature, then, aa it exists 
\ij itself,' which does not seem to make as good senae as the other 
constr. ; but see his n. 4M, constitit in : ' is made up of.' With 
this meaning cetuiitert is followed by the simple ab1. or b; the abl. with 
ex or in. Lucr. bas the three constructions, but in on!y with rebia 
here. He bas likewise constart re, ex re. — corpora : i.e., both atoms 
and tbe things made up of atoms. 431. diVersa: ' in different 

directions,' ' about ' ; the common use of an adj. having the force of 
an adv. — moTentur : the passive of mavere is often tised where the 
English idiom requires the active. 433. per se : refers to corpas, 
not to sab), of dedital. — csse : = existere. — cotnniutiiB sensus : 
jnuii cdEi, the generat conviction of inen, ' common sense.' To this . 
tiie Stoics as well as the Epicureaits appealed. Epictetus (Diss. 
3, 6) thus defines it : ' There are certain things which men, who are 
not aliogether unsound, see by the cQmmon notions which a!l possess. 
Such a constitution of the mind is named common sense.' But the 
distinction must l>e carefutlf observed belween 'common sense,' as 
used in the present passagc, denotlng simply the general conviction 
of men, and 'common sense' in its popular signification, wilh "an 
acquired perception or feeling oC the common duties and proprieties 
expected from each member of society." The latter is the prevalent 
meaning in Cicero and Seneca, and is fonnd also Hor. Sat. i, 3, I56; 
JuT. Sat. S, 73. For full diacussion of this potnt see ' The Works oE 
Thomas Reid,' ed. by Hamilton, i. 109 and iL o. a. $ v. It Is lu ihe 
tormer signification that common sense is the characterislic lerm of 
the Scottish Fhtlosophy. As the Epicureans bclieved in [he abso- 
lute trustworthiness of the senses, and that from Ihese all knowledge 
comes (cf. 4, 379 et seq.), they held of course (since Ihe senses are the 
same for all men) tiiat those things regarding whlch the general iielief 
of minkiad is unanimoua must be accepted aa tnie. [The above n. 


436.] NOTES 2S5 

waa written before seeing Munro'3 n., in which the same passage of 
Hamilton i» referred to, qnoted from Mayor on Juvenal 3, 73.] 

413- cul . • . queamus : ' and unlcss at the very outset our beltef in 
this shall be firmly giounded, there will be notliing to nhich we can 
appea! on hidden things iii order to prove anylhing by reasoning of 
tnind.' Cui, as Munro remarks, depends on Jides j il ref ers to coin- 
munu senms. I3 there not here an appeal lo consciousness, based on 
Ihe deliverances of the consciousness of men in general f " That our 
inunediale consciousness, if competent to prove anything, must be 
competent to prove everylbing it avoucbesf is a princtple nhich none 
have been found, at least openly, to deny." Hamilton, ut sup. n. A, 
S ii. In last analys!s, then, in the appeal to the direct knowledge, 
the itiesistible conviction of the cgo, the position of Lucr. is that of 
tb« Scoltish philosophy. — valebit! fut^wherethe Eng. idiom gen- 
erally prefers the present. 436. quod : graramatically Ihe ante- 

cedeot is spatiuiit, but logically it is the concept expressed by the two 
notAs, Ixus anA spaCaint. 437. fortt : = exislere/. Fertm is used 
insiead of essrm, particularly in conditional «entencea and clauses 
expressing purpose. It is rare in Cicero. See Madvig, 377, obs. 2. 
For the argument cf. Epicuma in Diog. Laert. 10, 24, 40 ' If what 
we call the void, or space, the intangible nature, did not exist, bodie* 
would not have a place in which to exist, nor throughput which they 
could move, as we see they do move.' 43i). snperai old form 

of supra, probably at firsC an abl. from supertti. For use see n. on 
66 eonlra. The prep. uae is found 6, 50J. Cf. 4, 67? ; 5, 1407. 
431. Observe the chiaslic arrangement. 439. quod ; qtiae might 

have been cxpected, attracled to natura. — quasi etc : 'mighl count, 
as it were, as a thirij nature.' — numero: somcwhat pleonastic: nu- 
tnero, litcrally 'by ^ount,' is often Ihus attached to expressions of 
number, having lost its original force and merely strengthening the 
expressioTL So tatfe numera, 433. Whatever has existence must 
itself be something. 434. tactns^yMouch,' i.c, power of resisC- 

ance to tfae stn^es, of awakenlng sensation by contacC — qnamvls : 
with /en. exiff. — levis exiguu*que: 'lighc and delicate'; the latter 
word expresses a less degree of Gneness or minulenessilian the 
former. 435. augmine: %ots •mtYi augtbit. — duioBit: 'provided 
ic (really) cKLsts,' 43G. numeium : 'quantity.' — summ. seq. : 

i.eT S3mnlfie emnium rerum iungelur. No matCer how small anything 
is that i3'tangible, it ts a parC of thc mass or body of the univcrse. 


2S6 LUCRETIUS [1.437- 

437. intactile; found only here. — nul. de parte ; 'not on any side. 
— quod: with ^ueai characterizes Ihe Gubject of tril, lo be sapplled 
from cui above. 438. qneat etc. : qiuat prohihtre ullam rem me- 

antem transire per se. In Imo. frnhibere is also followed by the subj. 
wilh ite and qao mitnit. Ct. 1, 977 ; x, zSS. 439. vacuum : adj. 

with inane. 44& per ae , . . erit 1 aa ahove fier te , . .esu. — quidi 
indefinite = rl ; in thts sense genera.ll}r found with si. 441. fnngl : 
=■ niaxfir, ' to suSer,' opposed to facere, agm ' to do,' ' to act,' refet- 
ring to tbe aaive and passive qualiiies of tnatler. 443. erit ; 

snppiy tale. The position of 440-3, wbich liinits existence to matler 
and void, would not of course be accepted by any one but a thorough- 
going malerialist. 443. By this verse, even more directly than by 

the preceding proposition, Ihe poet shuts out from his system the pos- 
sibility of ibe eiistence of God or spirit in the ordinary sense of the 
term. A11 pbenomena, as he procceds to eiplain, are reducible to 
Btates and relations of matter and void ; as matter is the only rcality, 
in the end phenomena reduce to slatcs of maUer. This Is precisely 
the position of modern materialists. Cf. Herbert Spencer, ' Prin. of 
Fsychology,' i. p. 267 : " It is one and tbe same Ultimate Keality 
which is manifested to us subjectively and objectively. For while 
the nature of th^it which is manifestcd under either form proves to be 
inscrulable, the order of its manifestations tbrougbout all mental phe^ 
nomena proves to be the same as that throughout all material phenom- 
ena." In the Spencerian view that ' Ultimate Reality' is corporeal. 
Forthepositionof Huxley, elc., see Wainwright, ' Scientific Sophisms,' 
ch. 10. For full discussion of Dcmocritus and Epicurus on tbis point, 
with referencea to original authoritiea, see Z^ler, ' Stoics, Epicureans, 
and Sceptics,' ch. 17, k (3). .444- vacans: substantive. See n. 
to 330. 44B. apisci : for adipisci. 

449- cluent: ' are named,' i.e., 'exist.' See n. to 119, — con- 
luncta : = ri mi^&t&it*^'-. ' 'lie essential properties.' Supply esse. — 
duabus rebus: l.e.,iiiatter and void- The dat. depends on the verb- 
idea in cemiuncta (A. 337,1/; H. 392, 1.); 'linked to these two things.' 
450. horum : for hanatt reruta. Cf. 390 cititiia and n. — eventa : = 
T(l <ni^*T(i/uTB, ' accidental propertics,' ' accidents.' With the tbought 
cf. Epicurus in Diog. I-aert., 10, 24, 40 ' one cannot conceive, either on 
the basis of pcrceplion or on analogy lo the objects of perception, 
anyqualities common to all naturcswhich are not essenlial propei- 
ties or accidents of these things (i.e. malter and void).' This doctrine 


463.] NOTES 257 

of 'properties' Epicurus toolt from Aristotle. See Atist. Met., 10 
(ii),8andpassiin. See also Ritier, ' HJst. of Anc. Fhil.,' Bk. 10, Ft4, 
ch, 2 Tht Canonk for full diacussion and citation of authorities. 
4SI. permitiBli: so two of the liest mss.; fernidali is the coniinon 
reading, adopted also by Lachmann. The meaning is the ssroe in 
either case. Permilialis \% found on!y hcir; but /rrntA>^ ' destruc- 
tion,' ' niin,' ' decay ' is several times met wilh. 453. potit : here 

not declinedi pote, bowever, is someCimes niet with. Eithcr form 
is rare !n classical prose, wherc folal is used instead. — nque 
sreg.: tmesis; j^^^ori would not suit the metre. 453. liquor: 

the I is here lengthened. 454. Lachmann bas shown that this 

Terse is an interpolation. The datives are inconsistent with the pre- 
ceding genitivcs, and the nom. in/aclus is 3 barbarism. 457. na- 

tura: i.e. m' ifiius. Observe tlie elegant and fordble arrangement 
of words- 459= nt : = txistil. "Here too," Manro reniarka, 

" Lucr. is comliaCing Chrysippus and the Porch, who taught that 
time was not only kaAiiarw, hut also like void «««' airi ti naiittror 
*pay/ia," The same argument is stated by Epicums in I-)iog- Laert. 
10, 24, 40. No belter proof of the surpassing poetic power of Lucr. 
is needed than the contrast between the dry, hard atatemenC of Epic 
and the spirited and lucid trcahnent of the same quesiion here. 
" One of our commonest errors is to regard time as an agent. But in 
reality time does nothing and is nothing." Fieming, 'Vocalralary of 
Phil.' art. TSmt. ^Bo. conseq. acna. : 'the sense apprehends.' — 
aevo : 'the past,' a rare meaning of thts word. 4O1. inBtet: ' is 

presenl.' — quid . . . seq. ; cf, Cic. De Sen. 19, (*j>uc praelerHumltmpus 
nunguaitt reDtrtitiiT lue qiiid sfquatur sciri potist. — deinde ; scanned 
^tiide, as often. 46S-3- The doctrine that lime cannot bc known 

apart from motion and rcsC was workcd out by Arislotle. Lucr. is in 
error in denying utterly its objective eiistence, aa he does 459. We 
Teach our conceptions of time and space only Utfougb experience ; 
indeed eipericnce is apprchended by us only in terms, as it were, of 
time and space; bul Ibat Chcre is someChing outside of ourselves cnr- 
responding to Chese concepCions, few wili deny. Lucretius' error 
originates in the notion of 'existence ' held by the Epicureans, Eiea- 
tics, and mosl ancient philosophers. By them ' existencc ' was predi- 
cated eithei of mattcr alone, or of mattcr and spirit, or of matter and 
Toid; but properly speaking Che concept covers both substance, phyS' 
ical and spiritual, and relalions, as cause and efliect, space, time. Tlie 


258 LUCRETIUS [!. 464- 

f^luTc to notice tbis distinction involved the ideas of nost of the 
ancients about time and space in ulter confusion ; and, in fact, it was 
not lill Kant thal tlie subject was finally cleared up. 464. Tya- 

daridcm: Helen. The poet proceeds to show ihat atl thlngs of hia- 
tory are accidents of malter and void. The causes, charadcrs, scenes, 
and incidenls of the Trojan War foimed a Irady of stock illustralions, 
which was drawn upon for the most diffeient uses by bolh Greek and 
Latin wrilers. To Ihe Romans allusions lo the Tiojan War seem lo 
bave been spedally welcome, because of the tradiliona connecling wilh 
it their origin as a people and the genealc^es of leading families. 

465. TToiiugenas : thc spelling adopled by I^chmann and Munro 
from Ibe beat ms., a. The olher mss. and edlt. have the common 
forro Troiugena ( Tryugena) given liy the diciionaries. So 476 
Treiianit, ^-jj Cratiugtnarum. — dicnnt : 'they say,' l.e., the Slolcs, 
who considered time as immaterial, yet gave "to ihe conception o{ 
time a meanii^ as concrete as possible," Ihal time might have a reat 
va1ue. " Zeno deGned time as the extension of motion ; Chiysippus 
defineE il more detinitely, as the cxtension <rf the motion of the 
world." See Zeller, ' Sloicfl, Epic. and Scep.' ch. S, A. The ideas 
o( the Stoics were very confused regarding both time and space. 

466. nt /urft CBgant lua /alrri iatc fer le eiie [cxiilere). 467 el leq. 
We should not admit that, since the men themselves bave passed 
away, the accidents of them remain as real eiistences, particularly 
the ' acddent of acctdents,' time. 469. aliut . ■ . aL : final / for d 
Is rare eicepl in inscriptions. Trans. 'in the one ca^ . . . in the 
Other.' — Teucris: Munro's emend. for lcrrii ; Lachm. \i33 pcriesl, 
a much less prnbable reading. 474 Aleiandri: Paris, while 3 
shepherd on Mt Ida, having shown great courage in protecting the 
flocks and his companions, received Ihe name Aleiander [ixi^-ajiSfat, 
'defending men'), Bj ihis name he is usually designated in the 
Iliad. 475. clara : in this word Munro sees a play on Ihe two mean- 
ing» of clarus, 'famous in story,' and 'bright,' in reference to the 
flamea of war. 476, clam : prep. nilh Troiianii ; rarely used 
wilh the abl. ; see Roby, 1877. Il may be thal clam is an adv. and 
Troii. a d»t. of disadvanlage. — durateua ; transferred from the Greek 
SoufArtoi 'wooden,' and used only of the horse before Troy. Cf. 
Hom. Od. 3,493 ^^^ 5'^' 477- cquos: eailier spelling of iquiis: 
eais is also found in Lucr. 480. clucre : as in 449. 4S1. loci : 
for inamt. 


. The Nature of Matter. 

without void. 483-527- 

TXa/ thtre is anything absalatdy l(Jid ii nvt knowtt fiont Ihi imsts, 
bul tkroiigk rcaian. 483- joi. 

483 et seq. That these lines embodj the view of Democritiis Is 
appa.renC from Diog. Laert. 9, 44. Thc thought is exacttjr chat of 
Epicuius id. 10, 24, 40-41 : 'Of bodies some, indeed, are combina- 
Cions, others are (the elements) out of which the combinations have 
been madc, The latter now are indivisible (Ato^) and unchange- 
able; else indeed all things would be reduced to non.exislence. £at 
of thcir own power in the diasolution of the combinations Che^ sar- 
vive, because in their nalure tbey arc full, and thus show no aspecC of 
weakncss, nor any mode in which they can bc destroyed. Thetefore, 
of necessiiy the firat principles of Chings are indivisible bodies.' Cf. 
the slaleinent of Sir Isaac Newton: " It seems probable that God 
in the beginning formed matter in soJid masses, hard, impenetrable, 
moveable patticles o£ such size, figures, and wilh such other proper- 
ties and in such propottions to space, as most conduced to tbe end 
for which he formed them; and that these primitivc parlicles, being 
solid, are incomparably harder than any porous body compounded 
of them, — even so very hard as never to wear or to break in pieces,'' 
See Lange, ' Hist. of Materialism,' section 3, ch. 3 ; ' Popular Science 
Monthly," 1S81, p- 837. Cf. also HerberC Spencer, 'Prin. of Psychol- 
ogy,' 3d Am. edit, i, 155: "There is reason to suspect that Che so- 
called simple substances are themselves compound ; and IhaC there 19 
bul one ullimale form of matCer, out of which the successively more 
complex forms of matter are built up. By the diflerenl giouping of 
iinits, and by the combinations of the unlike groups each with its own 
kind and each with otber kinds, it is supposed that ihere have been 
produced the kinds of matlet we call elementary; just as, by further 
composiCion simultaneously carried on, these produce furCher varie- 
ties and complexities." See also Zeller, ' Prae-SocraC. Phil/ ii. 220-1, 
238; Tyndall, 'Fragments ot Seieuce,' jth edit. p. 4? 5. Consult 


26o LUCRETIUS [1. 484- 

particnlarly Stallo, ' Concepta and Theories oE Modern Fhyiics,' ch. 4. 
Homogeneity o£ matter, it is worth while to remarlc, is not a neces- 
aary postulate of materialislic evolution. See Elam, ' Winda o£ Doc- 
trine,* p. 35. 4S4. concilto : a technical term in Lucr. for Ihe 

'union' or 'combination ' of atoms. The subject of atoms is more 
fully discussed i, So-580 ; tbat oE the combination of atoms, ;, 5S1— 
1174. 486. ntingatre ■.=exlingvm- The simple verb is rarely 

used except by Lucr., perhaps not by any other writer except Cicero 
inlhe Atatea. 487- etsi: as in iio, where see n. 491. vapore: 
'heat '; thetrord in classical Latin never corresponds to our 'vapor.' 
495. ntniinqu«: \x. caitrmt frigusque. 501. semiiiaetc.: see n. 

on tjt, primordia. 

Matltrandveidlunie nplhing in amman ; miere eiu ii,lie ethtr u 
nal; in alami Ihere M no void. 503-537. 

506. sibi : added for cmphasis. Munro corapares tlie English ei- 
picssion 'in and for itself.' — puram: 'unmixed.' 508. ea: edis 
often explained as an abl. wilh farle or some such word undeistood. 
While such was doubtleas ihe original use, in cases like tbis it should 
be considcred an adv. — qua por. cumq. : tmesis. S"-?. In 

things (not atoms) there is void, which could not be uniess the bound- 
ing first beginnings were solid ind impenetrable. 5*0. vocaret : 
old form for vacarel, as the early vocrvas, vocuos for vacrvus, vacuus. 
5*3. omDC quod est: i.e, 'the universe.' — constaret .■ = «jrf; 
tiacuum and inane aie of course adj. 514. altemis : old abl. pl. 
used as adv.; commoit in Lucr, but rare elsewhcre ; ' in alternate 
layers.' 515. plenum :=irtjrhvpit 'thefull,' as distinguished from 
vaciium Ti Ktr6r ' Ihe empty.' Plenwn is a term applied to matter from 
jls extension, carpHi from its poner of resjslance. Cf. n. to 55. where 
the words for the ultimate forms of matter are discussed. — naviter: 
the original force of tbis word was 'diligently '; tben.asone is wbolly 
intent upon tbe business in hand, ' wholly,' 'enlirely,' the meaning 
here. As subject of extai [=esl) mpp\y onint fUMi est. 

3. Atoms are indestructible and eternal. 53»-«34. 

The aloms, Mng wilhiml void, are imfenetraMe ; and hence can ie 

agectid neither by blimsfram ■aiithcut, nw by anylhing fermealing ■wilhin 

(528-539). If it ■aiere not thus, long ago all t/iitigs hadbeen reduted lo 

nelking (i^S!P)- 


SS7.] NOTES 261 

jaS. ptagjs : blow», ar impicl o( aloms, and massea, held a very 
imporUnt placc in thc Epicurean philosophy, both in the ciplanalion 
o( (he natural pruccsaes of growlh and decay and in the doctrine of 
sense-pcrception. 531. See 4S5 et seq. 532. conlidi : 'crushed 
together,' 'crnshed in.' 533. bina ; 'ioto two parts,' 'ia two'i 

laiely uscd as berc withoui a substantive. 534. nianabile : found 

only here i ■^penetraU. 537. tam : for 10, to corrcspond with qtie. 

— Mb rebus : ie. umore, frigore, igni, the three great disintegrating 
agcncics. A modern phystcist would add electricity. 540. fuis- 

set : the imper. tenge might have been eipected, as indestructibility 
is an essential, ever-preaent quality o£ matter, ' i£ niatter were not,' elc. 
But the plup. is niore logical, Ihe implication being, 'if matter from 
Infinilc past tiine had not been,' etc. In the expresaion of general 
truths, however, the Latin tense-idiom is at variance witli the English. 
For the thought cf. Epicurus in Diog. Laert. 10, 24, 55 ' It is necessary 
thaC someChing remain indestrucCible Chat all Chings may not be re- 
cluced into non-exisCence.' 543. supra : 1 50 (where see u.) el seq. 

546 quoi^/n^wif. 548. solida . . ■ simpl. : 'solidaingleness,'» 
phrase often used by Lncr., by which he forcibly suggests not simply 
the impcnetrability, but also the individualily, as it wcrc, the di». 
Cinct separate existence of tbc atoTns. 549. •evom : ' eternity.' 

This word is used by Lucr. also to express limitcd time, as bclow 
i;^'} aevo friare 'the past,* 564 iki»' * Ufe^pan,' 'age.' 

ff tkere ■mere tiot a set limit to the ireakiHg up and dtstnietion of 
matler, beforethis itwoidd kiaie been so farreduced thal all grvwth weidd 
ie imfessihle; for tiiHgs are deslrByed morf rafidly Ihan renewed, and 
ait iH^nitefiOure ceuid not repair tie ■uirtci ofan iHfinite fmit (551-564). 
Agaiu, ivAile it is setn Smv wilh ■voidfrom indivisiile fiartielei soft tkings 
are frodiued, it is ineoHceivaile hoio fi-om soft firsUeginnings hard thingt 
loiadcotnt (565-576). 

351. Denique: as in 199 where see n. 554. a cer. temp.. 

'within a fixed time.' 555. summum , . . anctum; 'reaiJi its 
utmost growth of being.' aiulum is Munro'3 emend. foi fintm, whicli 
is obviously wrong 1 for finir elaewhere jn Lucr. is fem., and besides 
here does not suit thc sensc. Lachm. reads concepium summa aelatis 
tervadere finis. 557. diei: 'length,' 'period,' depends on aelat 

'duration,' and is limited in luni by lemporis. Munro, however, says 


262 LUCRETIUS [I. 559- 

the simplest constr. seems to be "toeuppose theclauseadoubte one," 
qaod lenga diii attas, [hoc esl] infimta aeCas anleaeti temporis etc For 
the scanning dm see n. to 5, 102; for that of attlButa see n. to 233. 
559- quod : for antecedcnt aupply ti/ as subj, oi potstt. — fregisset: 
/raiigere meana ' lo break up ' 1 thing, usuiUy a whole, by destroying 
its Blructure ; disturbart, ' to demolish ' by rending the parts violently 
asunder; dissoltitre, 'to deslroy utterly' by reducing a thing to its 
primal elenients, leaving not the least vestige or trace of its fam or 
properties. 56a relicuo: scanned relHriti; all the forms of this 

word in Lucr. ate reid as four syllables. See n. to 215; and cf. 3, 
6^ ; 4, 976. 564. ftcvf : eee n. to 549. 565. solidisaima : 

predicative; eaiuiant=mnt. 566. cuin : * while,' ' although,' mildly 
concessive. In Plautus and Terence generally, sometimes even in, 
classical prose, cum concessive and evm causat are found with the 
indicative) Ihe regular classical constr. however requires the subjunc- 
tive. Here the indie. is especially forcible, as the ihing conceded is 
looked upoQ as a fact. — possit: Munrn's and Sauppe'3 emend. foT 
fnssint ; ihe pl. crept in £rom Ihe proximity of eonslanl mA omnia, 
Trans. tamen (ratia) /mssit reddi quo paito smnia, quae fiuni mollia, {ul\ 
aer, aqua, terra, vaporis fiant el i/aa elc. 567. vaporea ; heat was 

thought to be not meiely a properly of combinations of atoms but 
itself a form of matter. C£. a, 153 eorpuscula quatque vaporis, 2, 843 
elc 571. silices: wrongly taken by some to mean 'cliffs' or 

masses in locli in gcneral ; rather. literalty, 'fiint stones,' as the type 
of all that is hordest in rock formation. Munro thinks there is a 
reference to the hard blocks of basalt with which the Romans paved 
their streets and roads. With Ibis technical sense silicn is sometimes 
found in inscriplions, as well as in Livy, and occasionally elsewhere. 
573. poterit : on the mood and tense of the apodosis see A. 307, b, 
Rem. and foot-n. ; H. 511, l, n. I. Cf. 3, 931-950 H voeem rerum 
natara repenlemiUat . . . guid retpcademui l The indic. is generally 
nsed by Lucr. in conditional clauses with poisum ; cf. 656 below. 
575. coDdenso: stronger than denso from the force o( the^iw-. Cond, 
is common in Lucr., and is sometimes met with in olber poets, but is 
rare in prose. magis here goes with cimd. 576. Jn iilustration of 
lines 565-573 Munro quotes a remarkable pasaage from Newton : 
"AII bodies seem to be composed of hard particles: for olherwise 
fluids would not congeal. Even the rays of light seem to be hard 
bodies . . . and theiefore hardness may be reckoned the propeity <A 


589.3 NOTES 263 

all uncompounded matter. . . . Now if compound bodies are so veiy 
bard as we find some o£ (hem to be, and yet are very porous and con- 
sist oE parts which are only laid together, the simple partides which 
are void o£ pores and were never yet divided must 1« much harder. 
For sach hard panidcs being heaped together can scarce touch one 
another in more than a few points, and thcrcfore must be separable 
by much less force than is lequisite to break a solid particle whose 
parts touch in all the space between them without any pores or jnter- 
stices to weaken their cohedion." Emerson represents nature m 
«ajing: — 

Suppesi thiri is no timil lo Ihe diviHbility of mattir ; itil! thtre are 
elements iiol at yet reduced, 0/ which all things Ihal exist are camfiosfd. 
Bnl theie, imiess indeslruelible, eauld ttot htrve viitkstood thtforett of dis- 
telulian from infinUe past time (377-583). All natureis andtr tht reign 
0/ lazB. This cnald not be if Ihert ttwn noi in matler tltmerUt imafabU 
of change or decay (584-59S). 

S79- superare 1 = suferesse. jSa clnctuit : = sint ; cf, 449. 

^a. discTepat : ' it is inconsistent,' i.e. with the assumption ihat 
matter is infinitely divisible. The argument is a Idnd oE reduelia 
ad absurdtan, in which, however, the conclusion is not dtrectly stated, 
but may be readily supplied. 5S4. generatim : see ti. to zo. 

586. quid ■ . . queant : quto and possum ate often used absolutely in 
the sense of qu. fatere or agere, pas.fae. or agere. In construing juid 
Bud the lihe in such cases, instead of supplying/nvr^, as is often dolie, 
it is better to consider them as adverbial acc. A like constr. is met 
with in other languages. For the English cf. Browning ' A Death in 
the Desert,' " Lower than God, who knows all and can all ; " Bacon, 
* Essay on Great Place,' " the best condition is not to will, the second 
not to can;" Shakspere • Hamlet,' "The French, who can wetl on 
horse-back." — foedera naturai: the conception of law, universal, 
all-potent, pervades the entire philosophy of Luct. See Introd. 

587. sancitum : — Jani^Aifn ; a rare form. — qnandoquidein : the S 
is always scanned short by Lucr. Cf. I, 296 ; z, 10S7 ; 2, 969: 3, 457 
etc. 5BS. quin elc : ' bul all things are so conslant' 589. in 


264 LUCRETIUS [1. 590- 

OTdine: 'in succesBlon'; f.e., one genemtion atter another. 590. 

generalis; common to tlieir kind; e.g., bobolinlis geneTation after 
gencralion lceep tlte aame marking of white and black. $ga. 

debent : for subject rcEef back to emnia. 594-7- Cf. 73-7 and n. 

597. referre: 'reproduce.' Cf. 4, 1218-9. 

Atatamt, TokicA lit btyimd the ken sf atise, artfartt of thingt, 10 tht 
otomt themsthiis art comp«sed of parts ; but inith this difference. Tke 
farts of the atffm are abselulely limittd 1« sia and are inseparable fraat 
tme anothfr, havtng existed in union from all etemity, se that the atem 
eannot be broken up, but remains a unit (599-614), Furthermart, iflkt 
atom were ittfinilely divisible Ihere ■weuld be no differmee behoeeH tht 
hast Ihing and the greatest, stnte bolh alike leouldbe composed of infinitt 
parts, and Iktis be eqiial (615-627) ; if tke atom ivert divided inlo tht 
leasi parts, Ihese cimlii not kave tke properiies aihich maiter, toform the 
basis of existence, mast kave (62S-634). 

599-606. This passage is exceedingly difficult Munro's explanation 
is Ihe best. After 599 he thinks two lines have been lost, and thus fiils 
oat the sense : ' Then again, since (beTe is ever a bounding-pojnt [to 
bodies, which appeats Co us to be a least, there ought in the same way 
to be a boundii^-point the least conceivsble] to that firat body, which 
isalreadybcyondwhat oursensescanperceive: thatpoint sureenough 
is without parta ' etc. 600. corporia : i.e., Ihe atom. On ihc view 
that the atom can be known not by sense but by reason, see Zelier, 
' R-ae.-Socrat. Phil.' ii. 219, 335 and nn, with references to otiginal au- 
thoritiesi Id. 'Stoics, Ep, and Scep." p. 442. Cf. Tyndall, 'Ftag. ol 
Sci.' p. 71 : " Indeed the domain of the scnses in Naiare is almost in- 
finitely small in comparison with the vast tegion to thought whicb lies 
beyond Ihem." 601. id : i.e. cacumen ; ' it has no parts, but Is itself 
one of the parls of the atom, having no conceivable cxistence apart from 
Ihe atom,' — extat :=est. C04-5. 'and so a first and single part, 

and (hen other and other similar parts in successiun, fili ap in close 
senied mass Ihe nalure of the first Ijody ' {carporis, the atom). The 
atom is thus divisible only in thoaght, not in reality. CoS. haerere 
nnde: 'clingtothatfromwhich.' 610. «rte: adv. 61T. illarum: 
Munro'a emend. for Hlorum. C13. andc: = ii gnibus, ie., a pri- 
mordiit. 614, aemina : supply la at ea esse. 

015, paivisBima: the regular supeilativeof ^r^f is rare ; It here 
takes (he place of minima because minimum is used in a (echnical 


632.] NOTES 265 

Miue to expresB 'theteut thmg^absolutelj. 617. pnn-.^^dmitiia 
fart. In cases like this /ari takei the meaning oi 'one-half,' 'one- 
third ' etc. according to the context. CiB, piaefiniet : ' set bounds ' 
to tbe divigion. 619. mlnimam: supply ran. — escit: aichaic 
future o£ ttie, Inchoative in origin. Ii is found four times in ihe frag- 
ment» o£ Ihe Twelve Tables and in a few places elsewhere. With the 
developmenl of the future force from the inchoativc fonn Words- 
worlh compares the use of the German wtrdtn ; see bis ' Fragments 
and Specimens of Early Latin,' p. 51 i j also Roby, 722. Trans. hera 
as if interirit, diilabit. fiaa nil . . . Aisttl : c^ nil dista^. The 

teasoning iii 615-621 vfa» borrowed by ihe Epicnreans from the 
Eleatics. Granted that matter is inGnitely divisible, the least thing 
as nell as Che greatcst will be made up of an infinite number of picts ; 
thus theie will be no difference between Ihem, because infinities are 
equal. Eiactly the same wis the view of the Indiin malcrialist 
Kanada, who laught that if matter were infinitely divisible a grain 
of sand would be "equal to a mountain, both being infinite." See 
Fleming, ' Vocab. o£ Phil.' art. Alem. The argumcnt isa paralogisra, 
as has often been ahown. It assumes that anything which can be 
dividcd into an infinite number of parts is infinite, and that all infini- 
tiea ate equal. We conceive of space, for example, as infinitely 
divisible i hence any measure in space, as a mile, an iiich, is infi- 
nilely divisible ; tiut the mile and Ihe inch are not therefore equal 
divisions of space. 695. ea : refers to tbe parts of the aloms ; so 

quae in 6z6. 617. lUa ; i.c., the atoms : quoqite, i.e. as well as Ihe 

inseparable parts of which atoms are made up. 631. pOMimt : 
snpply haiere; 'cannot have those properties which ' etc The argu- 
ment in 638-634 must be carefully distinguished from that of Demo- 
critiis borrowed from Zeno, " that an absolute division would ieave 
no magnitude remaiuing, and thetefore noihing at all." See Zeller. 
•Prae.-Soc. Phil.' ii. zig. In illuslralion of out poet'8 position 
Munro quotes Maznell, ' Theory of Heat,' p. 2S5 : " We do not assert 
that thete is an absolule limit to Ihe divisibilily of maller ; what we 
aasett is ihat after we have divided a body into a certain finitc num- 
ber o( conslifuent parts called molecules, then any furlher division of 
these molecules will deptive them of the propetties «hich give rise 
to ihe phenomena observed in the substance." On the value of Ibe 
«tgumenl see Stallo, ' Concepts and Theorics of Mod. Phya.' ch. 7. 
— genitolisi 'begetling;' uaed with maieriei only heie, but with 


266 LUCRETIUS [I. 633- 

eu-pM-a 58 and 167, 633-4. The poet enumeraies the prindpal 

characterrsiics al tbe aloms and Iheir movenients, through which 
combinations are made possible ; conixus, ' entanglements ' resulting 
froin various ahapea ; pBiidera, 'weights,' which differ according to 
the siic of the alom, as the specific gravily was supposed to be Ihe 
■ame for atl ; ' plagas, ' blows,' see n. to 528 ; CBncurtui, ' dashings,' 
meeling and pressing togelher o£ atoms ; motus, ' motiona ' in general 
without reference to impact. Cf. 3, 725-9; j, 437 etsi^.; l, 68; and 
n.; 2,80-332. 

B. Refutatjon of othek views op the hature 

OF MATTEK. 63S-<)20. 

1. Matter is not made up of the diffcrent forms 
and statea of a aingle element, — of fire, or air, or 
water, or earth. 635-711. 

Hie dnclrine of Heraelitiis and hh fnllawers that fire is tke prinal 
luistrate it umouiid (635-644), because it fails to accaant far tke diver- 
lity of existiMg l&iiigs [fni-^^^) ; end becaiise U dmies Ike exisleiice of 
void — aposilien itieonsistenl ■lailh thcir theory of rarefaetion and con- 
densation (655-671). The Iruth is to be found enly in lAe doclrine of the 
aiom (672-6S9). 

637. videntur: 'are scen.' The poet has now laid down the fun- 
damenta) doctrines of his syslem. Before applying them to the expla- 
nation of things. he proceeds to combat briefly and in a masterly way 
the wrong views about malter held by other phiiosophers, particularly 
Heraclitus, Empedocles, and Anaxagoras. 638. Herac. : Hera- ' 

clitus uf Ephesus (l'ved about 500 B.c.j laught that tbere is a single - 
primitive essence, fire, from which all things are derived. But to hiin 
■ fire was something more than the uhiraate matter. Il was both mat- 
ter and force, ralional force. It was also Ihe symboi of change : for 
opposed to the Eleatic idea of a changeiess world he held that there 
is nowhere, ncver, rest or pause; Ihat all things are ever in state of 
transition belwcen opposite stales. This fire, he held, goes over into 
^l the various forms that we find in the universe by qualitative change, 
as the result of which appear rarefaction and condensation. From 
an impulse of its own nature as rational force, fire in part became 
transmuted into moisture, molsture then into earth. Thus by trans- 


«44-] NOTES 267 

■nixhire at resulling substances tbe world is made up; 
but tbere is constant change from onc siate or form of malter to 
anotlicr ; and it the close of a fixed cycle of ages ati things are re- 
Bolved back agiin into the piimal essence, — the universe becomes a 
Tast chaoa of waving flatne. Again, the process of transmutation and 
the Diistable equilibrium of opposites in one sulistance will produce 
anotherworld ; and so on through the innnmerahle cydes of cternity. 
This theory of Heraclitus, with some changes, was adopted bj the 
Sloics as the basis of their physics, The best account of H. ia 
by Zelier, ' Prae.-Soc Phil.' vol. ii. Consult also Ueberweg, ' Hist. 
of Phil.' vol, i. : Ritter, ' Hist. of Anc. Phil.' vnl. i. j Lewes, 
'Biog. Hist. of Phil.' — qnoruni : a school of Heracliteans exislcd 
for several generalions after ihe death o£ H. But tlie reference 
is here more parficularly to the Stoics, whom Lucr. takes every 
oppOTtunity to attack. For the reason that in this discussion of 
Heraclitus he is combating his most eameat opponents the poet 
waxes far more aidenC (han in his later crilicisms of Empedocles and 
Anaxagoras. $39. obacnram linifuam: the daikness of meaning 
in the ntterances of HeiacUtus gained fot him the epithet t meartirit 
'the obscure.' See Atist. De Mundo 5, 5; cf. Cic De Fin. 2, S. IS 
li di indMitria faciat, ul Htrailitia, ' csgninnenla qui noTtii^f ptrMi- 
ietiir, quia dc naiura nimit aiicure mtmontvit.' It has been thought 
by some that he did not wish Co eipress himaelf clearly lest his views, 
being opposed to the religious ideas of the time, call down persecu. 
tion upon him. BuC in the tragments of his writlngs that have come 
donn to us he fs singularly outspolten. And while his obscurity Is 
oflen alluded to by the ancients, he is never charged by theni with 
intcnt to be obscure. Lucretius, tndeed, ralher pays him a compli- 
ment by implying that he is diflicult to understand only to the ' ligbt- 
minded' Greeks. Like the old man in Wordaworth, he coined hia 
thoughl in " phrase above (he reach Of ordinary men." 640. 

qaamde : archaic for fuam ' than,' formed by adding the particle -de 
found in uinie, iit-dr, and the like. Quainde [s also {ound twice In (he 
fragments af Ennius, and once in Naevlns. 643. inv. . . . verb. : iit- 
veriereverda «ometimes means to use words in unusual or wrong sense. 
Here more likely the reference la to the atrangement ; 'Involved 
language.' 643. vera; 'astrue'; supplyni. — bel.tong.: 'pret- 

tily lo tickle.' 644. fucata: ' varnished over.' These lines suggest 
the Village Schoolmaster, whose 



Like Lucr., the author of the ' Systime de U Nature ' complains that 
" men evcr prefer the raarvellous lo the siniple, what ihey do not nn- 
derstand to what they can undeialand." Thc whole passage is quoled 
by Lange, ' Hist. of Mat.' ii. iig. Munro Ihinks that the poel here is 
aiming directly at ihe Stoics under ihe tem stolidi, retoiting " upon 
thcm their own term of reproach." 

647. denserier : see n, to 39;. 64S. rkreficri i Lqct. ases fuur 

cnmpounds of facert not found cUewhcre, all admirably adapted to 
his subjecti 3, ofA eintfactum ; 6, ■^^■^ loaftrvefiKil ; 6, loos and 1017 
vacefit ; rarefacere here and 2, 1143; 3, 442; ^ 833 and 870. B44. 

Buper : ' moreover " : sifarla ignis eandem naturam quam latut ignit 
hahit, super kaherent. 650-1. On Ihe aasumption that the heavier 

elements wcre made out of fire by condensation, the lighter by rare- 
faction, the argunicnt ts unanswcrable. But it applies to the Stoics, 
not to Heraclitus; for he taught that the process of change is tran»- 
mulallon of subslance, something entirely different. See n. to 638 
above. 651. disquB sup. : troesis. S53. nedum: 'mucb the 

less'; ntdum is properly a final conj., 'whilc not.' According to Roby 
F§ 1658) the usage here "arises from the prcvention of tbe occur- 
Tcnce of the greater event being rhetorically regarded as tlie purpose 
of the occurrence of the less event." — variantic^snifarMAij; fouod 
otily here and 3, 318 ; probably used because virQUa wonld not auit 
the metre. 655. id : perhapa acc. like quod genus ; or it may be 

that oi-Mrffl/ or the lilte should be supplicd. — faciant : 'suppose,' 'as- 
suuie,' 1 common meajiing of facere, espedally in philosophical writ- 
mgs; the acc. with infin. usually follows. The unexpressed subject 
of fac. of course refers to the philosophers who held that lire was the 
primitive matter. 65G. poterunt : see n. on ^zpoterit. 657. 

nasci: Munro's emend. for muie and tau of uss. Lachm. reads 
adtist. 659. vera viai: seo n. to 86; viai goes with ardua 

as nell as irera. Bfio. exempt. re. in. : supplies the piace of a 

conditional clause. The reasoning is akin to that in 33; tt stq, 
663. Bestiter: first found in Cicero's Aratea iii (35f), whcnce our 
ptoet liliely took 1t. — uti : 'in the way ChaL' 665. potesse : cai' 
lier Eorm of fette, but already archaic in Ihe time of Lucr. (166. 
ignia ; acc. pL — stingui : see n. to 4S6. 667. id ; i.e., crider» 


688.] NOTES 269 

igjtit peUitt etc. Ijlce ihe English d o t b i s id faart often talces tbe 
place o{ a dause. The reasoning !□ 66J-9 seeius to be: In no otber 
way than throi^h void can rarefaction and condensation of fire (ake 
place; bntToid these philosophersutterlyreject; BOtfaen theirnotion 
of a primitiTe fire-essence is exploded, and .they must fall baclc to the 
poution that all thiags eusteat are produced from nothing. 

C70-1. These luies are repeated l, 79^-3! 2. 753--4! 3.S>9-5W),to 
emphasize the doctrine that each thing lias a limited power, a circnm- 
■cribed sphere of existence, outside of which chat^e of form and 
deslruction will meet ic. See n. 1076.. 673. proinde: inLucr. 

tuoally scanned ag a diflayllable ; ' hence,' ' therefore.' — «liqnit : see 
n. to 4690/1»/. — oUia: archaic for illu; comroon in Lucr. The root 
la tl- as in alim. 673. tibi: ethicaldat.,frequent in Lucr. In Eng- 

lish tbe pronouns of the fiist and aecond persons are thus iised oflen 
by Ihe earlier, somelimes even by the later writers. Cf. Shakapere, 
' King Henry Fourlh,' Part I, 4, 3, " Cut me off the heads Of ali the 
favorites;" Cariyle, ' Frederick the Great,' Bk. z, ch. 11 "A terrible 
dragon of a woman. . . . claps you an iron cap on her head, and takes 
(be Seld wbere need is." For full discnsaion see Maetzner, 'Engliah 
Grammar,' Am. edit. ii. 211. 

IS7S-7. Cf. the words of Epicurus in Diog. Laert. TO, 34, 54 : ' In 
the dissolution of combined bodies of necessity there remaina some- 
tliing solid and indestructible, whlch will not ondergo change into tbe 
non-Mistent nor from it. Changea, however, it will undergo, in most 
cases by njutation of parta, but in some by the coming and going of 
atam» [. . . lAAi ¥iwi\ /t(Ta0(ff>tt Ir ToAXiiri' iiX ■rirar )(, nark 
wftvitaut Knl tfJtvHi]. 678. conv. corp. aese : a kind of 
middle nse, not uncommon in Latin; trans. as passive. A similar 
idiom is veiy frequcnt in the French and Gemian reHexive vcrbs. 
683. ciearent ! for subject refer bick to 679 iatc ignea ttrpora. 
OB4. ita. : here as often looka forward to that which follows. 685. 
concursna : see n. to 633-4 = '^'^i arrangement of aloma in tbe mass ; 
fetitura, position, telative to other atoms; figvrat, 'shapes,' fully 
discussed t, 333-58a 687. natvinun ; i.e. o{ things, not of atoms, 
because these are incapable of cbange. 6S8-g. Tbese bnes refer 

to tbe Epicurean tbeory of Kase-perception, that from the surfaces o€ 
things tbere are continuilly tbrown off tbin films of matter tbat strike 
upon our senses, and Ihus by impact excite sensation. For fuller dia- 
cus^on see 4, 42 tt stq^ and Introd. 688. lei : scanned rii i cf. 


270 LUCRETIUS [1. 692- 

2,236. TSe orlgftial qnantity of the e was doubtlesslong; but in the 
later poets it is generally short C£. n. on 3, 918 rB, 

TAal aJI liirigi art "/pre combats tkt midttKt ef tht sensts, TaAick is 
te be accepitd asfral. &9&*704. 

6ga. hic idem : i.e., Heraclitus. — peidelirum. The Stoics and 
the Epicureans, but particnlarly the latter, were faraous for abnse of 
opponenta and thcir viewa : see Cic. N. D. i, |§ 93-4. In this reapect 
Lucr. stands in marlied conlrasl to most of his school, fiK he gen- 
erally spealu of those whom he is refuting with moderation and 
courtesy. Philosopheis of to-day, however, should noi iie haaty in 
criticising the narrow Bpirit of ancient thinkers. Biichner (preface 
to 'Kraft und Stofi') alludes to his opponent» as 'yelping curs,' 
'mental slaves,' 'a howling pack'i and even Tyndal!, generaily ao 
feirminded, spealts of ' brawler ' and ' clown.' Cf . Wainwright ' Sci- 
entilic Sophisras,' ch. I ; Elam, ' Winds o£ Doclrine,' p. 132. 693. 
ab: 'from the side of,' i.e., ' on the side of '; see Rohy, 1813. To 1» 
consistent with his doctrine of perpetuai change, HeracliCus had to 
discredit llie evidence of Ihe senses, wliich show us many ihings 
apparently fiim and cbangeless. See Zeller, ' Prae-Soc. Phil.' ii. 88. 
Cg5- ignem : attracted to ihe acc. from its proper constr, as nom. to 
tegn. eit. — ipai : HtratlilB. 696-7. Fire lie Ihought to be " the 

only sensible phenomenon in which the substance of thingi disi^ys 
itself, according to its true nature." 699-700, That Che senses 
nevcr deceive was a cardinal tenet of the Epicurean theory of knowl* 
edgc; see 4, 378-521 and Introd. Thorough-going materialists in all 
ages, while l»asting of the certainty of their Byslems as founded upon 
the evidence of the senses, have been prone to forget that tlie atom, 
which lies at the foundation, is enlirely beyond the ken of sense ; and 
thus llie whole superstructure of asserted Iruth remains but a hj-poth- 
esis incapable of verification. They should 1>e last, therefore, to criti- 
cise those who build on soniething independeni of the senses or even 
opposed to them. Cf. 483-502 ; 599 et seq. 700, qui : indecl. abl. 

here^yKo, having as antecedent quid. This fonn is found also in 
guiium, and may be used of either number and all three genders. 
From it came ipii-n, qui-pe {guippe) and the lilte. 703. negett 

subj. o£ result ; with piam the ul is often omitted. A. 331, *. ; H. 
502, :. Aiuple illustration of the usage is given by Draeger, ' Hist. 
Syntai der Lat. Sprache," ii. § 510, i. 


Nor can air er ■mattr or tartk bt takm at the primiliiie matler. 

,707. principium : aee n. on i, 55 frimardia. — »era: the acc. of 
n«-generilly has the Greetfonn, but aerem is found a few times; 
so tbe acc- of ofther is aelhira, rarely aetherem. Anaximenes and 
Diogeaes of Apollonia were the two principai philosophere who 
taught that air is the single primal elemenl. Forfull discossion, with 
citaliona from original authorilies, see Zeller, ' Prac-Soc. Phil,' vol. i. 
70S. umorem : thaC water is the ultimate matter was Ihe teaching of 
Thales and Hippo. See Zeller ut sup., or Riller, ' Hist. of Anc. Phil.' 
vol. i. 709. terram; Aristotle (Met. i, 8 — a chapter in which the 
docCrine of a single malerial cause is ably criticised) slates that none 
of the philosophers took earth alone to be Che primal subslrate ; but 
this view has bcen sometimes attributed lo the poet Pherecydes, and 
even to Xenophanes. See Zeller, ut sup. i. 567-8. 710. verder ; = 
verti. 711. derraBse : see n. on 43 desst. For the Ihought cf. 637 

2. Nor 19 matter made up of two or fonr prtmal 
elements combjned. 712-829. 

713. •Br» iun. etc. : no philosopher oE prominence Cook eicher :dr 
and fire, or water and earth as the true primitlve elements ; but tho 
former vicw is assigned to Oenopidea of Chius, the latter sometimes 
erroneously to Xenophanes ; see ref. on 70S. 715. ■niina: for 
airt; cE. Cic. Tusc, IDisp. i, 26, 65 ai dem autanima aut ignii tit,idem 
eit aniinui ; but this use of on. ia rare in prose. — imbri: poet. for 
ofua. The abl. more often ends in ^. 716, Bmpedocles: one of 

the most importanl of the prae-SocraCic philosophers, b. at Agrigen- 
tum probably in the Grst decade of the lifth cent. B.c. In his lUeCime 
he wa3 regarded not merely aa a philosopher but also as a seer and 
prophet, and seems to have welcomed the veneration of the masses, 
who looked on him with deepest awe. He langht that there are four 
priroal elements, air, fire, water, and earth ; bul to the material causes 
hc added two quasi-spiritnal ones, love and atrife {see n. on 31). 
These agencies altemately acting upon the fonr kinds of matter cause 
combination and dissolnCion. Ac first. Ihrough the inflaence of love, 
there waaperfect unionof theelemenis. Thensttifegradnallybrought 
about a complete separation. Uut by love 3 partial combination was 


2J2 LUCRETIUS [1. 716- 

accompliBhed, which, thioiieh a process of deTelopmcDt, resnlted in 
thc present universe. Opinions as to thc value o£ Empedoclea' sys- 
tem were in antiquity very diveise ; and so they remain today. From 
him Lucr. received many suggestions, evcn taking hls pocm II«pl 
^itrtai as a model (see n. to 25). To the lilceneas of his viewB to 
those of the Atomists and Epicureans the fulsome praise here is due. 
Bnt Plato, Aristotle, and especially the Neo-Platonists, hetd Emp. in 
much less esteem. From the evidence collected by Zeller (' Prae-Soc. 
Phil.' vol. il.) the significance ot his speculations seems to lie in three 
things: (1) He was the Srst to introduce into philosophy the concep- 
don of a moving cause independent of tnalter, — in this forcshadowing 
Anaxagoras, who assumed an intelligent cause, NsSt, Mind. {i) He 
brought into Datural science the conception of primitive elements (as 
opposed lo a single form of matter). He fixed the number at four, a 
number which, afier his time, was generally accepted in antiqnity, and 
lingered till modem chemiatry by experiment laid Ihe foundation tor 
a correct theory. Thus he became, along with Leucippns, "thefounder 
of the mechanical explanation of the univeise." (3) In eipluning 
the development of animal life he taught a crude fonn of erolution. 
Zeller calls him "the earliest precuraor of Darwin." Consult Ritter, 
' Hisl. of Anc. Phil.' vol. i. ; Butler, ' Lectures on Ihe Ilist. of Anc. 
Phil.', ist series. 717. triquetris : Sicily was often cbarscteiiied 
from its peculiar shape by Gieeks and Latins alike. 

71S. Mq. loo. : Several of Ihe cailiei Greek writers use the tena 
lonian Gulf ['liriBt ic^irat) as synonymous with Adrialic. The later 
geographers considered the lonian Sea as extending atong the south 
coast of Italy, including the entrance of ihe Adrialic, and reaching on 
the one hand as far as Gieece, on the other lo Sicily. The lAlin writ- 
ers, generally, use the term ia thia latter aense. See Smith, ' Dict. of 
Ctog.' arL laniuitt Mare. 719. glaucla : Greek •yXouicJt. The 

first conception of Ihe word was thai of ' flaming,' ' bright.' But later 
it referred to color, usually a shade of olive-green. Trana. 'green.' — 
virua: 'brine '; so 2, 476; 5, 269; 6, 635. Virta is once applied to 
slench, 1, 853. 731. eiua: ie. Siciliat. 73». Cluuybdit: to 

the small craft and poor art of ancient sailors thia whirlpool seems 
to have fumished just giounds of alarm. The Homeric poems indi- 
cate a most exaggerated conception of iti peiils ; and it continued a 
bugbear to seamen till comparalively recent limes. To-day the trav- 
dler finda In it only a vortex (just outside the Straits of Messina) pn> 


74"-] NOTES 273 

duccd by Ihe meeting of currents and fraaght wiHi little danger. The 
epilhel vasla, Munro remarks, " implies that in which nothing lives." 
733. flammarum : aftcr irai. jiO. videtur : ' is seen.' 718. 

Opima : the fenility of Sicily was proverbial. It waa famous for both 
the iinenew of its stock and the variety of its frtaits. By some it was 
thought to be the native counlry of wheat ; and after tbe decline of 
Italian fanning it became one of the principal sources of the Roman 
grain supply. 739. viro: Empedocles. 731. canninB: all the 

wricinga of Emped. that we Icnow of were in verse. Fragments of 
only two poems ue extant, the Ittp) Mirmi, ' On Nature,' and the 
Xailapfu^ ' Purifications.' The style was animated, remarkabie for 
ita cleamees and the beauty of its descriptions. Aristotle called 
Emped. Homeric. — pectoris; see n. ^03,140. 731. vociferan- 
tur etc. : wich the thougbt cf. Cic. De Am. 7, 34, Agrigentinum 
guidtm Jociuta gutndam virum earminilms Gratcii vaHeinatum fmutt 
etc. — repectsi: see u. to 136. 

Againit thesi •aiho assume ene ar more firimal ttementi Lucr. urgei, 
Jlrit, ihat thiy admit no void, yet astume motion and differetiees of den- 
sitji ; lecond, that they suppose matter iiifinHely diviiible ; Ihtrd, that 
they make oui the firit-beginnings to be soft ; fourth, thal Ihe pranal 
tlemenls assumed would not Aarmonize or unite at all. 734-762. 

734. Bvpra quos 1 see 705 ti seq. and nn. 733. egregie : ' very * ; 
wllh multis. 739. Fythia: for Pythia sactrdos (as iu Greek 

4 Huflfa for k nv«lii Hfta\, the priestess of the Pythian Apollo at 
Delphi. — quae : the antecedent is not respoHsa, as some make it, 
but Fylhia, with which dat is to be supplied. — lauro : sacred to 
Apollo because of its connection with Daphne, whom the god once 
loved i as he pursued her, mother eaith opened to receive the maid ; 
and then, to coiwole him, pioduced Ihe bay-tree. Ovid, howeyer, in 
the MetamorphoscB represents Daphne as herself tumed into a laurel- 
tree. Those who came to the terople at Delphi as suppli^ts wore 
wreaths of laurel. Before ascending the tripod the prieatess bumed 
bay-leaves on the altar; and when seated sbe was aurrounded by 
-wreattis of them, the smell of which, Munro remarks, was thought 
"to increase the prophetic afilatus excited by Ihe cold air which came 
out of the deep clefl." 740. tamen : repeated from 734 ; ' Yel in 

firsC-beginnings of Ihlngs tbey liave gone to min.' On prtndplis for 
frimSr^, see n. to 55. 741. Cf. Hor. fl, lo, 9-13 1 





743-5. For Lucretius' proof o£ the impossibility of motion and de- 
grees of density without void, aee above 329-397. 744. fru^St 

' CTops.' 745. in . . . corpus : a rare constr, having a slightly 

different meaning £rom in carforc. The acc. with in here canies out 
the idea o£ ad- in ihe verb, thal of somethJng £rom without added to 
the mass and mingled with it, into it. 747. faciunt ; see n. to 

655. — pausam : )xre=^Htm; not foand in classical Latin. — 
stare : for ase. Draeger, ' Hist. Syntax,' Einl. p. xiii. mentions this 
use of ttare by Lucr. aa an archaism. For the argument c£. 518 
et seq. 748. prorsum: 'al all.' 749. cum; concessive. For 

the ihought see 599 et seq. and nn. 751. conicere etc. ; ' infer . . . 
that because the things which you do nol see have a bounding point, 
there i» a least in them.' quodva ^^jisaconjunction. 754. consti- 
luunt ! has the 3:-me subj. as 743 camtituunt and 740 fecire. — n«- 
tiva ; ' Ixim,' ' baving birth,' not limited to living things, but used in 
general of that which has come into being, wliich lias nol existed from 
infinite past time; mortali o£ course refers to that which is destined 
to die. The twowords are often used by Lucr. in the same connec- 
tion, complctely defining a hmited as distinguished £rom an etemal 
cxistence. Empedocles taught that the four elements were underived 
and imperishable. 755. cum : somewhat pleonaslic: see n. to 

347. — utqui : this is the reading o£ the uss., but was rejected by 
editors previous to Munro for i^qtii, and usgae {I^chmann), botli of 
which do violence to the thought. In ulqui Munro thinlcs that Ihe 
qui is an affirmative partide, which has the same force as the qui in 
aiqui and in quippe qui in places where qui cannot be a relative, viz. 
' Yes that,' or the iilce. It ia probable that, owing to a misunderstand- 
ing of the word, atqui ind otlker forms stand in our texts in several 
ptacei where titqui should be read. 758. quid : adv. acc. of cxtent, 
'howfar.' — h«belM«! 'you willbeabl«.' 761, teinpeBtate : see 
n. to 178. 

In the consiant (hange hackandforihlht fbur primal elements cminet 
be calted the first-hginnings of things any more than things the frst-btgia- 
nings of the prirnal elementi. Setaieen suck elements, moreover, there 


ceu]d ht »0 uniBtt in vikich iheir laieral naiurti ■mulJ not apfimr ; tut 
first-iegiitniitgs must be wilhoul semiblt firoperties. 763-781. 

76O. qnam etc. : the fuU conatr. would be quam contra (adv.) rts 
privmrdia illorum (i.e. quattuor rerum, see quat. ex reb. 763) dici 
quianl. — tctr. put. : ' and the supposition be reversed.' 767. al- 
temis: ' alternately ' ; sec n. to 5:4. 76^. temp. ab omni : i.e., 
from everjr pointof time, 'ever,' ' continually.' 771. aKrias auras : 
^aeris auras in 783, both for acr. In many cases it wa3 eimply a 
mattei of choice whether the attribulive be expressed by an adj. or 
a Bnbstantive in the gen. ; so regius or regis ; patrius, patermis, or 
fatris etc — ror. liq.: see n. to 307, 281. 773. eorum : altcx nit. 
— COncilio: see n. to 4S4. 773. tibi ; see n. to 673. 774. ani- 

mans: supply rvf^ ; as also with u>tn. i:Hai 1:0^. — arboB : archaiu for 
arber ; t final or tietween two vowels was generally changed to r. 
Lucr. Iias also cbIbs (6, 203 and TO74), and vafei (6, 952). 77S-& 

For tbe argunient cf. below 880 et seq. 778-81. The ultimate 

malteroughl toeiist in individual things withoul revealing properties 
of ils own. For full discussion see 2, git,etseq. 781. csse . . . 

proprie : i.e., to exiat in distinct individuality, ' itself by ilself,' witb- 
out being aSected by conlact with anything else. 

They assumt constant ehange in the four elemenls fram tme ta Ihe 
other ; bul this taould nct be possihte unitss there viere in them nn- 
changeable Jirsl-beginnings, by the different arrangemenls ef itihick Ike 
differenl elements may be prBduted. 782-802. 

78«. repet. a; 'they go back lo start from.' 784. hii»c!™« 
his. hinc is often used like unde, for which see n. on 56. — imbrl : see 
n. on 715. 785. retro: ' In rcverse order.' In illostration of Ihe 
argument 'Munro quotes ibe Stoic vtew from Cic. N. D. 2, 33, 84 cum 
quattuor sint genera corparum, vicissitudine eortan miindi continuata 
natura eit. nam ex lerra aqua, ex aqua oritur aer, cx aere aetker ; deinde 
retrortum vieissim ex aelhere lar, inde aqua, ex aqua lerra infima. sic 
naturis kis, ex qaibas emnia cBnsfant, lursus deersus ultro citro cem- 
meantibut mundi parHum ceniunctie centinetur. 788. mimdi : 

here=caf/i, a not infrequent ose. 79»-i- Cf. 672-3. 79a-3. 

Cf. 670-1 and n. 794. quae : i.e , ignis, aer, umor, terra. 795. 

commutatum : = commutationem ; found only here. 797. This - 


276 LUCRETIUS [1. 798- 

line is found also I,£73(wbeK lee n.); 3,756; 3,864. 798- quin 
pot. : 'why not rather.' 

Suf, yau say, <ar, earth, tmitr, htat are necdfu! for production and 
griTwtk of Ihings. Quitt Irui, and furthcr, vx eamwt live vritheut feod 
and drini. But tke reasen in holh cases lics in this, that thert an many 
firsl-bfginnings csmmon to many thin^s, wihich by changes in arrangt- 
ment producc thc most unlike rcsu/ts, ai Ihe same letttri in diffcrent 
wordi. 803-829. 

803. At ; = iAXi yip, ' But,' emphatic. At is frequently thus used 
to introducc an objcction of a rcal or imaginaiy opponent. 805. 

teropestas: sce n. to 178. The weather by it» showers furnishes 
watcr ; Ihe sun gives heat aa Ihe form of fire adapted to pioduction 
and growth. 8ofl. tabe : refera to the diBsolving of clouds into 

watcr. Sog. Bcilicet : 'verytrue'; the poet rcplies to the objeo- 

tion : sci/. is often used independently to eipress an adniission of Ihe 
preceding statement. 810. sdiuvet : ' recniit.' 8ia. dnbio 

procul: 'beyond doubl.' In this and similar phrases procul (from 
frocet-lere) seems to have gone from its adverbial over to a prcpoii- 
tional use. Cf. 2, 261 ; 3, €38 ; 5, 25S r Hor. £p. z, l procul ncgeliis, 
Roby, S 2068, gives a number of examples. 814-5. Otraerve the 

concurrence of m-sounds. B15. rerum : communis is followed by 

gen. or dat. without perceptible difFcrcncc of meaning. Cf. belowSs^. 
817-8. Cf, 908-910; z, 760-3; 2, 1007-9; *. 883-5. '17- magnl 

ref..- 'it mattes greaC difierence.' ,813. 'but thcy are mixed up 
with different (hings and in different ways as they [nove.* 

823-8. A favorite illustralion o( Lucr. ; d. 197 ; 912 ; 2, 688-691 ; 
S, 1013-4. Its foree becomes apparent when it is considered that 
the twenty-four letters o( the Roman alphabet could be airanged in 
620,448,401,733,239,439,360,000 diSerent combinations. Against the 
doctrine of a universe wilhout a God the argument has often been 
employed, from Aristotle down to the present, that a cbance casting 
of Ihe letters of the Greeit alphabel forever would never produce a 
single line of the lliad. Infinitely fewer would be the chances that 
atoms in infinite space, without directing power, wauid meet in such 
a way as to produce a world : fewer still the chances thal the world 
thus produced could endure for a single moment of time. The ar^- 
ment ii not so conclusive, however, as it seems ; (or by the logic of 


828.] NOTES 277 

probabilities it maj' be shown that, with tbe requisile number of throws 
of the letters, any verse of the lllad will be not only a possible, but 
even a necesauy result. For it is a possible combination, inasmuch 
as it alieady czists ; in the GhiftLng of letters, in infimte time, all pos- 
sibie combinations will appear. The universe, lilcewtse, is a possibie 
combination, for [t eiists. Granted an infinite number of atoms 
movii^ in infinite space through inftnite time; all possible combina- 
tions, of which this universe is one, must result ; further, in the 
numlierless combinations it might be an accident of this world-com- 
bination that, by a balancing of forces owing to a union of atoms 
moving in diflerent directlona, it might endurc for a timei it is 
known, too, that this universc, at least the part with whJch we are 
familiar. is undeigoing gradual change, — is then in ita present form 
by no means permanent. But even granting to materialists that by 
a chance swirl ot atoms durlng Infinite time the universe aa it stands 
could come into existencc j they are not a «hit less dependent on a 
Flnal Cause. Whence did the atoms get their shapes, so that it is 
possible for them to combine ? Whcnce did they receive the impulse 
of motion.which must be postulated inordertobiiug about any result 
whatever? — for dead matter cannot move itself. As tbc Stoic, Mani- 
Uus, put it (Astion. i. 490-1) : — 

The modem reasoner of materialisttc tendencies, however, takes 
refuge in Agnostictsm. Thus, T^^dall says (' Frag. of Sci.' p. 421) : 
"If you ask him (the materialist) whence is this 'Matler' of which 
we have been discoursing. who or what dlvided it into moiecules, 
who or what impressed upon them this neceisity of mnning into or- 
ganic forms, — he has no answer." But there must be some onc to 
cast the letters the requisite number of times before the verse o( the 
lliad can appear; so there must be some power to sct whirling 
through imniensity those atoms which, in infinite time, passing into 
all possible combinations, might have produced this one. See nn. 
to 1501 1021 ; consult Janet, ' Final Cause3,'Bk. 2, ch. I. 8a6. son. 
Bonanti: 'sound wherewith they sound.' 837. quetmt; see n. to 

i;S6. 81S. plurat i.e., more combinations. 



Tit virai b/ Anaxagaras, alse, U cpen to objeitvms ; firsl, in Ihat it 
assumes an ind/finili tmmber of primitrBe elemeiils, oHd demet Ike 
existeace c/ void cr of any Umit la the dit/isiiUily of maHer. 830-846. 

830. Aiu»Korae : b. at Clazomenae, about 500 BX^ Anax- 
agoras taught Ihat Ihcre is an inde£nitc number (A ptimitive sub- 
Etances, qualilalively different, corresponding to all the vaiious kinds 
oi matter. Thus, flesh is made up of minute particles <A flesh, bone 
of particles of bone, gotd of gold, and so forth. These particles are 
underived and indeslructible. They are not, however, atoms, for they 
are infinitely divisible. The four elemenls he thought to be merely a. 
miiture of all kinds of primilive partides; their "apparent simple- 
ress he explains by sayiiig that, on account of the amalgamation of 
all possible detcrminate substances, not one of these is perceived tn 
its dislinctive individuality, but only that is perceived in which Ihey 
all agree." To explain the union of theae in iiving bodies, and the 
creation and on-going of the universe, Anaxagoras taught the exist- 
ence of a Nout, an incorporeal, inlelligent Force, acting upon matter 
Irom without. He was the firsC who graspcd at the idea of essential 
diffcrence bctween matler and spirit ; at the conceplion also of an 
intelligent Final Cause. It is an error, however, to suppose that 
Anaxagoras belleved in the No5j as a personality, as an infinite, all- 
perfecl God. See Zeller, ' Prae-Soc. Phil.' vol. ii. — homoeomerian : 
^ ifioioiiiptaa, and so written in some MSS. and older edil. ; 'homoeo- 
merla.' Anax. called his primilive parlicles mrJpiiaTa ' seeds ' or xp^ 
rioTB ' things ' ; Jfuua^u^ ' of li ke parts ' does not occur in the frag- 
ments of Anax. eirtanl, but is fiist found in Aristotle; whetheritor 
iliovjniptia was used by Anax. is an open queslion. The latter term 
is first met with in this passage, and seems lo denote " the relalion 
which existed between the things in being and the particles, like in 
kind, of which Ihey were composed," as suggesting the doctrine of 
simple substances coraposed of parts infinitely small. In laler Greek 
wrileis al itiotoiiiptiai is uscd in describing the sysiem of Anax., as by 
Diog. Laert. 2, 8 oSrot t\iyt . . . apxit !i rit tiioiaiitpttaf 
KoOitrtp yip 4k rmr ^uyiii.rur Xtyaiiinir vi XP"'^'' "arnrrirai, aFrait 


86o.] NOTES 279 

1« rmr tii»i»ii*pmw luKpAy miiiriiy rb war nymn^ottu- Other 
cxamples are cited by Zeller, tit tup. p. 334-5. 834. quom : anti- 
Classical fonn of eam, indicating its derivation from the pronominal 
Toot EVA, Lat. qui ; probably Mi old sccnsative. cum is the more 
conunon form in the uss. of Lucretiosj quom, in those o£ Plautus 
and Terence. 838. hic ! i.e., Anaxagoras ; subject aiputat below. 

837. viscus: the singular is rare; it occors again 3, 719; 3, 266. 
Neue give» other passagcs where it is found, ' Formenlehre,' i. 447-8. 
— Banguen: = languimm ; a neuter fonn was devcloped by the side 
of the masc, but went out of use in Ihe classical period. 843. Anaz. 
taught that b; the mixture of different kinds of substances there 13 
made up a nniverse wiihout void. 844. See n. to 830. 846. llli : 
Empedocles etc. ; see 734 el ttq. 

A^n, in iAat ki tuiuinei toft fint^^mmngt, -ahich vxndd leon 
perisk. 847-838. 

84S. ai . . . mmt : ' if (those really) are fiist-begtnnings.' 840. 
BOnt : for conslant. After atqui or ac eipressing comparison, 'than,' 
'as,' the verh is usually omitted. Cf. 846 atqut illi. 850. Anax., 

however, held that the particles, though divisible to infiniCy, were 
imperishable. 852. leti etc. : cE. the Eng. expression, ' in Ihe very 
jaws of death.' 855. manifesta : = ^airiitira in its philosophical 
use, ' evidcnt to the senses.' So z, 867 ; 3, 353 ; and in otber places. 
manif. in the ordinary signification occurs below 893, 856. ex: 

'Iwfore.' 857. recddere ; see n. on 228 rnitfiifii^ Herethe</<rf 

rcH W3S as^milated to the following c. In classica.1 Latin, generally, 
one c was dropped and the t made ehort. 858. ante ; 150-164. 

Furlherman, mice food cauiei Ihe body to increase, blood, bme, and 
dher parts of the body mustbe compcsed of Ikings di_gireni in Utid ; or, if 
il is aipposed that from food, bonei, Uood, and sinews tctit vp particUs of 
liie nature teith themseives, titnfood musl be made up of particles differ- 
ent in Jand; the same reasening applia to the produets ef Iht earth, and 
te olAer things. 85^74. 

860. sdce llcet : trequent in Lucr. ; 'you are lo know.' After 860 
doubtless a line has been losL Lambinus thus supplles its place, 
well continuing the argument : — 

et nervos alienigenis ex parttbos eKse. 


200 LUCRETIUS [1. 86j- 

863. ossa : i.c, carpora fianv, or earpasada, essimn. — partis : i.c, 
partindas, 884. liquoT: foT Hquidus (cibui), 865. ^eni^nis 1 

' difleretil in kind,' ' foreign in kind,' the opposite, as Munro remarks, 
to jfuuo^tp^i. The ar^ument is, that food does not consist of minule 
particles of like nature witii Itself, as thc doctrine of Anax. requires, 
but of particles of blood, ijone, etc, things fnreign to it in kind. And 
liliewise the earth is composed not of minnte portious of earth. but 
of particies that go lo malte up all the thing» that grow out ot it. So 
again in wood flame-particles lurk. 86B. terris : the p1. brings out 
the ideaof ' parts ' or 'portions of earth '; 'earths.' S70. transfer: 
imper. for protasis of cond. senCence, ' apply ' (i.e. if you apply) the 
same reasoning. 673-4. These lines, as they stand, are tueaning- 

less. Laclmiann rcads 874 

ex alienigenis, quae alienigenia oriuntar, 

nhich is not at atl clear; Munro supposea that after 873 therc is 
a break, nliich he thua bridges over, simply adding kii to 874 as it 
stands in the uss : 

ez alienigenis quae tellure exoriuntnr. 

sic i6detn quae ligna emlttunt corpora, aluntnr 

ex alienigenis, quae lignis his oriuniur. 

This, ait lcast, makes good sense and compietes the ai^ument. 

Btii Anaxagarai aiiuntei tkal ■whde in Ihingi all soTts 0/ subslancet 
are mingUd, only thal beeoma opparetU of vihich the particles are tnost 
numerous and contpictums ; the olhers, as it viere, lie kid. Quile vtroug. 
Por, OH Ihis suppoHtion, lahen Ihings are crushed, minute farticles 0/ 
diferent substaniet oughl lo appear. 875-896. 

875. ' Here some slight opportunity is given forera^on.' — tenvis: 
a dissyllable, as often in poetry. 878. plutima : supply corpora 
pnrva or corpuseula. S81. cotiveniebat : trans. as if subj. ; so 884 
decebat. A. 31 1, c ; G. 246, Rem. i ; H. 476, 4. B83. aliqnid : Bup- 
ply eorum. SS5. lapidi : abl. 886. laticea : i.e., " the watera 

that the sheep drink." 887. I^chmann, foltowed by Munro, thus 

explains tlie constr. : dulces gultas mittert (tales) quaii <nies sunt ubere 
laelit ; " ubere is briefly said for sapore uberis." 891. praefr. 

forent : oljserye the subj., while above in 882 JraaguiUur and 885 


ttrimui are in the indic. 89J. mnltiinodti : adv. for miiilit 

modis, the more conunoD expreeEion; from mttili' medii. 

Bul,yim lay, tras preduei Jiame by rvibing togetitr, Yes, bat not 
becatae tkert is Jire stored up in them ; ratker heeaase different tkings 
kave Ihe same first-beginnings in emnmim, vikiek camUntd in ene way 
froduce wood, in anotker way,Jire. 897-920. 

897 et stg. Sec n. to j, 1096. — At : as in So;, where see n. 
900. fiam. flore : edd. compare the Greck nrpbt Srfoi. fiTst found' 
in the Iliad. goi. scilicet : see n. to Sog. Here tbe tcU. concedes 
a alatement to which exception is taLen. 904. 'Bat if the flame 

were stored up ready-niade in the foreats.' goS-io. Cf. 817-9. 
913-14. See n. to 823. 914. lig. atq. igf. : i.e., the letters o( tignti 
and ifiw/ with alight change being the same. — diat. vocei by 'dtffer- 
cnt temu.' 915. apertis: like manifesla in phil. sense (see n. to 

85J), 'evident to the senses,'with special reference to the sense of 
sight; 'visible,' opposed lo eaecis, 'hidden.' 917. consimlli : i.e., 
likc to the things Ihat are made up o£ the particles (ci/rpora). 919- 
aa If things are made up of particles in nalure like Ihemsclves, 
then there must be paniclea exactly like man in every respect. Cf. 2, 
973-99^ The thought suggesls the Mqnadology of I.eibuit!. Lucr. 
is (ond of closing an argumenl by an application or illustration the 
absurdity nf which is obvious. In pressing home his point he some- 
times, as here, does violence to his opponent's teaching. 

Tke pael pausts itt Iht unfolding of kis argument lo ttll Ihe glad in- 
spiraHon ef kis tkeme, fhat bids him Iread new palAs and seek new 
vsrealhi in Irying to free men's souls from religi<m's etose bands, aud la 
rtMal true reasan under Ihe tharm of verse. 921-950. 

gai el seq. The poet has laid down the fundamental prindples of 
his own sysiem, and shown the inadeqaacyof thoseadopted byothers. 
Before proceeding to expound his doclrine in detail, he gives ihe 
poetic spirit play in this noble passage, which forma a graceful and 
appropriate transition from the general to the spedal portions of his 
anbject. Wilh these lines Macrobius (Sal. 6, 2, 3) compares Verg, 
Geoi^.3, 239-294 ; Munrocomp. Hor. Sat. 2,4,84; Ep. i, 19, 21 etseq.; 
Manil. I, 4-6. 91&-.950 are repeated, with sl:ght chatige, at the l)egin- 
ning of book 4. gai. Nunc age : see n. to 265. gia. animi : 


282 LUCRETIUS [1. 92^- 

see n. to 136. 913. thyrao: the poet speaks of hiniself under the 

iinagery of one at Ihe Bacchic festival roused lo inspired frenzy b^ 
the touch of the wreath^girt apear or pole the devolees of the wine- 
god carried. — laudis spcs : in antiquity, desire of praise was reck- 
oned a chief and proper motive of conducL Several ancient irriters 
speak of it as a ruling power in directing the lives of the greatest 
men i Cicero, in particulai, confesses his own love of glory; and in 
several places emphaaizes the common aigument for the immor- 
tality of ihe soul, ihat llie dead conljnue to eiert an active influencc 
on Ihe living in order 10 keep alive Iheir famc. Cf. n. to 412-7. 
gi4. mi : for tnihi. 925. instinctua : * inspired ' ; often used with 

leference to a divine influencc. Cf. Quln. 12, 10, 24 instimtis dioine 
spiritu vatihns. 916. Pieridumi i.e., the Muses. Some say (his 

' name was given (hem from Pierus, an early klng of Thrace, who went 
to Boeotia and there establishcd their norship. More likely, how- 
ever, it comes from Pieiia, Ihe name of a region at the foot of Mt. 
Olympus, in which the birthplace of Orpheus and the muses was said 
lo have been. See Hes. Theog. 53 ; Apol. Argonaiilica, i, 23. 927. 
solo ; ' sole ' o( the foot Sellar (' Rom. Poets of the Rep.' p. 289) 
aptly compares with this passage Milton, 'Par. Lost,' Invocation: — 

iDToke (hy aJd to my adveDtutDus song, 
Tbat irith iw nidaie flight iiilendi to eoar 
Abave Ihe Aimiin iDOunl, while il punuo 
ThJDgft UDatlcmpted yet ia pirue uid rhyme." 

— integ. font : d. "Hist. OA. l, i6, ^ O guiu /entibus integris Gaudts. 
918-930. In like nianner Horace lells of how he brouglit new honots 
to the Latin tongue, and glory to htmself, by introducing the Greek 
measuies; and Ciceio, more than once, speaks oE his mission as the 
first expounder of the Greek philosophy to his fellow-countrymen. 
Perhaps Ihese lines snggested Hot. Od. i, 7,5-7: — 

tuDt, qdbiu ODiiDi opue eet inuctae Palladis urbem 

iiDdique decerptam Irouii pTaeponere aHTaiD. 

931. Pait of thia line is quoted by Laclantius (De Ver. Sap. 4, 28} 
to sustain bis derivation of nligh from rtligare, in opposition lo the 
derivation given by Cicero (N. D. I, iS, 72) from rtUgire. Lact. 
seema to lound an argument on the connection of rdigionum with 


9SO.] NOTES 28.1 

nodis, implying iti rel. the idea of 'binding.' Modem scholars are not 
agreed upon the originof thisword; the majority follow Lact., whoae 
position was suslained by St. Augustine. Bul see Vanifek, 'Etymol. 
Worterb.' pp. 819, 936 it siq. 936. Cf. Hor. Sat. I, l, 25 uf ptieris 

«lim danl cmttula biandi Doclorfs, elmenla velint ut discert prima. 
absinthia : the Romans made much use of wonnwood as a medicine ; 
Pliny (N. H. 27, 7, 28) gives forty-eight cases in which it waa taken or 
applied as a remedy. A preparation of it with water was used as a 
beverage, just as veimouth in Ilaly and aisinthe in France to^lay. 
940. lab. ten. : the gen. with ttnvs was Ihe earlier. although in classi- 
cal Latin it is the more rare constr. It probably grew out of (he 
original use of tenus as an acc. of exlent. 941. absinthi : for 

the form see n. to wfavesi. — dec. non cap. : *(hough beguiled yet 
not be betrayed '; an oxymoion, oT seeming contradiclion, peculiarly 
foTcible from the close resemblance of the words in sound. 944. 

Munro makes trislier = amarior ; and qtiibia := iis a quibui by attrac- 
tion, ibr afler the pass. Lucr. doea not use the daL of the agcnt. 
945. volg. abhor. : the common folk of Rome never gave up their 
belief in the gods of their fathera. Cf. n. to 250 ; 81 infia. But here, 
probably, the poet means to imply not so much the dismay of the 
multitude in the presence of doctrines undermining their simple faith 
as their shrinking back from what was hard to undcrstand. 948. 

8i: 'to Bee if,' introduces an indirect question. Cf. Liv. i, 7, dpergit 
. . .a/erle ee vestigie ftrrent. A. 334,/; H. 529, i,n. I. 350. na- 
tUTam rerum : proleplic, like the scripturil " t know thee who tliou 
arl ■• (Mark i, 24). Cf. Hor. Od. 4, 14, 7-9. Thia construction is 
more common in Greek than in lalin. — compta: comere in Lucr. 
means to 'construct,' 'frame.' Cf. 3, 259; 4, 27. 

iv. The Extent of the Universe. 

Is matltr limUtd in qumtily, er veid in extent, ornot! 951-7. 

951-a. See ^65-328 and 483-^34. 954-5- See 329^^7. 

I. The nniverse is without limit. 958-987. 

7%e univtrse is beundless ; for Ihtrt is nething beyend te limit it. 
A dart hurltd from tht confines ef the univtrst witheul meuld tilher 
be stoffed by somtthing er keep on flying; if stepped in its cmrst, tht aut- 


284 LUCRETIUS [1. 958- 

tidt oftht tairBtrse is aiidently tibI ytl rauhed ; if not slepped.H miatgo 
enforever. Again, all tAing^me lee are iitunded ttne fyanMer; iut tlU 
mikierte ihere ii nething eulside I0 boitnd. 958-987. 

gsS. Omne «tc. : ' ihe existing universe \% bounded in none of ita 
dimensions.' nul. reg. vi. : Munro wcll explains, 'take whicli. 

ever of the roids througli Ihe unlverge yoa please, at no point in an^ 
of them will you reach its bound.' Cf. Epicurus in Diog. Laert. 10, 
24, 41-3: ' And moreover the univerae is inlinite ; for that which 
is limited has an outsidc, and thc outside is perceived in reiation to 
somelhing else. So that, not having an outside, it has no boundary; 
and, not having a boundary, it must be infinite and not limiled.' The 
Sloics, following Aristotle, taught Ihat Ihe univcrse is limited, but Ihat 
outside of it there is unlimiied extent of vofd space, The question 
whether or not Ihe aniverse is finlte was onc that aroused sharp con- 
troversy long afler Lucretius' day. Cf. Lucian ' Ikaromenippus, 8 Kal 
Tip oJ iciil «ffnj ywa^ ofrroti ^ M^xii Torf ^ir riKti t1 nar iirpiypi- 
ipviMH, nlt S) JlTcAtl tdvto iTm !rwi>\ait$irovaai. For the view Of 
a modem maleriatist, cf. Haeckel, 'Nat. Hist. at Creation,' ch. 13 
(i. p. 334) : "The universe !s Dnliinited and immeasurable in bolb space 
and time. Nor can we imagine a beglnning or end to the uninter- 
rupted and etemal motion in which ail particles of ihe universe are 
always engaged. . . . The great laws of the lomervalian of force and 
the csnstrvatioH cf matter, the foundations of our whoie conception 
of motion, admit of no ofher supposition. The universe, so far as it 
is cognizable to buman capability, appears as a connected chain of 
materia! phenomena of motlon, necessitaling a continual change (rf 
forms. Every form, as ihe temporary result of a raultiplicity of phe- 
nomena of motion, is as such perishable and of limited duration. But, 
in the continual change of forms, niatter and the motion inseparabie 
from it remain etemal and indestructible." Cf. nn. on 150 and 1021. 
gSi. vldeattir: passlve; supply id. gSi. Cf. tbe words of the 

Epicurean speaker in Cic N. D. I, lO, 54 . . . inmensans et inler- 
minatam in omnisfartit magnitudiitem regianum videretis, in quam a 
iniciene animus et intendens ita late limgtque feregrineOur, ut nullam 
tamtn oram ullimi videat, in gua possit insistere. 964. babet : 

cobrdinate witb i-arirr. ^nf nKi/ii;;», 'end and limit.* 967. tult, 

. . . infln.-. 'just as infinite as bef ore.' — omne : see n. to 74. 
971. Suggestive of Verg. Aen. 2, 50 sicfatiit validit ingtntem viritut 


996] NOTES 285 

kastam . . . CantorsU. gfS. fini : a rare fonn of Che abl. in this 

word; probably a survival from an oid loc. form. 979. foras: 

' forth,' ' forward,' withoul sLopping at all. 983. ' the room for 

flight'will aEways prolong tbe powerof flight. £dd, notice tbaCthis 
illustration was suggested to Lucr. by tbe Roman mode of declaring 
war. In tlie words of 12\y,i,2l,l2^ri .relitiiiH ut/etialii Aaitain . . . 
adfinis eommfimt . . . kaiiam in fints iimtm emitttbat. You cannot 
go outside of tbe imne lo fling a spcar into a neighbor'» bounds." 
Munro compares a Etriking illustration of Locke, 'Essay on tbe 
Humati Uuderstanding,' 2, 13, zi : "I woutd ask whctber, if God 
placed a man at the eztremity of corporeal bcings, bc could not 
stretch his hand beyond hU body } \i he could, then he would put 
his arm nhere there was before space without body ; and if there he 
spread his fingers, there would still be space between them without 
body. If he would not Btretcb out his band, it mnst be because of 
some eiternal bindrance. ... I wouM fain mect with that tbinking 
man that can in his tboughts set any bounds Co space." 

a. Space is intinite. 988-1007. 

If iface ■Wtre not infiniU, matter by its evm vreighl long aga tamdd 
iave settled tit solid mass in the Imaest fart, thus rendcring metion 
imfossible. 9S8-1007. 

ggi. ponderibua: weight, according to Che Epicureans, was one 
of the essential properties of Ihe atonis. — coaflnxet : for confiuxii- 
set. See n. to 133 consumpse. gg&-iooi. On the eternat down- 

ward motion of the atoms see 2, 80-141 ; cf n. on 1038 sursum ; Epi- 
cunis in Diog. LaerC. 10, n, 43 and 47 j Cic. N. D. i, 20, 54 ; see 
also Inlrod. Modcrn atomists insist on the perpetual movement of 
atoms, but eiplain it for the most part by the wave theory. See the 
quotation fiom Haeckel n. Co 958 ; rf. Spencer ' Prin. of Psychology,' 
Pt. s, ch. 10 : " In Che minutest visible fragmcnt of maCteT thete are 
millions of units vibrating with imimaginable speed." ... In the 
elher"each complei molecule of matter oscillaling as a whole — nay, 
each separate member of it independently osdllating — causes respon- 
sive movements In adjacent ethereal molecules, and tbese in remoter 
ones witbout limit;" and"moleculesof eachkindareBpeciallyafteeted 
by molecules o[ Ihe same kind cxiating ia the fanhesC regions oE 
space. Unils of sodium on yrhich the sunlight falls heat in unlson 


28fi LUCRETIU S [I. looo- 

«ith theJT kindred units inore than ninetjr millions of mileg oS, by 
which the yellow rayi oi the sun ate prodnced." C£. alao Id. ' Flrat 
Prin.' Pt, I, ch. $, and the crilicism o£ the same by Gathrie, ' Mr. 
Spencer's Fonnula of EvoluCion.' lOM). infema : ' (rDm be- 

neaCh,' is Munro explains, implying "erery kind of motion upmrds, 
whethei perpendiculaily or obliquely upwards, all of which would 
faave more or iess sustaining power in oppo«tion to the inherent 
downward tendency." looi. ez inflnito.' bere refers to space; 

below 1035 to time. 1004. Found also 5, 1216. lOoS. copia: 

.3. Matter is infinite in quantity. 100S-1051. 

Sfiue btmg infintU ia extenl, matlfr is infinilt in guantity ; Mhermtt 
things cotild naier hmie betn /armed, or evm if produccd cotdd net ctit- 
tiiaie ia exiilence. 10C1&-1051. 

looS. rer. Bum.: i.e., the uniTerse. For the thought cf. EpicuiiM 
tn Diog. Laert. 10, 34, 41-2. ' The universe is infintle as regards both 
the quantity of bodies and the extent o( space. Por if space were in- 
finite, but bodies of limiled numbcr, bodies would nowhere be at rest, 
but would be borne on and scattcred throughout the infinite apace, 
from the lack of anything to sustain ihem or keep them in place by 
Tesistance, But if spacewere finiie and bodies of infinile number, the 
bodies inlinite in number would not have room in which to exisL' 
1013-3, The best anthoriiies agree that ihere is a lacuna here. 
Lachmann snpposes ii to be after loii ; Munro places it afcer 1013, 
and thus bridges over the transicion from the alternation of matter and 
void to tbe infinity of inatter: — 

sed spatium supra docui sine fine patere ; 

Ei finica igitur summa esset nuteriai, 

nec mare etc. 
['Bat Toid I have already proved to be infinite; therefore, matter 
most tie infinite; for if vnid were infinite and malter finite] neilher 
sea nor earth nor the glittering quarCers of heaven ' etc. 1015. 

sancta: the word well suits the Epicurean conception of the physi- 
calnatureof thegods. Cf.Cic. N.D. 1,17,45. lott el leg. The 

lejection of Final Cause and Creation from Design waa a fundamen- 
tal position of the Epicurcans. The queslion whelher, granled an 


1031] NOTES 287 

intinite nnmber of raoving atons, Infinite space «nd infinite tinte, a 
untverse like the preaent conld or would re$ult, belongs properly to 
the Calcultis oE Probabilities. See n. to 823-6 ; Janet, ' Final Causes, 
App. X., i. i Burr, ' Doctrine of Evolation,' Second Seriea,' sect. 6; 
Charpeniier, ' M^moire sur la logique du probable.' The posttion of 
Lucr. is essenlially that o£ modem materialiatie evolation, whose 
"clairo ia thal a cloud of atoms, endowed with definite Bpheres of 
attraction and repuUion, Is able to work oul all thc results which 
Beetn to us to nunifest intelligence and purpose." See Bowne, ' Re- 
view of Herbert Spencer,' p, 234; cf. pp. 19-22. Spencer dedares 
that "this tranaf omiation of an indeiinite, incoherent homogeneity into 
a definite, coherent heteri^eneity, which goes on everywhere until it 
l:»ings about a reverse transformation, is consequent upon certain 
simple laws of force." Still more outspoken is Haeckel, 'NaL Hiat. 
of Creation,' ck i (i. m) : " WhiUt, then, we emphatically oppose the 
vital or teleologicalvjewotanimate nalure.which presenls animal and 
Tegetable fonns as the productions of a kind Creator, acting for a 
definite purpose, or of a creative, natural force acting for a definite 
purpose, we niust, on the other band, decidedly adopt tbat view of 
the universe which is called the mechanical or cauial. Tt no longer 
occuTs to physicists, chemists, mineralogists, or astronomers to seek 
to flnd in the phenomeoa which cotitinually appear before them in 
their scientitic domain the action of a creator acdng for a deflnite pur- 
pose. They, universally, and witbout hesitation, look upon the phe- 
nomena which appear in their different departments of study as ihe 
necessary and invariable effects of physical and chemlcal forces 
which are inherent in matter." Cf. Biichner, 'Kraft und Sloffj 
consult Cudworth, ' Intelleclual System/ ch. 2, § xxii. i Flint, ' Anti- 
Theistic Theories,' secL 4; Lange, 'Hist. of Maleiialism,' i. 139. 
loaa. auo: acanncd as a monosyllable. Neue gives a number of like 
eaamples, ' Formenlehre,' ii. 190. 1013. ei infinito: 'during 

inGnite lime past.' The assamption ot infinity of tlme Is as essential 
to roodem as to andent malerialism. " Who knows what might hap- 
pen in etemity ? " loag. magiUM anno* : the poet had in roind 

the great cycles or cosmic years taught by many of the ancient philoso- 
phers, paiilcularly the Pylhagoreans, Heraclitus, and the Stoics. The 
'great year' of Heraclitus comprised 10,800 or i8/x» solar years 
(authorities differ); for the Sloic view cf. Zeller, 'Stoics, Ep, and 
Sccp.'di. 7. 1031. flumiDis: 'running water'; dep. on undis. 


288 LUCRETIUS [I. 1033- 

1033. flumniiBsa g|«n8: cf. 8. Tbe expression implies tbe springiDg 
of living things from the earth, explained at length S> 771 </ iq- 

1034. vlmit: ■= durent hj poetic license, Manro thinks. The an- 
cients generall]' seem to have supposed Ihe heavenly bodies endowed 
with life. See n. on 5, 513. 1036. ex infin. : as in looi, where 
see n. 1038. Cf. 194. 1041. viai : gen. of separation afier 
aiiersa ; a Greelc conatr. A. 24^/, Rem. ; H. 410, v. 4. i<H3. quae- 
cumque: trans. as if fuae; but quatcumq. has a peculiw force, im- 
plying tiiat ii covers in entirety, altogether, thal which it represent». 
1044. cnim: 'indeed,' 'ii is true'; beware of always trans. mim 
*for.' 1044. part. mor.: i.e., keep a porlion of the sum of 
nutter stable, and thoi hinder it from flying apart into space. 
1045- Tenlant: the subj. is due to the idea of purpose involved. 
A. 328; G. 5741 H. J19. H. 1.— 'queatnr: the passive (orms of qtita 
and/UKjmn are occasionally (ound, in the older writers, nith a passive 
infinitive. Neue, ' Formenl.' ii. 603 and 6091 givcs a fuli coliection of 
examples. Cf. 3, loio poUitur. to^S rf leq. As thc blows are 
forced to rebound, matter is thus freed from pressure; hence there 
must be an infinite supply of matter or the universe would fly into 
pieces. lojo. et tamen : the expression is elliptical. The 
meaning in fuH is 'and (thongh what I bave said is tnie) yet.' 
1051. opusest: predicate, wiihcM-as subject The more common 
constr. of ff/w^i/with the abi. is found i, 306; 5, 1053; 6, loSi. 

4. The Universe has no cenlre. 1051-1113. 

7%erl is tio etntre in the tiniverse toward whieh all ikings iend. Te 
tappose Ihal there are antipodes ts rani folly ; in infimte space Ihere ean 
U no centrf, aiu£if thtre cimldbe, thiugs woidd ttot necettarify teiid Itnaard 
it aiiy more than be repelltd from il. Further, there can be noplace lohere 
bodies loie Iheir weight and are aHe ta be sustained tyvoid. 1053-1082. 

1053. Illud, etc, ; see n. to 80. — fuge : fugere with the infinitive is 
not uncommon. See Kiihncr, 'Ausf. Gtam.' § 124, 1, a). 1053. 

medium : 'centre.' Most of the ancient philosophers taught that 
the earlh is at the cenlre of the universe. Pythagoras supposed 
that eartli, gun, and the olher.heavenly bodies move about a central 
fire. In the foliowing argument Ihe poet, doulMless, inlends diredly 
to coi)tl>at the Stoics, who held that the earih was firsl formed, the 


io6i.] NOTES 289 

rest of the universe built around il; and insisled on the unity and 
perfection ot the universe, emphasizJng in everytlung the adaptation 
of means to end. — quod: Buppl; id. 1054. iiiiin. nat. = 

niundum. Sce n. to 73. 1055. 'and Ihe uppennost and lowesl 

pirts cannot part asunder in any dtredton.' 1058. The constr. 

after (rtdere, tntenupted by 1057, vhich is parenlhelical, is here re- 
Bumed. — ■Qraam: i.e., from the lower side up toward Ihe common 
centre. The Epicureans did not reali/e that in space there can be no 
up and down. But this error was not by any means universal io anti- 
qiiity, as is somctimes supposed. Cf. Flato, ' Timaeus ' 6z, c. ; ' It is 
quite erroneous to suppose thaC there are two opposite rcgions in the 
universe, one al>ove and the other lielow, and IhaC heavy things natu- 
rally tend to the iatter piace. The heavens are spherical, and every- 
thing Cends to Che centre; and thus above and below have no 
reat meaning. If there be a solid globe in the middle, and if a per- 
son walk around it. he will become the antipodes to himself, and 
Ihe direction which is up at one time will l>e down aE another.' 
See Whewelt, ' Hist. of ihe Inductive Sciences,' 3 ed. additions to 
ch. 3; cf. 996-1001 and n. 1059. 'are at rest on the earth 

tumed upside down ' ; /nj/a, of course, for /luiVd. io6o. simu- 

lacra: i.e., the invened iinage one sees by looldng into still water, 
1061-7. Cf. Cic. Acad. z, 39, 123 vos eliam dicitit isic e regione noiii, 
e {onlraria parte terrae, qiii advertis vestigiis stent contra HBStra vestigia, 
guai hiTiroSat vecatis ; also Id. Tusc Dis. I, z8, 6S. The doclrine of 
antipodea ts assigned by Diog. Laert. (8, 26) lo Pyfhagoras ; but the 
same wriler elsewhere says (3, 24) ihat Plato was Ihe first lo use Che 
word. Cf, Verg, Georg, i, «47 rf seq.; Plin. N. H. 2,65; Strabo, 15. 
" The existence of antipodes was, of course, bound up with the doc- 
Iriiie thaC Che universe or the world is a globe (held by Plato and Ihe 
Stoics) ; hence tlie early Christian writers altack the two ideas 
togelher as unscriptural." Lactantius, Inst.3, 23 Quid illi, gui esse cori- 
trarios insligiis nostris antipodes futaitt f num aliquid loguttntur f aul 
est quisquam tam iniptus, qui eredat esse komines, quorum vestigia sinl 
iHperiora quam capilaf elc. St. Ai^uatine (De Civ. Dei 16, 9) is 
equatly severe. As lale as t6i6, in Ihe pontilicate of Paul V., a de- 
cree of tlie Cstholic Church ordered that alt books teachlng tlie mo- 
bility of the earth and the immobiiiiy o£ the sun (a doctiine essenlially 
connectcd with the preceding) should be ' suspended, forlMdden, and 
condemned.* Consult Whewell, ref. in n. to 1058; Reid's n. to Acad. 


290 LUCRETIUS [I. 1062- 

«,123. 1061. caetit i.e^ opposite to our aky, on the other side of 

the wocld. 10G3. reccidere : see n. to 857. 1064. tem- 

pla ; see n. to 120. 1067. divid«re ; supply ill»i (antipodes). 

noctes etc : not days and nights of eqtul length, but nights equal to 
our days. eHtiui is for diii. tiostris. 1068-1075. Lachmann has 

most acalely shown that thcsc verses stood at thc top of p. 45 of the 
lost us. from vhich all the eztant uss. of I.ucr. have directly ot 
indirectly come. Ttie right-hand corner of that page being tom o£F, 
the lines were left i&complete. They may be lead as CoUowa : — 
scd vanus atolidis haec error somnia finiit 
amplexi quod habent perversa rem ratione. 
.nam medium nil ease potest ubi summa profundist 1070 
in£nita. neque omnino, si iatn medium sit, 
possit: ibi quicquam consistere eam magis ob rem 
quain quavis alia longe ratione repelli, eiQ. 

The lincs as Ihus given were completed by different persons ; 1063-9, 
1072-3 by Munro ; 1070 by Lachm. ; 1071, 1074 by Marullus ; 1075 
dtitt by Wakefield for oportit, pieviously supplied. 106B. stoli- 

dis : peihaps the Stoica ; see n. to 6jS. ^^1' quiaquam : gen- 

eially used as a substantive, but heie an adj. 1079. ulli subs. : 

' foim 3 support for anylhing.' With dibet supply id as antecedent 
of quod. lo8a BUa etc. : patenlhetical ; supply id; cf. 1053. 

loSi. cuppedine: Lncrelian form foi cupidine ; cf. 4, 1090; S, 4$. 
Tlie u is shoit by nature, and so scanned outside of Lucr. Trans. 
' by desiie of a centre.' 

I^ose mhB assume a eentre of Ihe unkierse suppose theit «af edl hodiis, 
but only tht keavier, settte tmiard it,-mkile tkelighter tend to rite. In Ikit 
Ihcy are inconsistent ; and on Ihis suppositiem tht world tinaild in a mo- 
ment dissolvt in utter destrvctim. 108J-1113. 

1084. After thia verse Munro thinks a vs. has been lost, which 
he thus snpplies : tt quat dt suptra i» lerram mittuHtur ut imbres. 
1087. Aristotle held that eaith and watei tend to move toward the 
centre, air and fire from the centre, whiie the fifth element, the 
quintessence, tends to move aiound the centic. The Stoics lield 
a like docliine, wilhout the quintessence ; but, in accotdance with 
their dynamical view of nature, Ihey taught that all things are 


III4.] NOTES 291 

held in their proper place by the world-onleriDg force, the uni- 
versal reason. logo. See n. to^jt and ref. 1094-1101. The 

best MS. leaves a space here for eight lines. The )o$t vss. are sap- 
posed to have come at the top of p. 46 of the original wa. A parC 
of Ihe leaf having p. 45 on one side and p. 46 on the other wa3 tom 
away ; thus vss. 1093-iiai were lost entire, being on a left-hand page, 
and written nearer tbe outer edge ; while only the ends of vss. io68~ 
1075, which were on a righl-hand page, and nearer the inside, were 
tom away. The missing lines have been vartously supplied. Mnnro 
bridges ovcr tbe chasm in his Iranslation : ' unless from time to tinle 
(nature supplied] food from the eaj-lh to each [throughout both stem 
and boughs, their reasons are not only false, bul they contradict each 
other. Space I have already proved lo be infinite ; and space being 
infinite, matteT, as I have said, must also be inlioite] lest after Ihe 
winged fashion of flames ' etc 1106. onuiis : wilh the subj. of 

abeat. 1108. coTp. solv. : i.e., setting free the atoms by the break- 

ing to pieces of everything. — abeat : Munro's emend, for abeant, 
which probably crept into the teit from the adjacent pluials. With 
tlie thoi^ht cf. Shakespere, ' Tempest,' 4, 4 : — 

" Mellcd into lir, into Ihin lir : 

And, iniE the basde» [ibrie d( a Ti»on, 

Thc cloud-capp^d unHrs, Ihe g^Dr^eonB pibca, 

Ths •olHnn temple*. Ihe greac globe ituU, 

Yea. all which it inheiif, ihaU diuolve ; 

And, Uke thia insubitiuitial pageul, laded, 

LeiTc Dot 1 nck behind." 

iiia. ianuti letl; in this and the like expressions, Mnnro observes, 
the poetshave idealized the solid stone doors of the tombs. 1113. 
Ua9A : as in 979, where see n. 

If you shall kmrui thenmghly Ihest truths presetOtd, fatt jeill lead ia 
facl, and ert lotig tmt me of nattire's seerels shaU hi kid fntnt yau. 


1114. Bci: archaic for ti. AEter iii^Manro suppases avs. has 
been lost. He thns supplies its place, making both good sense and 
good constr. in a passage otherwise oliscure and difficult : — 

Haec sei perDosces, parva perductus opella 1 114 

cetera iam poteris per te tute ipse videre. 


392 LUCRETIUS [I. 1115-8. 

1115-7. Of these striking lines Prof. Sellar remarks that thej' " look 
rather like an unconscioos prophecy of the future progress of sdence 
than an sccount of the process of inquiry ezhibited in the book." 
1118. sccen. luin. : 'Ehall lighE the torch,' as in Enn. qnoted b; Cic, 
De Oft. I, i^ 51 : — 

homo, qni erTanti ccmitcT monglrat viuiii 
qiuu lumen de nio tiuniH acceDdat ladt. 




I. Praise ot Epicurus. 1-30. 

THm arl my guide, Of^j/ of tki Grecian falk, Ihm Ihat mUk god- 
likt rtatm katt reveaitd Ikt Inte n/ifurt fff tkings, kast shoiim the 
Uisstd aiedtt of tki diitits far aaiay /rom all regard ef men, and hatt 
caused tke rtalm af Aehcron to vanisk. 1-30. 

3, te : Epicurus. Tlie followers d Epicurns clung to his teach- 
ings with alroost snperstitious deTOtion. His immediate pupils were 
required to coTnmit brief sumniaries of them to memory, and Che 
practice appcars to have been kept np as long as the school can> 
tinued in existence. Such was the dogmatic impress which Epicurus 
stamped upon his doctrines ihat they never underwent eipansion, 
ncver departed from his own uiterances. In the serrile dependence 
upon a founder, the Epicureans can be compared only witii tho 
pythagoreans, who, it is said. had for all hinds oE objections one and 
the same answer, abtii lipn, 'fise dirit. The Epicureans usually spoke 
of their master with uumeasurcd laudation, and did not hesiCate to 
call him divine. See n. to i, 66l Cf. Cic. N. D. 1, 16, 431 Zeller, 
■ Sloics, Ep., and Scep.'ch. 16. 4- flcta; old participle oifigo,^ 

fixa. 5. cnpidas: the adj. supplies the place of a causal clause, 

COordinaCe with quad . . . avtit. 8. forlis : ' spirited.' fnrt. eq. vit 

is foond also 764, and was perhaps suggested by Ennios' line sic ut 

fortit tqut etc, in Ctc. Cat. Maior 5, 14 (Vahlens' Enn. Ann. 441). 
g. pater: simplya tenn of respect, a common usage with the cor- 
responding words in all languages. — reruni inventor : so Prof. Tyn- 
dall finds in Charles Darwin " (he Abraham of scientific men." See 
WainwrighE, ' Scienti6c Sophisms,' ch. i, for olhet instances ol like 


294 LUCRETIUS [III. lo- 

adaUtion. — patriar see n. to i, 94. 10. incltite : see n. to 

1,40. — chutis : Epicums was one oE the most Totuminons nriters 
of antiquity. Diog. Laert, (10, 26) says he left tliree hundred vol- 
umes, in which ' there was not a citation from other sources; but the 
boolts were entirely filled with Epicurus' own seatiments.' The slyle 
is said to have Ijeen eiceedingly careless, Iwld, harsh, and full of repe- 
tilions. Tliere are extant only four letters, the Maxims, and some 
fragments. 13. aurea tlicta ; the Pythagoreans had goldea 

versea (xfuva fnf) attribuled to their founder; from them, perhaps, 
the eipresslon here was borrowed. 14. TOciferari: see n. to i, 

731. 15- naturam rerum : see n. to l, zl and 25. On the spirit 

of 14-17 cf. 3, t-13 and n. to i, 112 ignoratar. Demociitus taught 
thal the cause o( fault is the iguorance o£ what ia Ix^tter (Frag. 116 
A^af^rfqi airfii 4 i^»9lt\ TaS HpHnrom) ; Epicurus hcld, however, 
that happioess is not "direclty promoted by luiowledge, but only indj. 
rectly, In 13 far as knowledge ministers to practical needs, or cteais 
awiy hindrances to their atlainment." 16. moenia Tnimdi: see 

n. to I, 73. 17. disccdunt : with dis emphatic, ' part asunder ' ; . 

so 3, 436- — inane: see n. to i, 330. On geri ra see n. to i, 318. 
18. divum: see n. to 1, i. — sedesq. qutetae : Zpicurus pictured 
the gods a3 dwelling in the spaces of the universe lietwcen the worlds, 
ever blessed and unvexed by any pain or trouble, never interfering 
with Ihe course lA nature, and ulterly regardiess of manlcind. Tea- 
nysoD well bringsout thc spirit of this passage, 'Luaetius': — 

" Tbe Cods, who hannt 
The ludd intgnpacs of world ■nd woild, 
Whcn nevEr G3«ep« a doud, oi movu a wiBd, 
Nor sver falli Ae leut white >tar of niDW, 

5ee also his ' Lotos-Eaters,' last stanza of the Choric Song. Cf. 2, 
togo; 6, $iet leg.; Diog. Laert. 10, [23 and 139; Cic. N. D. I, 17, 44 
el >iq. ; Cudworth, ' Intellectual Systen of (he Universe,' i. ch. i, S ' ; 
Taylor Lenis, ' Plato against Ihe Atheists,' Diss. 52 ; Zeller, ■ Stoics, 
Ep.,and Scep.' ch. 18; Id. ' Prae-Socratic Phil.', ii. 286-290; Ritter, 
■ Hist. of Ancient Phil.', iv. 85-7 and nn. 19-ai. These lines, edd. 

notice, are from Hom. Qd. 6, 42-45 : ' Olympus, where, ai they say. 


37-] NOTES 295 

U tbe seal of Ihe gods, that standeth (ut forever. Kot by winds is it 
shakcn, nor ever wet with rain, nor doth the snow come nigh thereto, 
but most clear air ia spread about it cloudless, and the white light 
shines over it.' Butcher and Lang'3 trans. ii. innubilus : 

coined by Lucr. to eipress the Greek i*4i>i?tat 1. 45 of the paasage 
rendcied above. aa. rident ; Lachmann's reading for ridit ; sup- 

ply dei as subject. 13-4. Cf. Cic, N. D. i, 19, jo ea viddicit {vila 

deormn), qua nihil ttatitis, nihil ommiia beais affluentiits cogilari potest. 
nihil enim agit, nullii occupationibut est implicatui, milla opera Btoiitur, 
tua sapientia et virtiite gaadet, haiee exploratum fere te semper cum in 
maximis, tum in aeteraii XK^upialibus. Cf. also Cudworth ut lup. 

i. ch. 2, ig. 85. contra : see n. to i, 66. — ouBqnam ap. etc. ; 

ihe poet, forsooth, has searched the entlre universe, and found no 
abodes of the dead. Bnt i( is diSicult to prove a negative. — Acher. 
tem. : see n. to l, izo. 3& dispiciantur : i.e., by us, since rea- 

son cau penetrate where the sight cannot. 17. qnaec. : see n. to 

I, 1043. >9- *dque : = atgue ; aJq. is snraelinies found in both 

Mss. and inscriptions. See Neue, ' Formenlelue,' ii. 797-S. — tua: 
refers, of course, to Epicorus. 

1. Subject and pnrpase of the book. 31-93- 

/ Aave explaine/i the firil-begiiinings ; ncmi I mutt teach tke natare 
of Ihe toul, and drive forlh Ihal fear of dealh, ahicA it tie iane of lift, 
even though men think Ihey have cait it off. Prom this tpringi rulhless 
deiirtfor iBeaith and poaer, tBhieh sale it not iul lead to crimes ; hence 
arise viari, betrayait of eountry and kin, nay even Ihe leeking of deatk 
itself. T^is Mighljng drcad Irue reason only can dispel. 31-93. 

31. cnnc. ez. rer. : see n. on i, 55 frimordia. 35. anlmi : 

'mind,' while anima a generally 'soul' in Lucr. yjelseq. See 

n. to I, 6l. Oniy that soul could be tranquil that had banished all 
fears of religion and the hereafter. To surmounl these waa the only 
aim of philosophy. "If it were not for the thought of God and the 
fear of death there would be no need of studying nature." See Benn 
'The Greek PhUosophers,' ii. ch. i, $ 4 ; Zeller, ' Stoics, Ep. and Scep.' 
ch. 17, A (s), and ref. to authorities there. In accordajice with the 
spiril of this passage Verg. says (Georg. x, 490-2) ; — 


296 LUCRETIUS [III. 41- 

Felii, qni potuit muin cagnoKcn aasu, 
■pbiecit pcclibui ■titfHtaniqDe AcheronEii irari t 

41. qnod: 'u to the fact Ihat.' 43. nat. animi sanif.: aaid lo 
have been the view of CrltUs. tbe papil of Socraies ; and Empcdo- 
cles taught that the blood, as In iC the primal elemenCs are most com- 
ptelely btended, is Ihe principal seat of thought and consciousness ; 
ol/ia yif iiw8p4tir«ii inpiiiifiSitr imi ri^fLa is the language o{ one of the 
fragmenlB of Emped. Cf. Cic. Tesc Disp. I, 9. 19 EmpidKlei ani- 
mum essf <tnsH eerdi lufftuunt languiiiem. 44. vCDti : i.e., aerii, 

the doclrine of Anaximines and Diogenea ot Apojlonia ; sec Zellcr, 
•Prae-Soc. Phil,' vol. i. Cf. Cic. T. D. I, 9, 19 animum aaiem alii 
anitaam [^airrm, as Lucr. I, 715), ut fire noslri, deelaratil nomen ; 
nam elagertanimam el e/flart dieimus, ttanimoioi, etiene 
animates, tl ex animi senltntia ; ipieaulem animui ai anima 
dichuest. 45 et leq. Even philosophers,who havetaughtthephysi- 
cal nature of the aotil, and its dissolution after death, have sought not 
so much cruth as fame; and, when met by life'a reveraes, (heir false 
doctrines have failed Ihem, and they have retumed to tbe most de- 
based rites of superstition. The implication is, thaC Chc poeCa philos- 
ophy is Che only one Chat can really assure pcacc of mind under all 
drcumstances. 46. adv. an : = animadvertas ; cf. below 54. 

53. nig^B pec. : only black victims were sacrificed Co Che gods of 
the Lower World. -See Ramsay, ' Man. of Rom. Anliq.' p. 342. — 
manibu'; see n. on i, 159 imnibu'. J4. ad: noC necessary, as Ihe 
acc. might, and in such phrases generally does, depend on the prep. 
in the verb. 55-8. It waa a maiim of Francis, Duc de Rochefou. 

cauld, that 'Fhilosophy triumphs easily over pasc and over futare 
evila, but present evils triumph over philosophy." * With similar un- 
derlying thougbl, Seneca says (De Frov. 3, 3, taken from Demetrius) 
tiikil mihi videtur inftliciui eo, cui niki! umquam evenii aJverti. 59. 

deitique : see n. to i, 199. — avariiies : found oniy here and Claud 
De iii. Hon, Cons. ; lot avaritia. — honoram : to the Roman Ihts word 
suggealed Ihc pnblic officcs {honores) the straggle for wbich ao dis- 
turbed and disgraccd the decline or the Republic Si. soc sc. 
atq, min. : cattimtctie ; aee n. to i, 146. 69. ooctea . . . opCB ; 

repeaced from 2, 12-13. "3- vuln^ra ; in apposition wich avari- 

ties and cupide. Mcn strive to get wealth and power in order to 


93 1 NOTES 297 

deaden or put away Ihe dread of death. Epicurus taught that Ihe 
iieeds of nature are easily satisfied, and bence moderate means and 
simplicity oflife are desirable. See 2, 14 etstq. 65. contemptus: 
in I passive sense, a 'being slighted'; 'scom.' CC. videntnr; 
passive. 67, cimctarier : see n. to i, jo?. — ante: wilh /or/oj. 
6& UDde : = a quibus. See n. to 1, 56. 69. For the chiasmus see 

n. to I, 22-3. 70. rem : foi rem /amiliarem, aa often in both prose 
and verse; trans. 'propertj'.' 71. Fur the alliteration see n. to 1, 
14. 73. consang. : see n. to i, i divom. Among ihe later Ro- 

mans poiaoning was a favorite way o£ getting rid of obnoiious per- 
sons. 78. pBrtim : Cakes the place of a subject ; trans. as Mfari 
or idii. — ergo : prep. 7ff~Bi. Quoted and itlustrated by Burton, 
'Anat. of Melancholy,' I, 4, 1. 80. bumanoa : iax hatitintt. "Their 
soul abhorreth all manner of meat ; and they draw near unto the gates 
of death." Ps. 107, 18. Bi, The Stoics approved of auicide as an 
escape from clrcumstances which seemed unendurable ; but Epicums 
accepted it as advlsable only in eitreme cases. For the wbole snb- 
ject of suicide, ancietit and modErn, see Lecky, ' Hist. of European 
Morals' ; consult index, vol, ii. Bl, timorcm: i,c., morlii. 83. 

bimc: aupply timorem. — ■<niic. am, : notwilhstanding Ihe fact ihat 
the Epicureans based friendship on utility they gave it a very innpor- 
tant place in practical life, Hence the mention of it in this connec- 
tion, 84, auadet ; difficult to conatme wilh the present reading; 

suppose a semicolon before et, and supply Aic rcferring to Hmerim. 
Munro thtnks that after 83 there is a hiatus, which he thus supplies, 
qai miaros cogem icelut omtie patrare, — maklrg kunc . . . Auik refer 
to men, ' this one,' ' another.' Fot suai/e/ Lambinus rcads fundo, 
Lachmann _/9i)ui/r. 80, prodidenint : see n. to I, 406. — Ach. 

tem.: see n. to i, iio. 87-93. = 2, 55-6' i 6> 35-4i- For 91-3 cf. 
I, 146-8 and nn. Of 87-8 Seneca says, Ep. 110,6-7, Quidergo? nim 
emni puero stultiores samus, qui in luce limemui i sed falsum est, Lucreti, 
ncm timimus ia luet : omnia nobis fecimus tenedras. nihil viJimus, nec 
guidnaceal nec qtdd expediat. iota vita incursitamus, ntc fi Hoc resisti- 
mus aul circumsftctius ftdtm penimus. 


29» LUCRETIUS [III. 94- 

i. The Nature of the Mind and Soul. 

t. The mind and aoul are an esseiitial part of man. 
94- 135' 
TXe tHinJiiai muck afart ofmaH at katid or foet, and is itot a mert 
harmmy oftht bodyi fir aftcn it kas a fieling of pUaaire viheit tke body 
it ii/, and ir -jiretched ■wAen Ike body is wtll ; it keefs active, too, wken 
the bedy is relaxed in sleep. 94- 1 1 6. 

94. Prlmuin: referstoiijHUHi-. — aniniUTn...nientem: 'tnind' 
. . . 'inlellect,' or * understanding,' used \tf Lucr. as synonymous 
terms, as he here indicates; thus, too, in 139 eonsilium 'directing 
principle' is laken. This gronp of lernis (or the mind should be 
carefullydistinguished fromiii 
latter Is considered common 
in which lies the power of rea 
Juv.Sat. 15,147-9: — 

PHncipHi induUl cotrirunis CDnditor Ulil (i.t b«M;>>) 

and Mayor"9 n. j *ee also n. to 136. — quam : see A, 195, d; G. aot, 
Rem. S ; H. 445, 4. 95. consiliam vit. reg. : ' directing and gor- 

eming principle of life.' 96. nilo: see n. to i, 155. 97. oculet: 
old form of pl. ; see n. to l, 130. — eztant : for lunt, 98. Before 
this verse one or more tss. have dropped out ; edd. adopt a make- 
ahift verse ^uamvis multaquidem sapientum turba putarunt for in early 
edit. for ptil. pataret), which gtves a good constr. to the following 
infin. gg. Terum : here adversative. loo. barmimiam: the 

doctrine of the soul, aa a harmony of the body, is brought out bjr 
Simmias in Plat. Phaed. p. Sj it seq. ; it is there rcpeated by Soc- 
rates, and is corabated by Aristode De An. 1, 4. It was more fully 
developed by Aristoxenus, a pupil of Aristotle, of wbom Cicero says, 
Tusc Disp. I, 10, 19-20: Arisloxenus, musiaa idemque philosophus, 
ipsiia corporis intentionim quandam, velul in canlu et fidibus qtiae har- 
monia dicilur ; sic ex corporis lalius nalura el figura varlos molus eieri 
tamquam in cantu sanos. This harmony was somelhing enlirely dtfler- 
ent from tbat spokea of In conncction wilh the soul by the Fythago. 


135-] NOTES 299 

reans, who belicved in metempsychosis. Spencer, in explaining the 
law ot association, bas hit upon a doctrine suggestive of this view 
oE Aristoxenus; see Bowne, ' Philosophy of Hetbert Spencer,' p. 
'79' — quod: conj. loi. Hiet: archaic for sil, found in the old 
wtitets, especiaily Flautus, and in inscriptions. Ci, Gk. •fq, Sanskrit 
Cfat. loa. valetudo : see n. to i, 173 ttmpestatts. 103. nt 

tamen: see n. to i, 1050. — haec etc : 'it is not any (delinite) part 
of the man in good health.' 105. tni: see n. to i, 924. loG. 

'Oflentimes the body which is visible to sight, is aick.' 113. ho- 

nuBtum ; a less common, but well-attested spelling for eratttum. See 
Munto's n. 115. multimodis: see n. to ii 895. ilO- inanis: 

for spelling see n. to l, 7 jvavis. 

T%e stuJ ii likewise no inert harmony; /or it lingert whtn much 
iiflhe body has bein taktn moay ; bat wken a fiw parliclts of htat have 
lefi theform at onct ttgots; thui aU bediei ari not equally imforlani tB 
maiatairt lift. Then givt iach thii WBrd harmony ta tki mviicians. 

118. coTpiiB : acc. to saltre, while harmouia is abl. 119-M. For 
illasttations of the truth of this statement, see CarpenteT, ' Principtes 
of Comparative Physiology,' | 650 ; Herbert Spencer, ' Prin. of Psy- 
chology,' i., % 177. 134. «equr.d putis : 'fanctions of tike impor- 
tance,' i.e., in maintaining life. 115. corpora : i.e., corpora prima ; 
■ee D. to t, 51;. 136. vei:>i : see n. to 232 aura. — vBporis: see n- 
to 1, 491. laS. vitalia: with eolar as well as ■uentus. 133. ad 

etc. : snpply sine ; for the whole constr. cf. Hor. Od. i, 32, 6 Quifirox 
bello tamtn (jiw) inter arma, Srvt iactatam religartt udo Litore naoim. 
The thought here is, whcther thc term harmony was brought down 
to musicians from the Muses' home, or whetlier they ihemselves bor- 
towed it and applted it to that in music, which prevtously was with- 
out a distinctive name. — organicos : Aristoxenus was more famous 
as a musician than as a philosopher; and of his numetous wtitings 
on many subjects, important fragments of his treatises on music only 
remain. 133, illain : inslead of rem here rti is insened in the 

relative clau»e, — a common constr. Exactly what we are to under- 
stand by barmony in ancient music is an open question. 134. trans- 
tulenint : see n. to i, 406. 135. habeant : = haheant sibi, as 

Munro remaiks, with the contempt usually implied in the expres- 
sion. — tu: MenuDius ; eee nn. to i, 26, and 102. 



united. 136-160. 

Tic tnind and loul are tmiled, making ime natttri ; bul tke mind ii 
thi dirtcting part and it tihiattd in Ihi mid-rcgien of the breait.vikilc tkt 
iiml ii dijiiud Ihraughout tht body. Somclimcs the mindfeeli iBhtn tkt 
tmdremaini unmoved ; but wktn Ike mind is deeply tlirred, Iht mtd lee 
it affecttd, andtvitk it Ikt lokolebady. 136-160. 

130. animam : A11 througli here by aniinit 'soul' the poet mean* 
the lifc-principle, ihroiigh which Ihe body feel», and through which tbe 
mind sends its directing impulse to the limbs. See n, to 94. In am- 
mus and anima is the distinction, maintained also by the Stoics, 
between the rationil and the irriitional soul, Ihe reason and the Tttal 
principle. For the view o£ Aristotle sce Ritler, ' Hial. of Anc. Phil.' 
iii. ch. 4; Grote, 'Aristotle,' ch. 12; for ihat of the Stoics, Zeller, 
'Stoica, Ep., and Scep.', ch. 9; for that of Epicurus, Id. ch. 17, c (1). 
139. See n. to 94. 140. That sensation and intellectual activ- 

ity have their centre in and about the heait was the doctrine alike 
of Feripatetics, Stoics, and Epicureans. The brain was reckoned of 
only secondary importance. Democritus taaght thal anger alone 
arises in the heart, while thought has ils origin in the brain, and 
desire in the liver. With 140 cf. Epicurus' statenient in Diog. Laert. 
10, 66 nit T^ liimu abr^s (i.e., r^i iioX^t) KXrrYa* hXpoi, t t^ Xsnrj 
vapfffinl^ rAiiori • tA Si \ayiKiw, b iw t^ ffsipolri, tts iit\ow fic Tf -riw 
^jSiw nl Tiif xif&i ; also Cic. Tusc. Disp. I, 9, 19 aliis fars qnaedam 
(trcbri visa cst animi principattun tenerc ; aliis nec eor iptum p/aeet nec 
ccrtbri guam/am partcm esse animum ; itd olii iii corde, alii in eertbro 
riixentnt aniini isse sedem cl loaim. 141. pavor ac metuB ; pmior 

19 (he quaking fear of that which is preaent or near, mclm the anzious 
dread of that which is in the future. 143. laetitlae ; the pl. of 

this word is very rare. — erg^ etc. : a striking instance of insufficient 
induction. 143. cet. pars : part of the soul is in and of the mind ; 
the rest is diffused thrnugh the body. 144. numen: 'beck.' — 

movctur: see n. to 1, 431. 145. Idque : same as idque of 1401 

referring to censilium of 139. 146. rea : i.e., through thc senses. — 
nna: adv. 151. artus: 'frame.' 151. ▼einenti : vehcmeiu 

is pronounced as two syllables iii verse, whcther wriiten tn full or 


i66,] NOTES 301 

contracted form j tor according to the general law i between the two 
vovrels was disregarded, and the voweU being alike coalesced. 
153. oonsentire I * sympathize,' ' become sympathetic' 156. so- 

nere ; old form of 10/iare. tenil and lenunt and lilce forms of com- 
pounds are found in the fragmenta of Ennius and Attitis. See Neue, 
* Formenlehre ' ii. 420-1 . i6a ezim: a labialized form of ujii, 

f or exinde. 

3. The mind Knd soul are malerial in nature, and 
coraposed o( the finest atoms. 161-230. 

T%at thi mind and soiti are of matiriai nature it evjdent ieaiuie they 
mm/e and eBntrol Ihe body, a thingtheycould iwt da tuitheut teuch, vihich 
ii a freperty enly of body ; andthe miad mfferi aloagioUk the ioify,typi- 
fcOhiting witA it. 161-176. 

iBi. nat. an. cotp. ; cf. Epicunis in Diog. Laert. 10, 63 ' the 
■oul is a bodily substance, composed of small particles, drffuEcd 
throughout the body' etc. This was, of course, the doctrine of tlie 
Atomisli. See Zeller, ' Prae-Soc. Phil.* ii. 356 et seq. ; Ueberweg, 
'HisLof Phil.'i. 70. Consult also Zeller, ' Stoics, Ep., and Scep.', 
ch. 17 c, (i) and Ritter, ' Hist, of Aiic Phil.' iii. Pi. 4, ch. z for full 
discussion of Ihe Epicurean view. Tiie posiiion of modcm Materialism 
in general is, Ihat while the rcal nature of mind is beyond our ken, its 
phenomena may be coSrdinaled wilh phyaical phenomena, and il will 
probably al lut be shown to be merely a manifestation of matter. 
Huxley believes Ihat " we shall arrive at a mechaiiical equivaknl of 
consciousness, jusl as we have arrived al a mechanical cquivalent of 
heat " ; quoled by Wainwrighl, ' Scientlfic Sophisms ' ch. 8. See n. 
to 1, 443. But cf. Tynda.ll, ' Frag. of Science,' edil. S, p. 561: 
" While accepting feirlessly the facts of Materialism dwelt upon Fn 
these pages, I bow my head in the dust before that mystery of mind, 
which has hitherto deQed its own penetraCive power, and which may 
oltimately resolve ilself into a demonstrable impossibility of self- 
penetralion." For Spencer's position see also Bowne, 'Revlew of 
Herbert Spencer, p. 17 et seg. tS^. vtdetur: for subject refer 

back lo naluram. 1O5-6. A position obviously unsound, not 

merely becauEV negative propositions of this sort cannot be proved 
withoul an infinile intelligence, bul also because force and its mode 


30* LUCRETIUS [III. i68~ 

of opemion are jgnored. The inadeqiiate treatment of force and 
motion is one of the weakeat points of Ijicretius' as of all otber 
ancient systems of physics. CL llamilton, ' Metaphysics,' p. 212. 
168. funi^ : see n. lo i, 441. 173. Begtiis : Miuiro's cmend. for imi- 
vii of M3S., which is nMantnglees in this connection. Lacfamann reads 
aipfta. — et etc. : 'and on the ground the tiunult ai mind which 
arises.' 175-6. The fitst gtatement by no means folIoHS from ihe 

second ; because whatever the nature of Che mitid, so long as it remains 
in connectioii with the body at all, and the body is thc means through 
which it manifests itself, anything that affects the body must aSect 
the manifeslation of it, whether in its nature it be affected or nol. 
17C. quoni«m : «ee n. to 1, 339. 

Tht miad and iduI are madt uf qf tkt finesl rmitid alomt. Tiii it 
limm by Ikc rapidily oftht mind's atHon, and iy Ihtfact Ihat afler dtatk 
Ho pirctftiblt toss af lacight can 6t abstrvcd in tht iody. 177-230. 

177. tibi : see n. lo 1, 673. — animus: under this term, Munro 
remarks, the poct here includes anima as well, as is clear from 212 
below and the rest of the paragraph. It is ttie general practice irf 
Lucr. to keep distinct similar words when the argument rcquires 
it, bul to use Ibem inditferently when precision is noC called for. 

178. conBtileril: perf. Eor pres. subj., — a osage by no means rare. 

179. persuptileni : see n. to l, 79 efieritta: Cf. ihe teaching of 
Epicurus in Dit^. Laert. 10, 66, that the soul is composed of the 
smootbest and roundest atoms etc. ; for full discussion see ref. to 140, 
161. iBi. hinc : refers to whaC follows; hinc is more com- 
monly used of what precedes. iSi. videtiu: passive. 183, This 
line ccrlainly implies the miQd's Belf-activity, — a doctrine employed 
by Plato, and after him byCicero, lo prove tbe immortality of the soul. 
See Plat. Phaedrus 245 c; Cic De Sen. 21, 7S. 184. ergoanimus st 
fcrciet ocius quam ulia ns [Hlarum, i.e,, iUarum rerum), quorum elc 
— Be perciet : a kind of middle voice = passive, ' is stirred ' ; ite a. 
to I, ^3. 1S5. anteoculos: seen. 101,63. '^' nitundis: 
for rotuaJii, by assimilation. Two vowels separated by a single con- 
sonant tend to become the same ; thus iene for ^e, toboles for luMes. 
See Peile, ' Introd. to Gk. and Lat. Etymol.' edit, 3, p. 308 ; Vanifek, 
' Etym. Wijrterb.' p. 50. 187. debet; see n. to i, 190. 189. flu- 
tJlt: contracted for^uuVi/; &a ^,^t fiutanllix fiuitoHf. lo»- fisu- 


aii.] NOTES 303 

ri>: SM n. to t, 685; J^. i> bere nied for the atonts themseWea. 
igi. nattirs: see n. to i, it. iga. «cnu: 'moveTnent.' 

igS. papaverla: 'poppy-seed'j gen. after octnaa. — tuspenaa: 
'gentle.' TTie little round seed» ot the poppy thc slightest breeze 
will scatter ;. but the stonet, large and roagh, the east wind itself 
cannot moTe. That which ia small and round is most easily moved ; 
since the movement of the mind is so swift, the atoms of which it 
consists must be the smallest and roundest. igS. Ipae euru' 

mov. : Munro's emend. for spiearumqac ; Bemays reads Cimni ' niit- 
verr, I^chmann ipiriiut actr. In Southern Italy the sQuth«aSl wind 
was often rapid and violent. 199. noemi = luenum, old form 

of «m, from iii.etmnit, i.e, lu-unum. Cf. 4, 712, notnioH Is not 
uncommon in the old «rlters. — proquam: conjunctivc adv. inlrodnc- 
ii^ a clause of comparison ; ' in proportion a«.' 3do. fruuntnr : 

'liave,' 'are possessed of.' 9oi. cum ; see n. to i, 347. 004. 

egre^ie: seen.lai,735. 005. levibus: noticeJ?i'th<j', not/A^iiW. 

M6-7. Cf. I, 331. aoe. bone ; refets, of course, to Mem- 

mius. Thc voc. of imui, bolh sing. and p1., is used either with 
courtesy, as here, or with irony, as Hor. Sal. 2, 3, 31 O Imitc, «e It 
Frustrtre : insanis it tu, itultique propt omntt. aoj. cluebit : tor 

trit; see n. to l, 119. aoB. baec: here used of that which follows; 
' th« following.' — eius : i.e., animi. For the proleplic nse of natn- 
ram cf. i, 950 and n. 313- cemas; for the mood see Madvig, 

' Gr.' 370 and OIm, i ; A. *66, a ; G. 256, a ; H. 484, iv. n. 2. Thia 
use of the indefinite second per?. of thc subj. does not influence al all 
the mood ot an accompanying clause, even when dependent, as here. 
ai4. ad : 'as regards,' 'with reterence to.' Roby, ' Gr.' 1827, gives 
numerous examples of ihis Dse of ik/. aiS. quatenua: ' since.' 

aao, nec . . ■ hilum ; for iiHiU, nihilum (ne-ii/um). hilma is nsed 
here aa adv. acc. As to its derivation therc is disagrcement ; VaniCek 
<Elym. WSrlerb. p. 256) following Varro connects it wilh hillae. 
Cf- 3. 5'4 i 3> 783 1 3- 830 etc. i n. to i, 1 55. aai. quod ^nus : 

acc of description, ' as fot instance,' ' just as ' ; common in Lucr., and 
found four times in Comificins. See Roby, 1104 and n. 1. — Bacchi 
floa: they&uiMi was a peculiar light scum (jE^t «[rev) that often 
after a time appeared on the surface of wine ; to the cotor and con- 
sistency of this great signiiicance was attached as delermining the 
quality nf the liquor. See Smith, 'Dic. crf Antiq.'p. 1202. But Munro. 
quoting Plaut. Curcnl. 96 /bi veleris vias «aribus meis obiectust, under- 


304 LUCRETIUS [III. 227- 

Btands by Bac. fiei here the flavor or bouquet of the wine, doubtless 
the correct interpielatlon, to judge from the conlext and i, S4S nardi 
florrm. 337. rcnim ; i.e,, the wtn% the perfume, and the body 

frotn which moislure has escaped, lag. Bcire licet : see D, to l, 

860. 130. Beminibus; see n. to i, 55/nBiivi/ui. 

4. The mind and soul are complexi andbrtheditfer- 
ent proportion and mizture of the four parts 
differenC characters are produced. 331-322. 

Tie mind is camfiostd 0/ leind, htat, air, and a subili namtUss fimrlh 
dtBienl, in wkick arisi Ikt beginnings of stnsaliott, and of ■aihick tie leasl 
kurt wilt aaise deatk. JJI-JS?. 

»31. C£. the docirine of Epicurus in Plut., De Plac, Phil, 4, 3 Ihat 
the soul is «pajua Ik Ttavifiiv, in «auiir wtip^nvt, Ik *ou>5 itpMaiK. i* 
nuov vftufiaritou ^ iK Ttrd^ov TiritM iumroifOfiiLaTou, i fjr aury alrOTf- 
TiKir; also Diog, Laert. lo, 63. Consult ref. to 140; but tn thc 
Eng. traiis. of Zeller the three eleraents are wrongly given as " tire, 
air, vapour " (' Stoics, Ep., and Scep.' new edit. p. 454). 131. ten- 

Tis: see n. to I, S75. — aura: elsewhere spokeu of as ivnAfj, as 147, 
S69. It correS])Onds to the iK niai mu/MTiitaE in the passage quoled 
ahove, to ntC^a in Epicurus' own words as given by Diog. Laert. 
Wind {!vnlus or /lura) seems la have heen loohed upon as thc element 
of coolness, the origin of fear, as opposed to heat (ra/or or caliir, 
see n. to l, 491), the source of passiou, whlle atr {ner) is the element 
of equanimity, nf calm polse ; see below zSS tt stq. It must be 
borne in mind thal each one of these elements is regarded as a 
combination of atoms, so that tbe soul itself Is a combinatlon of com- 
binatlons of atoms. »34. quiaquam : eee n. 10 1,1077. — cui: 

the use of the dat. wilh miictri and 11 miscere b poelic, See Kiihner, 
'An8fiihr,Grani.'ii.p.g34. »36. inter: 'inslde of.* »38, haec: 

i.e^ wind, heat, air. 239. res : Bernays and Munro for mtns ; 

in 240 Munro writes ri homo qimt for the obviously corrujil qttatdam 
giie. Lachmann with constr. not at al] ctear reads the two lines Nil 
harum quemiam recifil qitem posst crtare, Sensiferos mottis guaedam vis 
mtnli' voliilat. For rrjl inch'ne lo Ihe mss. fumi, Trans, n(7«jr«r. 
/»/ 'the fact of Ihe case does not admit that any.' — receptt: for 
retipit; Munro, with the two besl mss. : "Vergirs and other MSS, 


retain man)' traces o( thls t, intcnnediate between the a of the aimple 
verb and Che laCei i." 340 senBiferos : fonntt only in Lucr. Cf. n. 

to I, 275. 341 etc. It wpuld bc hard to find an insCancc of more 

utterly groundleas speculation than here presented. " Tbe difficulty of 

fiiing ihe exact seat of sensation ia in the most important point com- 

pletely evaded by the Epicurean syatem ; and in spile of the immense 

progress of physiology, the Materialism of Ihe lasl century found hself 

at precisely the same poinl. Tbe individual atoms do not feel, 01 their 

feelings could not be fused Cogether, since void space. which haa no 

«ubsliatum. cannot conduct sensaCion, and still less partake ot it We 

must, therefore, conslantly fall back on ihe solution, — the motion 

of the atoms ia gensation. Eplcurus, and with bim Lucretius, in vain 

Keks to veil this poinC by saying that, besides tbe subtle atoms 

' that make up the three other parts of ihe soul,' there is still a fourth 

constituent associated wich them, vholly without name, and of the 

utmost fineness and mobility, which fonns the soul of the soul. Rntg- .^l ^ 

with legard to these subtlesl soul-atoms the difficulty still lenudns Ihe ^UV^. 

■ame as it also does for the vibraling brain-filaments of De la Met- f*"^ -**"'' 

tiie." Lange.'Hist. of Materialism,'i.l46-?. Toexplain the origin of .-^^^i^ 

sense or feeling, and the source of the impulse of vQluntaiyraovemenC, »^ *^"»- 

is a hard nut for materialists to ciack: — Hpicuius and Lucr. are not ^ > 

the only ones that bave taken lefuge in somelhing unknown and "♦'1 ^'"^ 

unknowable. 043. ealt: see n. (o i. 10. It has been suggested ^^ ^")1 

that perhaps Epicurus deiived his idea of Chis fouich essencc fiom Che 

quintessence of Aiistotle. 246. flgurls : see n. to 190. Plrst 

the fourtb element or essence is stiiied ; tbts tiansfeis motion and 

feeling to tbe beat-element, thia in tuin lo the wind, the wind to the 

aii-element ; hence blood, vitals, ftnally boiie and marrnw, receive the 

tmputse. " Epicurus appears lo have sapposed. in shaip contrast 

witb oui theoiy of the conservation of force, that a subtle body may 

pass on its own movement to a heavier, independently of the bnlk, 

and Ihis in turn tu a still heavier; so that the sum of mechanjcal 

vtork done. instead of remalnlng sCallonary, goes on mulliplying from 

step to Btep." l.ange, ut supra. 347. motus : acc. 351. hnc: 

i.c., to thc seat of this fourlh subtle elcment of the soul. 356. ' But 

generally a stop is put to (chese huitfu!) motions on tbe surface, as it 

were, of tbe body.' 



Tlua fiur tltmtwti art iruefiarailf umted, formit^ a tingie vdielt, 
jutt at differtnt n$ittanct! ^ lo maie uf eni body. Tht tuiSt, tuantltst 
eisinti koldt tke innennBit place, ii, ai it -uKre, Ihe tonl tfthe mtl. WkHe 
Ibtother tkree parts exiii enly ia tiHion, oni ifcomti vtBre firomiitenl Ihatt 
Ikt iithiTs,andthut differeniei ef characler are produeed ; tktse, kimievir, 
a n/ise man by rraten muiy tofar evercmie ai tapatt a Ufe wertky of Ike 
g»di. 258-3M. 

359. compta: wen. 101,950. a6o. invitum; '^unstmywin.' 
Supply me u obj. of aiifrakit. — pM. Ber. cfcstu: rcc n. to i, 
137-9. s6i. iater eiL cuT. : tmesls. — principionim : torfrimar- 
diarum; see n. lo l, (Si lience, as Mnnro remail^s, /nVw. mot. = aiii 
malikut. 064. nec etc : 'nor can the function (of any) go on 

divided (from thc rest) l>y any interval.' tfs- vis: =a 

virEr ; vis acc. pl . is found z, ;86. For other instancea of the nse of 
llie contr. form see Ncue, ' Fonnenlehre,' L 497. 966. Bnimui- 

tum : see o. lo i, 4. — viscere : see n. to i, 837. a68. augmen : 

'bullc' aSg. venti: see n. lo 132. a^t. initum : see n. to 

i< 383. — «b se etc.: it originates motion, which it imparts fiom itEelf 
to the otber three soul elemenla, as shown 245 et teq. — ollia ; lee d. 
to I, 671. 073. unde : aee n. to l, 56; refers to idlis. 974. 

infra : adv. = (aa Munro suggests) 4, 112 infra neitroi tensia ; tbia 
last is ihe only passage in Lucr, wheie infra is a prep. ; see Holtze. 
'Syntaiis Lucret. Lineamenta,' p. 74. 976-81. Just as thc mind 

and loul ate diSused, invisible, tbrough the body, so this fourth most 
subtle essence is ditfuaed through the soul, as the soul of thc soul. 
98i. proporto: a Lucrelian wordi ' furthermore,' 'more than tbis.' 
989. QecesBeBt: see n. to i, 270. 9S3. artua: 'frame.' 9S4. 

adquc: sec n. to 19. 986. aeorsum : usually a dissyllable in 

Lucr. aa here; but also a trlsyllable, as 3, 551 mtreroe leorivm. 
987- intereroant : for speliing see n. to i, 216. 988. Consult n. to 
232- 393. fit qui : more euphonious than Ihc natnral order quifit. 
9^7-8. The tn-east fi unable to contain ihe boiling biilows of rage, 
and is ready to bieak, Munro observcs, after Ileyne to Aen, 12, 526 
ttunc, maie Fluetuat ira intut ; rumpunlur ttescia vinci Peclora ; Heyne 
aaya "that Ihc image there is taken fiom water boiling up, which 
Gtiives to burst the vessel in which it is confined." 301. fadimt : 

facere, ' to cause,' is ustially followed by the subj. 309 Bl!re : 


336.] NOTES 3^7 

viBtre Is Bometimes conslmed tike ivjri with an abl. of means. 303. 
percit: Lucc. hasalso/;ri-^^4, 563. 30J. torpet : for subject Tcfer 
back to 302. 306. inter utr. sitaBt : au old reading adopted by 

Munro [01 iHler ulrasque siias. Lachmann has inleratnifM seaa. 
yyj et leq. For a discnssion of Ihis passage see Ritter, ' Hist. o( Anc. 
Phil.' iv. 94-5. 30B elc. Philosophy cannol obliterate distinctions 

of character, cannot efFace indTviduality. 315. sequacis : i.e., the 

trend or bent oE chafacters being delermined by ihe diSerent natures 
underlying them. 318. variantia : see n. lo l, 653 319. Ulud etc. : 
see n. to \, So. — firmare -.^aprmart. — potesse : see n. to i, 665. 
3ia. Cr Epic. in Diog. Laert. 10, 37, 135 . . . ' Vou will live as a god 
among men ; for in no respect like a mortal being is a man that lives 
among imperishable btessings.' See, also, Zeller, 'Stoics, Ep. and 
Scep.' ch 19, C. In vss. 307-21 Munro tbinks that "tbere is pointed 
reference to the perfect apathy of the wise or good man.'' Lucr. 
admits ihat a man may become so far independent of his surround- 
ings as to live likeagod; but not that hecan be entirely uninfluenced 
by them, aod in every respect maintun an iron curbing of his onn 

ii, The Relation of the Mind and Sool to the Body. 

with the body. 323-J69. 

73* smt and iafy are jn eoHttecled Ikat nritier eatt fe takeit away 
•wilhmt .Ike deslruetioH of botk. By tkeir commen motiens sense it 
produced; aad wilhimt seul m bedy ii bora or grows or can txist. 

323. baec natura: \.e.,ammi, = animi el animae ; rf. Z31 and see 
n. to 177. — ab : this use of ab with abl. instead of the simple abl. is 
chicfiy confined to poeiry, and is most freqiiently met wiih in Ovid. 
3as haerent ; \.t., nalura animi et corpus. 317. glaebis : ' pieces," 
' masses ' ; Lucr. elsewhere uses this word only in its common mean- 
ing,'clodso[ earth.' 333- posse: i, 586 33S-*- Cf. 

Epicurus in Diog. Laeit. 10, 24, 63-64 * we must admtl tbat the soul 
contains the chief cause of sensatioii. It would not, indeed, possess 
this, if it were not enveloped by the rest of the body. The rest of 


308 LUCRETIUS [III. 337- 

the body, imparting to il this povrer, receives the same (ittrrlXiift t«- 
riroa ni^rr^^uTsi) rTom it : but the body doe» not have all the staies 
which thc suiil has.' 337-4 De la Mettrie in his ' HtBtoire natu- 

relle de Yime ' maintainB exaclly this view, that body and soul are 
formed together and together perish ; so all thorough^oing Diatcrial- 
iBt3,whoarecon8isteiit,mustbe]ieve, 33Q. Taporem: nofvaponr'; 
■ee n. to 1,491. 343. conque pvtr. : tmesis. y^ctstq. Cf. 
55S-579and nn. 34B. quoniam eic. : ' since the cause of exislence 
lies in their joint airtion,' as Munro puls iL 

II it an trror te supposi that sensation is duc tnHrely tf tkt seui. Ytl 
wUhmt soul tkt bedy hat ne stnsalien ; bttaitte stntalien is enly an acci- 
denl, H0/ an tsstnlia! prBptrtyi. 350-S. 

350. quodsup.: seen.toi.^a. 353. ■enBum: *sen5ation'does 
not express the full meaning of the word \ it signifies rather ' cspacity 
of feeling '; 'senfie'is amblguous. 353. manifestas: see n. to 1, S55. 
354. Bit: the sobject is torpus sentirt ; ihe ^/rf-dause slands as obj. 
to ailftrit. 355- ti . . . res ; ' except that which the plain fact of the 
<:3xt.' 356-7. Cf. Epicurus in Diog. Laert 10, 24, 64-65, where 
Ihis doctrine is more fully sel forth. 357. proprium : i.e., coniutic- 
tian 'essential property'; seen. to i, 451. — •evo ; = vila ; cf. n. to (, 
.S49' 35^- perd. qu. ezp. CL : Munro's reading for ptrditum txpel- 
litur acve quam, which is manlfestly wrong. Bemays rejects the verse, 
Creech condemns it, and Lachmann, wilh barsh conslr., reads nul- 
laqat praeterca perdit, Tpiem tiptUilur aevo. — expellitur : for subject 
refer back to animd in 356; muiia stands as obj. ta ferdii ; piam . . . 
anti of course for anicfuam. 

A^m, il is wrong to say Ihat tht t}-es tktmstlnes da nat tet, but Ihat 
tkt mind leaks Ihrough them ai through epen deort. For if this viert 
trut, ihc eyis iBould nnl he daiiled and hindtred from teeing hy bright 
lights ; and, moreover, the mind eught lo bt aNe te ste ieiitr wilh Ihe eyct 
enlinly taitn aaay. 359-369. 

359. Dicere . ■ . diffic. : stHctly speaking. an inaccuracy, thongh a 
cominon one ; Ihe thing is not bard to say, but hard to bclieve or prove. 
For the doctrine cf. Cic Tusc Disp. i, 20, 46 Nos tnim ne nunc ftd- 
dan oculis ttmimut ta,quae videmui ; nequt est tnim ullus sensus i» 
eerpore, ted ut non pkysici seium dactnt verum etiam medict qm iita 


)730 NOTES 309 

aferla el patefacta vidertmt, viai quasi qaaedam tunt ad oeulcs, ad lattis, 
ad naris a sede anitai ptrforatae. itaque saefe aut cegitatiane aut aliqua 
vi purbi inpedili apertit algue integris it oeulit et auribus tiee videmus iiec 
aiidimus, ut faciie iittellegi pessil OHimHm et videre et asidire, non eas 
partis, qitae quasi fetiestrat sint animi, quibus tamen sentire ni&il qiieat 
mens, iiisi id agal it adsit ; ilso Id. N. D. 3, 4, 9 ; ftag. o£ Epkharmus 
yiot ipf Kol t^i iM«iti, Ti\Aa Kia^i koI tu^AiC. From a passage in 
Sex. Empir. Lassalle, followed by Munro, thinks it probable that this 
itliistration of the doors of the mind conie from Heraclitus. Lactaii- 
tius (De Opific. Dei y and 9) atlacks the doctrine in 359 el seq. ; for 
the Stoic vien see Plut. De Plac. Phil. 4, 21 ; Plin. N. H. 11, 54. 
With alt the accuracy and minuleness of modein physiologica) aud 
psycholt^ical analysis the exact relation oE the visual image to the 
btatn and thought remains a mystery. 36a. scnsus : i.e., eadorum ; 
supply<iii(f»n«t as obj. to trakil a.nA detmdil. — acies : for oeulo] ; so 4, 
243. 364. lnm. luminibus : aplayuponvotds; ' eyes,' ' by lights.' 
365. OBtia : used lilcrally ; the open doors of Ihe house ate not hurt 
by out loolcing thtough Ihem. 369, poslibus : keeps up the 

illustration ; i£ the mind looks through the eyes, as Ihtough doors, of 
coutse the Urger the apertute the betlet they would be able 10 see ; 
hence vision would be improved by taking away not merely the doots, 
but the door-posts also, — the eyes and whalever encloses them. See 
n. 10 (, 919. 

1. The atoms of soul are much finer and fencr 
than tbose of the body. 370-395. 

Believe «e/ lAe teachiiig of Democrilns, Ihat Ihere are aloms of sotd 
as many as of hody ; ou the eonlrary, Ihey are mucA imaller and rarer. 
For BfleH fine partieles, as of diisl or liffhl Ihings, liie Ihe spidet^s wei, 
lcuch Ihe boiiy unfelt ; bnl if alems of soiil lay alternale inith Ikoie if 
body all such could nelfail to excile seiisalion. 370-395- 

371. Democriti : with Lencippus, Ihe tounder of the atomic 
theory; hence spoken of wilh reverence by our poet. For his life 
and doctrines, see Zeilet, 'Ptae-Soc Phil. vol. ii.; Ritler, 'Hist. of 
Anc. Phil.' vol. i. ; also Introd. 373-3' Bing. . . . var. : ' placed 

togcthet in successive layers come in altetnate order.' Fot privis aee 
n. to 713 ; foT altemis n. to 1, 524. Democtitus taught that between 
every pair of aioms of body there Is a soul-atom ; thus there is an 


310 LUCRETIUS [111. 374- 

Equal numbcT of each. Set Zeller ut aip. p. ijS. 374. elcmenU ' 
la^ primsrdia. For the thaught cf. 177-230. 377. dnmtaxat : cot- 
rective, limita mra; trans. by unemphatlc ' but ' or ' only,* 'mereljr.' 
378-80. The atoms of soul mtist bavc betwccn them spaces at 
least as great as the site of thc smallest bodies {cor/vra), which 
can Sret {prima) eicitc sensation by coming in contact nith the body 
(i« earpori). "Bul does not thc body fecl " {Munro well exlilains) 
"as well as the soul ? Ves; he has elaborately proved already tbat 
the onc feels as well as the other, and that neither of the two can 
possibly feel without the other ; but be has also shown tbat the initta 
molui muat proceed from the anima, and not merely from the anima 
but that part of Et which is the animus, and not merely from the anr- 
mus, but from that fourth nameless substancc in it ; the anima and 
ammu! then form one connected whole in the body ; if, therefore. any 
atomB of the anima are moved they will at once communicate wjth 
the animus, and sense will commence and be imparted lo the whote 
anima, and fiom the aniina to the body which will then feel. Bnt 
many atoms of Ihe body, he argues, may be louched without any part 
of the 6ou! being raoved, and, thercfore, wilhout there being any com- 
mencement of sensa.tion." Cf. 391-5 below. 3S1. adhaesum ; 

Lucretian wurd; found also 4, 1142 ; 5, 842; 6, 472. 3S3. BTanei : 

scanned SrdnH. 38O, vestcm ; ' web.' In 614 and 4, 61 vtstis is 
applied to the caat-off skin of a snake. — pappos : seeds like thistle- 
down that Roat in the wind. 3S7. j;ravalim : 'with difficulty.' 
3B8. repentiB : not rlp. but rfp. from riplrt. 393. Bemina ; with 

tiendum ; see n. to I, iii. 394. qtum: same constr. as ^n in 

392, wiih prius. 395. The process of sensation in brief ; see n. to 

378-380, lattcr part. 

3. The mind is more vitally bound up with life 
than the souL 396-416. 

Wilh6ut the mind the loul cannot a moment exiit ; but if the miad 
be untouc&ed much 0/ the loul may be lopped off along with portims 0/ 
tke body aud life still remain ; jusl as the viounding oftke rtst of tke eye 
doci net datroy the sigkt if tio kurt it done to the pupii ; but with the 
teast injary of tkis the peuier cf seeing isgone. 396-416. 

396. vitai clattstra; see n. to i, 415. 409- mens an. : pleo- 
nastic; eee n. to 94, 403. quamvis est : juamvis viWt the indic. 


429] NOTES 311 

is rare except in post-Ciceronian vriters. Cf. 3, 705-6. In aJI such 
constr. tlie ijidic is more vivid than (he subj. 404. circum : adv. 

with aJemfta. Since the soul Js distribuled throughout the body 
(143), as parls oF the body are cut off, portions oC the soul also are 
lost. 406. at : tnildly adversative ; ' yet,' ' aC ieasL' 407. cunc. 
et baeret : t.c., Iruncui. 409. cemundi : see n. ta i, 59. 410. 
luminis orbem : 'iheeye-ball.' 411. acieni: here 'the pupil'; cf. 
n. to 362. 411. et orbei : Muiiro's reading for the awkward coruni ; 
he thus expiains the tine as emended : 'lAai tao,the cutling it entirely 
away round the pupil, caniKit be done to the ial/ even, without total 
rnin, i.e., of thc whole seeing power.' This appears forced ; but no 
belter suggestion is at hand. 415. aliquoi sit : Munro's emend. 

bxr aliogid of the mss.\ aliquei is a dat. of possession; archaic for 
alicui, perbxps not elsewhere found, though atiquaiut for alituiut 

iii. The Mortality of the Soul. 

«. Arguments against the sours iramortality. 
41 7-629. 

Hecd naa, and I shall shirm that Ihe saut is mDrtdl. 417-424. 

417. Nunc •£«: see n. lo 1,165. — natlv. et mor.: see n. to 1,754. 
4l9^4ia Cf. 1,412-7 and n. 431. uno subiun. nom. : Munro,for 
luiiHHgai mmie ; Lichmann reads utti subiungtii nsmen, — lung^B : 
lU is oftcn omitted after foitrc. — eorum : i.e., animi ct animac ; dep. 
on utnimgue. In the following discussion mind and SOuI are to 1>e 
considered together aa one thing under one term. 433. verbi 

CVXaa. : = vcrii gratia, 'for exampie.' 423. dicere : supply tni. 

424. quatenuB: see n. to 218; 'inasmuch as both make up one thing 
and are one united substance,' Aftei these introductoiy lines follow 
twenty^even argumenls for the mortality of the sout. 

(1] 7^ tHbllc lexlurc i^ Ihc leid lays it epen lo qtdck and inevltailc 
dissohition. 425-444. 

495. constaie : construed wtth elther slmple abl. 01 abl. wlth cx. ; 
supply uK/frrim. 436. docul: 177-230 above. 437. principiisi 
see n. to i, 55. ~ liquldns umor ; found also i, 349. 43^. mai^i 


312 LUCRETIUS [in.43»- 

irilh ItHui ; i.e., qtam iimer aqaai, tubula, fumus. 430. unag^ni- 
bns 1 on allusian to the Epicnrean doclrine of sense-perception, ex< 
piained a( length jn Book 4 : see Introd. 431. quod KeniiB : see 
n. to 2ZI. — in soinnia : the idols, or tbin images, tlitown d0 ixarn 
the surface o{ things nere supposed to aSect the mind in sleep and 
to cauae dreams. See 4, 7SS tt ieq. 433. proc. dub. : see n. to i, 

812. — binc: sce n. to 181. 434. nunc \%. quon. : resumes ihe 

argument interrupted by the parenthesis. 435. Notice the chiaa- 

musi cf. 437-Sandsee n. to I, 2^-3. 438. ociua et citius: i.e^ 

qutoB uiHor, nrbula, fumus. 440. quippc etenim : ' For, inasmuch 
as'j cf. 6, 617 quippc enim. — v«« : so the latet Greelis, particularly 
the ecclesiastical writeis, use i, »f£atof thebody; cf. Ptiilo 
I, 223 rt riii ^fv}^' ^'rT*''"'^ T^ »/ia ; 1 Thess. 4, 4 (ilim «wrrar ifmu 
rh timTau riKCai leraaBai ir kyui^iA^ ical Ti/ij ; Cic. Tus. Disp. i, 22, 52 
taim cerpus guidtBi quasi Tias tsl apl aliqiuid aiiimi rectp/aculum, Deitioc- 
ritua often used iricTinis of the body, a melaphor that is found in the 
N. T. also ; sce 2 Cor. 5, I iij' ^ itiytas ^/iSir altla roS o-iHirairt 
naTiAue^. On the aigumcnl consult Zeller, ' Frae-Soc. Phil.' ii. 161-I : 
Ritter, ' Hist. of Anc. Phil.' i. 560-1 ; Zeller, ' Stoics, Ep. and Scep.' 
2 edit. p. 455, 441. quam : Marullus, Waltefield, Lachmann, for 

cutii, which Munro in his 3^ edit. relains. Tians. as if ' Aaitc.' — re ; 
' causc.' 443. qui : old abl. used as adv. ; ' how.' 444. cobi- 

bcaait : irreg. perf, subj. from cokibtre ; with ii Lacbmann's emend. 
for incokibescil. Hon can the air, which is rarer than the body, hold 
the soul logether ? 

(i) 7S* mind U bam, reatkis maturity, and shmes agia of decay 

alBngwilh Ihe body, htiKi mast perish loilh il. 445-458. 

ttSelseq. This argumcnt has often been employed, and is the com- 
mon property of materialists of all ages. Lord Bolingbroke used it ; 
see Leland, ' A View of the Deistical writers,' etc. il., 6 ; and so have 
many other writers that were not pure materialists. For an able dis- 
cussion of this and the other arguments of Lucr. see Jamea Baxter, ~ 
' An Enquiiy into the Nature of the Human Soul,' vol. i. sect 5. ; 
consult also Burton, ' Anat. ot Mel.' i, i, 2, 9 and references there 
given; Eliiotson, 'Human Physiology," p. 33 tl seq. Cf. the 'Sys- 
time de la Natuie,' Part i, ch. 13 (Wilkinson^s trans.) : "Everylhing 
pioves, in the most convincing manner, . ■ . that it (tbe soul) cannot 


459] NOTES 313 

be distingaished from the body ; that it is born with it ; that it grows 
up wiih it; that it is modilicd in the same progresaior ; in sliort 
Gverything ought tt> make man concludc thaC it perishes nith il. The 
soul, as wcll as the body, pa&ses through a state of weakness and in- 
fancy ; . . . arrived with the body at its full powers, having in conjunc- 
tion wtth it reached maturity, it doea not cease for a singie instant to 
parlake in common of its scnsations, whether these are ^reeable or 
disagreeable ; . . . in an old man . . ■ alasl it sinks down with the 
body." As representing Ihe view of modern materialistic evolulion 
conault Haeckel, ' Nat. Hist. of Creation," ii, 361-2: "Withiegard to 
the origin of the human mind or the soul of man, we, in the tirst 
piace, perceive that in every human individual it develops from the 
bcgiiining, step by step and gradoally, just likc tbe body," ctc, etc. 
453- lat>at: added by Lachmann. 456. ceufumua: Munio com- 

pares Sextus Adv. Math. 9, 72 nil ■aS' afrrit Sl iin^raviri Kal ovx, &' 
IXryir i EirlKaupai, iTaAvAciriu rir aKndruv (airvaE Simiii vtlBrarToi ; 
and Plat. Phaed. 70 fiwtp -rrtina 4 uarrii imrKtiaattlira. Ci. also 
below 593. 457. qusDdoq. : aee n. to i, 587. 458. fessa ta- 

ttsci: foand also 5, 30S. 

TAr fetlfviing arguments (3-7) art based upon th, 
anal ogy b e 

(3) As Ihe bedy is racked wilh disease so is the mind-mith cares, gricf, 
Jear; like the former, theti, Ikt latter must parlakt of deatk. 459-461. 

I4) /" siekness of the body Iht ntind ofltn rteves and goes inlo slupar ; 
Ihatiohich cait ie thui affected by diiease must finaUy ptrish, 463-475. 

(5) Drunktnness unsettles the mind ; whalcver can be unsetlled, by a 
mert vieltnt eavse may be destreyeJ. 476-4S6. 

(6) Itt a fit the pBWer of Iht mind is for a time iBst ; lhen,at the death 
qfthe bedy if must be lost utterly and ferever. 4S7-509. 

(7) 7^e mind like the body may bt cured by medicint ; n&ui euring 
ittvelves the addiiig or taking amay or changing aiout ofparts ; vihatever 
aUews a s&ifliiig ef partl ismortal. 510-515. 

459. Hvc : ' To this ' ; see n. to t, 20S. Tn illustration of the argu- 
ment here edil quote Cic. Tusc. Disp. I, m, 79 alleram autem affert 
(i.e., 1'anaetiuj advertut ammerum immertaHlatem) rationtm ; nihil 


felUxaing argument 

' (3-7) 

lalien ef sout and l 
• len them: 

■ ody a. 


314 LUCRETIUS [III. 45?- 

tsse, qued do!eai, quin id aegriait me guoque fotiit ; qued autent in 
Morium cadai, id etiam interiturum ; dolere autetii animoi ; ergo etiam 
interire. The reasoning is weak, as proof based on analogy often ia ; 
the pains of the mind ire essentially diflerenC from thoae of the body. 
Of course the argument becomes valid if one accepts the " correlation 
and equivalence " of physlca.1, vital, and mental forces, as sUted, 
e g., by Herbcrt Spencer, ' Fiist Prin.' § 71 : but sec Bowne, ' Phil. of 
Heib. Spencer,' p. 90 el seq. Consult Maudsley ' Body and Minil,' 
especially sect. 3 on the " lelation of morbid bodily slates to mental 
functions." 461. quoque : i.e., of d«a(h as ivell a3 disease ; with 
esse aupply eum. De La Meltrie makes thia line the conclusion of his 
' Hisloire naturelle de Time,' in which some of these argumentg of 
Lucr. and many others against the soufs tmmortality, are set (orth. 
47C. denique: see n. to i, 199. — quof: the older form of eur ; as 
passed inlo « the picceding u was diopped and q became e ; so 
quam bccamc cum, equoi ecus eCc. 479. tardescit : found onlj 

hcie. 481. gerierc : see n. to l, l6a ^Ba. Observe Ihe allileia- 
tion ; see n. to l, 14. 4S4. inque ped. : tmesis. 486. bcto : 
'existence,' 493. agens an. : ' wliile trying to drive forth his soul.' 
— quasi . . . ferv, : quasi in tiie sense o( fuam a4 medum is not often 
found immediately with the indic. as heie ; usually the constr. is 
elliptical. A. 312; H. 513, IL The indic. is moie vivid. 494. 
val. ^^ribus: cf. t, 971 ; 451 above. 496. semina vocis : the ma- 
tcrial niture of sound is shown 4, 524 et seq. 496. munita vi«i : 
see n. to i, 86; miinire was the technical tenn for road-inaking. 
Munro explains Ibe line as qua eonsuer^tit ferri et est illis muitita via, 
' a regularly madc road.' 500, seorsum : see n. to 286. 501. 

Tcnetio: i-t., vi morbi. 50», reflexit; ncuteronly here; desipien- 

lia (499) is not found elsewhere. 504. consurgil : for subject 

refer back to 4SS aliquis. — omnis is of course acc. pl. 506. 

haec: \.k., animus et anima. 508-9: cf. 443-4. 510. mentem 

sanaii eCc : in antiqulty iheic ivere no asylums for the insane, and 
the unsound in mind had a haid lot. Some of the Greek physicians, 
however, made a aludy of meiital diseases, and in a few things seem 
to have anlicipated modern discoveries. Strange as il may seem, 
however, syslematic investigation of insanity and the Iiest methods 
of treatment, datcs only from the latter part of the last century. The 
tendency of to-day is more and more to consider inaanily a lesult of 
purely physical causes. But tbe poet's aigument here is worlhlessi 



because the cnre of menlal troubles is just as readily accounled for on 
the suppos[tion thal Ihe mind is a spirit that manifests itself and ads 
through ttie medium of the body ; when the body Is diaeased iu mani' 
festations are disordered, but wben this becomes sound again thej are 
righted. Medidne thus affects the txtdy only, the mind not at a11. 
Ct. Bazter, ' An Enquiry,' etc, i. 3S3 ^l siq. 513. traiecere : an 

intemiediate fonn between traiactrt and traiitn, severat times found 
!n HSs. — aecumst : see n. lo 476. 514. hilum: see n. to 220. 

Supply illum as acc. to dttrahert and the pteceding infinitives. 
519-530. Cf. 1,670-1 and n. 531. mottaUa ; i.e., Indicating that 
il is mortal. On the posiiion o£ mertalia . . . dotui between the live 
. . .stu clauses see n, to i, 146. 534. eimti: i.e., one proceeding 
to attack the doclrine. 535. ancipiti ; Jnlerptet from 521-1. — 
Tefutatu: found only here ; for rt/ulatimr, like l, 795 cetnmutatuiti 
•m. Lucr. is fond of these nouns in -ut. 

(8) O/ltit thi body dits liiiih hy Umi; thtti tht tml, dividtd, must go 
fart by part away and bt diiiolvtd. If it 11 nrgid that at thi hody 
■waOet aaay the seul ran drani ital/ t^^tker inta oite plact, thai afot 
eught to bt mert ttniititv tkatt the rtit ; tinct nathing lach ii fonnd te 
happtn doublleti tht leul periihes loo. Nity, tven tufpoit tki laul can 
thut gaiher ilttlf togtlher ; itUl it is mortai, lintt iht dying body grad- 
ually lasti altfitling and lift. 526-547. 

53O. Denique : as in 476. The argument is well refuted by Baiter, 
' An Enquiry,' etc, i. pp. 4*3-5. — ire; ' pass away,' a rare use; akin 
to that with expressions of time ; cf. 531. 57S. 539. artns : see n. 
to 151. 531. itque an. hoc : iHmao ioT atque animo Aatc ; Lach- 

roann writes usqut adte hatc. — hoc : 'for Ihis reason,* almost = fr^, 
Munro Ibirfks. The argument rests upon the assumptian that Ibe 
soul Js disseminated throughaul the body and vitally connected with 
it Seci43rfjiY' SS*' fl"'' i.e, /ivaj. 541. dare: 'admil.' 

545. obbrat. ; ob. in composition often has the force cA ' completely,' 
as here. 5^ undique : ' in every part.' 

(9) The mind ii a part of man juit at tkt lars and Iht eyts and thc 
ether ttnses ; thertfore it muil, iiii Ikem, when stparalid from Ihe iody, 
lest ilt functions anJ dtcay. 548-557. 

548. loco : \.e.,midiarigientiiipectorisoi\^,w\xttaeKn. 550. 
qui vitam camqae : tmesis. 551. secreta : see n. to i, 194. — 


3l6 LUCRETIUS [ni. SS3- 

tsae : = exislrre. 553. licnntnr: see n. to 476 qiier; generally 

gpelled UquuntuT. 555. vas r see n. to 440 ; qned is of course 

the pron., and illiut refers to animus. 556. ei: alao re(ers to 

aniiHui; 'ot anythingelseyon mayprefer to iiuagine more intimately . 
(i.e. than a vessel) connected wilh il.' 

Tht thrtt /allewing argumtnts art froferly ont; they 
art gitien itparaltly /er eeHvtniinct. 

(10) Bedy and taul ean exist mly in unian ; ntitier can cnntintu in 
li/t wilkoitt the ether. TTtere/ore ■mhen tht hedy dies the seul alsa must 
perish. 558-575- 

(11) Even vihen ene slill lives sometimes fram a shect the loul is all 
but disiohitd ; a vitightier cause would havt destreyed il. 576-586. 

(12) Outsidt the body, the seul being expeted and htlpltsi could net 
txist a singlt mement e/ time, to say nothing e/ tltrnity. 587-5^ 

55S. vjv. potestas ; cf.409; i.^zandn. jjg. Tsleat: In the p1. 
because vivata pettslas is understood with carporis ; caniuncta b neut. 
p1. 560 tt teq. For the argument cf. Epicunis in Diog. Laert. 10, 14, 
65-6 ' The rest of the body, remaining either as a whole or in pail, 
does not retatn its feeling after the dispersion of that combination of 
atoms, whatever it may be, that forms the soul. Moreover, when the 
whole body is dissolved the soul is dispersed, and no longer has 
the same powers nor motions, so that it no longer has feeling. For 
it is inconcelvabte that the 80ul posse&aes feeling when not having 
those wonted molions in that organic system (fotmed by ilaelf in 
union with the body), when its environment and surroundings are 
not such tdat in their midst it can retain those motions ' ; also, the 
'Systime de la Nature,' Fart i, ch. 13: " Indeed, by what reasoning 
will it he proved that the sonl, which cannot fecl, think, will or act 
but by aid of man^s organs, can suffer pain, be susceptible to pleasure, 
or even have a consciousnesa of its own existence, when the organs 
that should wam it of their presence are decompoaed or destroyed?" 
564. ■eorsuro : ased as a prep. with the abl. in the sense of se, siiit 
(deriv. fr. le-varsiis, se^artere, old form of vtrtere) — the only passage 
where this constr. is found. See Roby, zi 10. jfls. posse ; see n. 

to I, 5E6. 5Bg. moventnr : reflexive, taking malus as GFeek «cc ; 
Bo juet , . . mevtri below; cf. Hor. Ep. I, 1, 125 qm, nunc Satyrum, 


6i4.] NOTES 317 

tiHnc agnslcm Cychpa mffvitur. See Madvig, 237, a, obs. ; a full col- 
lcction tA eiamples is given by Kiihner, ' Auafiihr. Gram.' % 71, 3, c) 
(ii. Z07). 573. corpus etc. : ' foi thc air will be body and a living 

thing if' elc. The soul can liave no feelii^ or scnse without the 
body. anmuml, in the broadest aense, includea both living beinga and 
plants ; aa used by Lucr., and generally by cla&sical wrilers, it refer« 
only to the fonnci, comprising both men and animals. Heie il is 
nsed indefinitely, and is hcnce neuler. 576-go. Tiansfcried here 

from 592-606, a change Ihe reiison for whicb is obvious from the 
connection. 576. finis : after intra. 579. ■upremo temp. : i-e., 
vitae. — voltus: better spclling than vultiu for the earlier aulhors, 
though vultus ia sometimes found (cf. 3, 163), and is the fonn pre- 
leiied by the dictionaiiea. j8i. an. male factum : ' it goel ill with 
tlie mind,' 'Ihe mind ia in bad way.' 5B3. repraehendere : pro- 
nounced aa four syllablea ; ibe h is ignored and aee are blended ( cf. 
n. to 151. 5S5. haec : fem. pl. 5B6. Cf. 484 itf J17. 589. 

aevom : masc, as also in 2, 561, where the same phrase ia found ; 
<^. Si 6i- 50'' eliaiu «tque etiam : see n. to i, 195. 594, 

cnuM: i.e., of destruclion. — duobus: i.e., body and soul. 

(13) Oh the gaing away a/ lAe setU thi hody bicomes ^trid ; tke seul, 
therefore, mutt kave tome forth /rom ils inmost faslnesses. Thal this 
dnes nol eicl^ as a ■mkide the feeling of dyitig mett Itstifies ; hentt it 
must itself be Imt afarl and note aaxty tkrough all Ihe ^tmngt of tke 

indy. 595-614- 

^ffj. coorla : ' gathering itsetf up.' Notice the coSrdination of 
phrase and single woid in ex imo peailusque. 509-000. The lan- 
guage is taken from ihe falling in of a building. floi. anima 
emanonle : Wakelield and Munio foi manatil atiimaegue ; Lach- 
mann luis manante anima usgue. 609. ■upera : sce n. to i, 

429. 611. quemque : distribuCive apposition to stnsus, wiih 

which defitere is to be aupplied. Sesttus alies Munro consideis a 
Graecism, liLe i, 1 16 pecudiialias; cf. e.g., Herod. 1, 116 BioiHrt t< jhI 
■ lUAairp^^aTa I/u nir^; trans. ' the senses as well,' 614. Testem: 
■ee n. to 386. 

( 1 4) Tke fatl that tht miitd has a particidar fixtd plact in tke organ- 
itm skows Ihal it isfilled lo exisl tkere, and nowhere elst; fsr Ihitigs are 
nolfimnJiu exislenct eulside of Iheir praper relalioiu. 615-623. 


3tS LUCRETIUS [111. 6is- 

S15. Mtiml etc. : for the Bfnonynis see ti. to 94. SiS. unis : the 
pl. of nmit occarg also 5, 89;. Neue (' Fonnenlehre,' ti. 144) gives 
over forCj iiistances of this usage. 619-30 el \ridiiitum ist aiiqui\ 

ubl erealum possit durarc atqui [rid. est cuipie] esse {= existert) etc : 
quicquid=quicque: i>oth cuique and quicquid are osed in a geperal 
sense, withont particular lefercnce lo the body. Trans. with Majror; 
'There is a law which appoints to each several thing its place of 
birlh, its place to abide in, and its existing with such a manifold 
oi^nizatiMi of joints that' etc Munro, however, thinks cuique and 
quitquid refer to the pait» sf the body, and sapposes after 619 two 
verses havc been loet, wliich he thus supplies : CerUim ar dispositum 
naiurat legibt^ constat. Hoc fteri ttostrtim quoque corpus /oidere debet, 
AtquetK. (ao. paititis : Bernays and Munro Ira frotoHs; Lach- 
mann Yiaa perftctis. 633. flumiiiilius : supply in. 

(15) Tf fhe soulit IB exist ^ ittelf, it muit needs katie tie fivi ttntei ; 
int Ihese cantwt exisl aJ>art/rom the bmfy. 624-633. 

63C. fac. est : 'we must suppose.* 638. Achcrunte: see 

n. to 978. 639. pictores; thus Polygnotus painted scenes from 

the descent of Ulysses to the Lower World on the walls of the coort of 
the Cnidians at Delphi. — sciiptoram: such as Homer. 63» in- 
tro dtix. : In the tjme of Lucrelius the parts of many compounde had 
not fully coalesced. S31. sorsum; for teortum; 'apart,' i.e., 

fromthebody. 631. animae : daL; ette = existere. 633. an- 

ditu : Munro, for auditum ; at the best an awlnrard coDStr. ; Lach- 
mann and Bernajs read Aaud igitur. 

(16) The taul permeates the enlire body ; tehen parts ef thii art eut 
eff the soul muil ie severed, siiue there camtot 6e separale souls for evay 
fart ; 6ul vihaiever ean ie divided is morlal. 634-669. 

634 et stq. This and sevetai olher argumenls of Lucr. are clearly 
stated by Tyndall, ' Fragments of Science,' 5 cdit., p. 49S el leq. (Bel- 
fast Address). 635. totum: supply cnr^MM. — anlmale : almost • 

= animant; cf. a, 727 animalia corpora. C3S. procul dubio: ses 

n. to I, 812. 639. dissicietur: ::= disicielur (iess correcCly i/u- 

jicietur) ; dissicere for disicert is found 3 few times in mss. o( other 
writers. 640. quod : pron. ; siipplj' id as subject to abnuit. 

The general principle stated in 640-1 has also often been employed 


670.] NOTES 319 

to prove tbe iminortatil; of the aout. Whatever is diviatble b per- 
bhable ; the soul is not divisible, therefore it ii impemhable. Cf. 
Cic. De Sen. 31, 78 enm ampltx animi natia-a tatl neque kabe- 
Ttl in it quiiqnam admixlaiil ditpar ttd atqvt Jisiimilt, mm fosit 
aim . dividi, qmd d tmi foiset, non posse interirt ; also Plat. Phaed. 
78-So. 643. falcif. ctnTus ; 3ee n. to ;, 1301. Kf3. de sn- 

bito: like 'of a sudden' in the colloquial phrase 'all of a Budden.' 
644. videatur: passive. — artubus: the old giammarians preferred 
this form o{ the abl. pl. of artus to distinguisb it from artibus {tiri). 
See n. to i, z6a Lucr. is fond oE the «ord artus. 647. in stu- 

dio dedita : not a commoa constr. ; d. 4, 81 5 quibus est in rebus de- 
ditns ipse ; dedtre Is gcuerally accompanied by a daL G4S. reli- 

qllo; see n. to I, 560, — petessit : araieverb; cf. 5, 3lo. ' pettsiere 
antiqui pre fettre dictboHt' (Vt&t.). 649. tenet : 'perceives.' — 
tegmine : i.e., the shield, which the soldiei carried on his left arm. 
650. absttaxe : = aiilraxiise ; see n. to t, 233. 651, aliuB: 

supp]yf/irn<f/. G53. digitos: like iiKrtiKot, used more oflen of 

fingers than of toes. G57-8. A corrupt and difficult passage; 

micanti . . . eauda e, Lachmann and Munro for miaanli . . . caudi ; 
Lachmann lias serpenltm for scrpentii, and utrimque for ulrumqut. 
Munro thinks a verse is lost ifter 65S, something Itlie ti caudam et 
molnH lotiui corporis omnem \ with this added boih sense and con- 
str. are clear. cauda is abl. abs, with micanti. Without the added 
verse uirumque must refer to lingua and cauda. 660. anciaa: 

found only here. f&%. ipsam se : obj. ol pefere ; the mangled 

body and tail, as Munro eiplains. Il is a common saying that when 
a snake is Idllcd the parls quiver till smiset. 664. omnibus: 

proleptic ; belongs with /arA>u/i>. GG6. animantem: see n. lo 

573. Notice the assonancc, o£ which Lucr. is so fond, in animantem 
animas. G67. una : predicative. G68. utrumque : i.e., cor- 

pus et amma ; trans. ' both.' 

(17) I/ the souJ •aiirt immortal, memory oaght to reath fcar haek inlo 
tkepatl hejore our birlh. If, in heing jointd to tke body, il suffertd so 
grtal ehange as to blol out recoUection, that lurely was nol far from dt- 
slruction ; the imil TPhich then was muit have perished, that wkieh now 
it, hceoe been created aneio. 670-678. 

670 el teq. Tbis argument rests upon the asiumption that the soul 
to be inunonal must have ezisted from etemity, — tlie doctiine of pre- 


320 LUCRETIUS [in.671- 

cxiBtence; see n. to 1, 113. S71. instnaatur; 3«e n. to i, 113. 

673. anper: = hisuper, fraeterai. See Holtze, 'Syn. Lucr. Linea- 
menta,* p. loi. 675. retinentia : rare, found only here 

and S51 below. For the thought compare Worilsworth, 'Ode on tlie 
Inlimatiotia of Immortility from the Recollections of Childliood.' 
678. interlisse : aupply animam. 

Tht fwB falloviing argumtitlt art clQitly rtlattd, 
and alse attumt the doctrint e/ prt-txiittaet : — 

(18] I/ tht tcul were intredueed inte man at bittk, itwuld net fier- 
Vade tht entirt bedy, btU bt gathertd logethtr in mt farticidar ifiet, as in a 
hele by iteelf; vthereas m Ihe centrary Ihe whele bedy, even te the Itith 
and benti,it ttntilivt. 6tj^-fiiyj. 

(19) Again,en the tatne tuppetilii>n,in being thas diffused threugh the 
bedy, Ihe leul must ferisk ; Just as /eod spreadiag Ihrougheut Ihe /rami 
perishei, andgetsU/orm a ntto naturi. 698-711. 

679. perf. carp : i.c, when the body is fuUy fonned, and ready to 
be botn. 680. an. viv. potes: see n. to i, 72. 68a. con- 

veniebat, etc, ; comi. virert ila ut vidtatur crisse (= craiiiit) etc. 
685. " Clearty a sarcastic gloss ; " rejected hy Lambiuus etc, bul re- 
tained hy Lachmann, who inslead of affluat reads arceat. 68g. mor- 
bus; i.e., deler dentiiim. E90. oppressus: i.e., denUbus; 

'crunched.' — frugribus ; by mEtonymy for/fl«.f. 6gi-4. That JB, 

■ouis had a beginning. and must have an end, of life. 700. qni- 

que : oM abl., found only hcrc and in the same phrase 5, 343 ; 
strengthens ma^. The qui is probably the same as in ulqui. See 
Munro's n. to l, 755. 701. The argument of the line is a good 

illustration of tiit nen stjiiititr. 705. quamvts: withindic; see 

n, 10 403. — -recens : belongs with corpus, 710. illai i.e., atiima. 

(20) Are partielis e/ the saul le/i behind in the dtad bedy er nett 
I/ so, the lou! cannet tt immorlal, since it hat been dividtJ ; i/ net, 
whence ceme the souli e/ ihi Irning things Ihal appear in carcassts t 
These cannet comtjrom ■a/ilieut ; /er, do ■wt luppaie Ihal while bodileii 
Ikey kunled around and get iediest A diiembedied leid leould have ne 
metive /or lating upen iisel/ Ihe illi and fiains o/ exiilence in a body,tatd 
could net make fer ilself a bedy, even if il shoiild 10 desire. Or dowt 
imagine that they entered bedies fully formed f In tkat eaie, Ikiy 
vxmld nai be te cleieiy cennecti, 1 wilh thest ai le have eomnum fe^aig. 


738.] NOTES 321 

713 et stq. The argainent resls upon helief in Ihe sponUneooa gen- 
eration of wonns and other forms of life in decayii^ bodies. Spon- 
taneous generation is a necessary postulale of malerialistic evolution. 
Within the past few years every effort has been niade to shonlhat it is 
nol merely possible, but under certain conditions inevitable. In every 
test the appeatance of organizcd life has been sbown lo be llie tesult 
of the presence of genns ; and Ihe attenipts to make protoplasm have 
ntterly failed. The enlire trend of scientific investigation goes to 
eslablish the old uiazim, omHt viimm ix vfi/a. Slill, even lonlay there 
are many who believe, as Lucrctius did, that the carcass of itself goes 
over into worms. It is no uncommon thing to hear people say thal 
they liave seen horae-hairs become alive. Consull Huxley, ' Origin of 
Species," sect. 3; Haeckel, 'Nat. Hist. of CreatJon,' ch. 13; Lange, 
' Hist. of Matcrialism,' iii. 17 d leq. ; Gulhrie, ' Mr. Spencer's For- 
mula of Evolulion,' pp. 230-1 ; Bowne, ' Review of Herbert Spencer,' 
ch. 3: Eiam, 'Wiods o( Doctrine,' ch. 5; Wainwright, 'Scientific 
Sophisms,' ch. 7; Flinl, 'Anti-Theistic Theories,' p. 164 tt teg. 
713. linquontnr: see n. to 476. The Mss. of Lucr. give also 714 lin- 
cuntur ; 5, 1339 rilinqunt. AII these forms, Munro remarks, were 
probably in the HSS. of Lucr. within a generalion after his dealh. 
, 715. haat erit ut possit : periphrasis for kaudpotcrii. Cf. the Greek 
idioro thx t<mu trits kt\, 717. membrls : i e., corporis. yig. 

viscere: see n, lo 1,837. 711. perfluctuat : found only here. 

723. privaB:==jiB^/flj-; ttans. 'severally,' ' separalely ' ; in Ihissense 
fonnd only in the eirlier wrilers. 715. hoc : subj. of viditOur. 

est: almost ^ fit; cf. 715 and n. For examplcs of this use see 
Kiihner,'Ausf,Gram.'S 187 i/(ii. 813-4). 736. discrimen: 'de- 

cision.* 717. sn. ven. etc. : ' souls hunt out the several secds of 

worms.' 7a8. f abr. ubi sint : i.t., faMcinlur domicilia [cirrpara) in 

guiiui kaiiterit. 719. corporibus : of course 1:1»-/. vermiadonim. 

730. faciant; for the vicarious use see n. to i, 667. — laborent: 
'trouble themselves ' to get into a fonn already madc. 731. 

suppeditat: with ffiVnv as subj.; ihaoii. <^ folest ; a poetic and rare 
use. 739. BoUicitBe : see n. to i, 343. 734. mala : a sort of 

cognate acc. ; fiingor, Jruar, utor, and potiar in the earlier writcrs 
aometimes have a direct obj, in the acc. 735. sed tamtn tsto 

quamvis uiilt his {aitimit) facert corptis siM. 736, cum subeant : 

'when they are going to enter.' — possint: \.t., facere torfus or 
Jactrt hoc. In sach eipressions facere is often omitted. 73S. 


33» LUCRETIUS [III. 73^ 

ntqni : Munro for h/ piiam. See n. to I, 755. 739. sup- 

tHiter: see n. to t, 79. 

' (21) Tie dittiiKHnt Iraitr of t^ differtnt Jtiadi »/ atamali wmldnet 
remai» if the mind, like tht tedy, did net eeme frem faed leed ; fer if 
taiili paiiedfrtm oni body te anotker dsgi might have the spirit of ttage, 
kaakt of devei, men might 6e bmtiih, and trutei vaie, Grant that the 
tetd goes fran one toJy Boljf into aneeier of tke lame Utid, He child oKghl 
to be vnse with Hiatare miitd, Ihe cidt as ■aelt irained as tke horsi. Men 
may kv^ that tn a tender iotfy the miiui beeamii loeah ; then tinee it hae 
ieen 10 changed it muit ie mortai. 741-76S. 

741. triMe . . . Bemlniain : ' suUeD race ' ot ' Inved.' 743. a fa- 
Iri^ datur et a patriui pavor ineitat artui is rejected as > " manifest 
sarcastic glosi, which interrupti both sense and constr." 744. cctera 
. . . boc: i«., the fixcd characterUtica or dispositions o£ the difiei- 
ent kinds of uilmals. 745. generascunt : found only here. 

747 et stq. According to the view of Lucr., there is no qualitative or 
essential difference between the mind and soul of animals and the 
mind and soul of man. This, in ^t, Is a common tenet of believers 
in metempsyckosis, matctialiets of all ages, and of evolutionists with 
matcrialistic tcndcncies. It was, pcrhaps, most fully unfolded by the 
French rationalists of the latter part of the last century; but Haeclcel 
and ihoae who share his form of the Doctrine of Descent insist upon 
it quiie as strennously as they. " If, as is usually done, we divide ihe 
diSercnt emotions of the soul bto tbree prindpal groups, — sensa- 
tion, witl, and tbought, — we shall find in regard to eveiy one crf them 
that the most highljr developed birds and mammals are on a level 
with the loweat hiunan beings, or even decidedlj aurpass them." 
Haeckel, ' Nit Hist. of Creation,' ii. 364; ct. the rest of the chapter. 
The proof, howcver, is as conspicuously lacking as ip^the time of 
Lncr. Consult Bowen, * Gleanings from aLiterary XRi' pp. 318-350; 
especially St. Geotge Mivart, ' Natnre and Thought,' ch. 5 ; Prcssensi, 
'A Study o£ Origlns,' Book 3; Hartley, ' Obscrvations on Man,' 
Part. I, ch. 2, { S. 750. Hyrcano: Hyrcania was famous for its 

wild animats ; cf. Mela, 3, 5 ; Vei^. Acn, 4, 347. For the dogs Munro 
compares Cic. Tusc Disp. i, 25, loS in Hyrama ptebi putlicoi atit 
canei, optimatet domiitieoi; nobile autemgenui canum Ulud scimut ette. 
755. Cf. 670-8. 756. Cf. 701. 761-4. If Ihe soul at Ihe death o£ 


783.] NOTES 3=3 

ODC paMes into the nenly-fOTined body of another, the young ought 
to have Ihe mental grasp and power of maturity. 763. stulta : 

i.c, anima. 7G3 of ttie USS. is the same as 746 above, and be[ng 

obviuusty a sarcastic gloss is dropped ouC <A the best texts. 764. 
Implies an extension of the condition in 760 tin ctc. 1 and if they 
shall say that the souls of horses go always into the bodies o( 
hoTsea etc. — doctus: 'traincd.' 765. tencraacere; this 

form la foand only here ; but tetitreiceri occun in writings o( the 
Empire. 7OS. confugient : ' they vill take refuge in the asser- 

(11) Tke mind wotild nel reack matHrily al Ihe samt tirHewUh Ihe 
todji, unlesi blended ■wilh itfrom iMe very begittning. 761^771. 

(33} Tlie goingforth of Ihe soulfrom an aged ferm implia Iht fear 
Ua in Ihe brealang dmiin of Ihe body it aUo ptrith ; biUwkat t* tmmor^ 
talruia ne riik i>f destrueHon. 772-775. 

77> qaldTc etc. ; ' or irhat means it by going forth ? ' — aenectis : 
the adjective is rare, and found principally in the earlier wrilcrs. 
773. nietnit etc. : verbs o£ fearing, as thoae ot willing, may be fol- 
lowed by the infin. with acc., or the subj. Here both constmctions 
are found togcthcr, co-ordinated by et, the infin. claose CKpressing tbe 
thing, the tu-clause the event, that occasions the fear. 774. Cf. 

3, 1174. 

(24) Tt is latighaSle ta think ef immorial teult present in eountless 
tkreng at conception and Mrth, mrangiing to set whiih wiU get pessessiea 
of the morlal body, — unlets, perchancf, Ihey bargain lo givt tnay ie thi 
ont thatfirsl comts. 776-783. 

779. iiuttini. ntini. : so x, 1054 ; cf, a, 1086 nvmere intaimtraJi ; 
another instance o( the play npon words of which Lucr. is so fond. — 
praepropenuter: fotwd only herc. 7B3. neque hilum : seen. 

(25) Th tach Ihing ils preptr fiact has been assigntd ; thus ^ soul, 
fixtd in Ihe bedy, oulsidt of Ihis catinot exiil. 784-799. 

(36) To Ikini that a mortal and an immorlal nalurt can exist in 
uniom is foelishnels, Ikey are te utterfy UMiikt and epposed lo eack olker. 


324 LUCRETIUS [IIl. 784- 

784-797. Repeated «ith slight change 5, 128-141. 7B7, quic- 

quit = fuicgui ; cf. 1,289. 79°' posset . . . prins: 'forthis 

(which follows) would be much more likely 10 happen than that ' 
(the existeace of the soul apart from tbc body). liichmann reads 
Quid H pasiet etiim f Mtdto priui kx<:. Suppose Ihe mind, instead o£ 
being located in the hcart, were to be placed in the head or shoul- 
ders or any other part, atill it would be in the body. 793. vase : 

aee n. to 440. 801. puiart {mtrta/e et ettrMum ) pesse estisetttire tt 
fungi etc. mutua has an adverbial force, aa several times in Lucr. 
See Roby, 1096-7. 806-818 = 5, 351-363 ; " They herc interrupt 

the argument, and are, of course, one of ttie many glosses with which 
Bome reader has wished either to exptain or refute the poet by 
quoting bia own versea for or against him, as the case may be." 
Tbis passage has oEten been reckoned the twenty.Bevenlh argument 
agaiost ihe imroortality of the aoml, making the foUawing the twenty- 

(27) But the lout may ht Ihought immertal becaute it is prBtteted from 
destructive agenciti ; an tht eonlrary, il tufftrs not mertlyfivm the ills of 
tht body, but also from caret and frars and othtr troublts ef ils own. 

Sig. habendast : supply anima. 833, After this verse a vs. 

seems to have been lost, which Lachmann thus supplies : Afulla lamen 
lani^nt atzimam mala, multa ptricla. 8S4. ptaet. en. quam quod: 

' For besidcs that.' A like tmesis of praeterquam occurs in Cic. De 
Leg. 3, 19, 45. — aegret : found only here. 

i. Conclusions based on the soal's mortality. 


(1) Sinee the loal is mortal, deatA is tiBthingto us ; for tke futurtiBill 
belousas the past was befort our birth. Even if Ihe soul livt afler dtath 
■we shaU not, littct eur ptrsenality is made up by the union ef soul anJ 
body. And if htrtafter somttime tht alomr of our body and soul shall sa 
totlect as to make a livingform, me shalt nol txist, becausi the thread of 
idtntity vnll havt betn broken. 830-869. 

n view oE death-see Introd.; constilt 
iv. 87 ; Zeller, ' Stoica, Ep., and Scep.' 


8S4] NOTES 325 

ch. 17 C (1). Cf. Epicunis in Diog. Laert. 10, 27, tij 'Therefore the 
most dread-inspirlng of atl evils, death, is nothing to ua ; for when we 
exiat death is not present to ub, and when death is present, then we are 
not in existence. It does not concern, then, eithcr thc livbg or thc 
dead ; for to the Uving it has no eiistence, and the dead do not theni- 
selvesexist' Cf-also thesecondof ihcK^pin a<f{w(Diog. Laert. 139 B' 
andSext. Pyrth. 3, 229): 'OddraTosoMr-Mpisiiiar T^-y)ifiia;Xu$ir,irai- 
attiTu- rh Si iraiatriTaSr, oMlr rp&i qfui. S31. ac^ : gen. after 

iii/. 833-843. Just 13 wc felt no dread or pain when all (he world 

was tretnbling witb the stri^te tietween Rome and Carthage, so in thc 
fututc we sliall feel no hurt or pang even though earth and sky and 
BCa shall crash with mingling doom. With true art the poet clothes 
his argument in the most striking illustration hc coutd have used. 
The Punic wars were just tieyond thc lifetime of himsctf and his con- 
temporaries, and mailied ihc most criticat pcriod of the Roman stale 
np to hig timc, 830. fucre : suptity htminii. — utrorumi i.c, 

Carthaginiinsium an Komanarum. 837. humanil 1 for AmnitU- 

bus. Ssg: uniter: LucreSan word; 'into one,' 'in one,' 'to- 

gcther'; found also below 846; 5, J5j; 5, 5;$. 843. scntit: 

takcs ita subject from the /njii^uiifu-ctause, to which alao nsstre de ear- 
fort belongs. As a supposition contrary to rcaltty generatly takes Ihe 
subjunctive, the indic. herc is vcry forcible. 845. comptu : ' the 

uniiing ' ; found only here. Cf. n. to i, 950. 

847 il seg. Munro quotes a striking paasage from St. Aug. De Civ. 
Dei, 22, 28 mirabUius aultm quiddam Marcui Varrafonit in Hbrii, quos 
tanieripsit di gente pepidi Samani, euiui putavi veria ifisa pcnmda. 
' Genelhliaci qutdam seripseninl' iiiquil, 'eise 1« reitascendis haminibut 
qiiam appeilanl iraXiyymiriaii Graeei ; hoe seripstmnt emifici in annis 
numero qnadringentis quadraginta, ut idelH eorpus tt tadem anima, quat 
/uerinl coniunela in homine alijuando, tadetn rvrsus rtdeani in eeniune- 
tiontm.' 851. repetentia: so mss. B; other mss. n/cfiAii. Lach. 
has reUnetttia after Avancius ; notlri is Lachmann's reading, aftcr Pins 
and Gifanius. Rtpetmtia is etscwhcre found only in Arnobius, a con- 
stant imitator of Lucr Tr. 'the recotlcclion of oursetves.' Sja. 

nobil I not properly ' oursetvcs,' becausc the Ihread of conscious ex- 
tslence has been severett bnt those in [he past made up of the mat- 
ter of which we are now composed. 853. illia : suppty mAis, 

854. cum resplcias: fi«« 'whenevcr,"as often as," having a kind of 
conditional force, is found with the subjunctive, especially «ith the 


326 LUCRETIUS [III. 8j7- 

subj. of the indefinite second pers. sing. See Madvig, 359 and 370 ; 
posas in S56 is, of course, potential subj. SS7-.8. haec <aiiem te- 

mina, i quibus niu nuiK tumui, auii Jmtst postii {fioiita) in tadtm 
ardine */ (= «i pw) nuiu tunt. For the thought rf. n. to i, 8?3-6l 
857. semina: t.e.,itmina rerum, atoms; see n. to l, ^i primordia. 
859. memori . . . mente : iat mtmoria, which is oot found in Lucr. 
He usesmmxn-only in coanectioD with mtns. — repraehendere : see 
n. to 583. SCa inler enim iacta: tmeais. 8G1. deena- 

runt : see n. to I, 43 (/ifM^. — aensibus ; ' sensations.' 861-5. ffuin 
ttd malt pBsiit lucidcri, ti/orle mitere eugreque fulurumit, ipse dtbtl esit 
\=txisttri) in eo ttmpore tum(cum male potest accidere]. To Suffer one 
mnst needs exist at tbe time of suCering. 864. id ; ttmpus iii qua 

pot4tt maie acciiiere; i.e., of course, existcrce after death. — probet: 
conti. toi prohibet ; so Bemays and Lachmann ; others hive pntiiiet ; 
ette = tiisttre. 867. mtoerum : supply illum. S68. diffene 

anne ullo: Munro iax difftrreamadleantdlo; Lachmann leads differre 
anle ulle. — uHo tempore : i.e., any difterent time fiom that in Mhich 
he was horn, Lambinus citcs »nd Munio quoles a striking exprea- 
sion ftom Athenaeus S, p, 536 c enrrbt i 0iot . . .'O Mnn-oi B ' (IMv» 
r6t tvrw, bv Inf tu (breMt^. 

(z) OfnBimporfisUlathtlaiiMg-mhatmayhappentetheboifyi^ter 
deaih. 870-893. 

870. ubl Tideas : cf . 854 tum rtspiteas and n. — Indignarier : see 
n. 10 I, Z07; ittdig. te tptum 'bewail himself,' i.e, bewail his fate. 
871. potto: for deposilc, referring to the laying of the body away in 
the grave. In Lucrelius' lime cremation was more common than in- 
terment of tbe body ; but according to Cic. Leg. i, c zz the custom of 
buiial was older, and tvas Blill adheted to by some prominent families, 
as those of the Cornelian gens. The sarcophagi o( the Scipios aie 
among tbe most interesting remains o( the Republican period. Con- 
sult Becker, ' Gallus,' exc. sc. II ; Dict. of Antiii. art. Funus. 
873. sincerum : classed as an adv. vx,., but sttictly speaking a cog- 
nate acc. — sonere : see n. to 1 56. The meUphot in sincerum tenere 
Is drawn from the sound of metals, and suggcsts the English expres- 
■ion ' has the right ring to it.* 876. ' He does not, methinks, really 

grant the conclusion whicb he piofessea to grant, nor the principle on 
wliich he so professes.* 877. The man, that is, does not succeed 


893] NOTES 327 

in Tidding himself of tbe idea that he will soniehmr Kve, »holl; 
pait, after death. S78. facit: see n. to 1,655. — "■* ■ • ■ '^' 

per : = tupertsie. 83o. On tbe order of the words {cmiiaictia) 

see 11. to I, 146. — in morte : ~ feit nitirtem. aSi. illim : i.e., 

from the body.orthe life of thebody. B8r removet: sappXj le. — 
Ulim : properly iilud, but attracted to the masc form by the relation 
with M. The man, unable to grasp Ibe idea that after death he will 
wholly perish, imagines himself to be the dead body, and thus thinks 
t& that body as possessed of feeiing. 883, mdbu . . . utsna: 

'andstandsbyandimpregnates it with his own sense.' 885. alium 
h: 'otherseH.' 886. se: 'his own self) so tf in SS7. 8B8. 
This dread of being torn Jn pieces by animals, common to both 
Greeks and Romana, had its origin in Ihe conimon belief that in case 
the body were not propetly disposed of the soul would have to wan- 
dcr 3. handred years before finding ils proper place in Hades. It 
stands in marked contrast to the custotn of thc barbarous Hyrcanians ; 
Cic Tuac Disp. 1, 45, loS in Nyrcania plebs ptibHeas alil canes . . . led 
fro nui guiique /atullaie farat a quibui lanietur, eamque oplumam illi 
tsse cetueru tepulturant. 8Sg. qui : see n. to i, 16S. 8go. tor- 

lescere : found only here. S91. in melle situro: honeywas 

sometimcsuscdforembaiining. See Lambinus' note. 893. summo 
aetiuore sazi : " probably denotes the bottom of the sarcophagus on 
which the embalmed body was laid out," Munra remarks ; " but bod- 
ies were sometimes stretched on the bare rock out of which the tomb 
wu hevm, >s proved by many andent tomba that have been opened ; 
or it mayrcfer to a stone bed Ilke thc lecti mortuarii of the Etrus- 
cans." — aeqnore: nsed with tefercnce to a Iiaid, polisbed surface 
4, 107 and 290; cf. 1002 bclow. 893. This line refers simply to 

the common mode of burial in the carthi though some have Ihought 
that the poet had in mlnd the death of criminals bjr sinking them in a 
marsh with hurdles or crates of earth above, — a kind of punishment 
practised by the Ca.rthaginians. Tacitus mentions a Hke mode of 
punishment u common among the earl]' Gennans, 

(3) 'ffome,wife,chiIdren,liJi^tjayitkeuioiltmitAaiifiHdtath.' No, 
nar will there be any yearning far tkem. 894-903. 

(4) ' Td tkee, indeed, deatk may be a painless, everlaiting sleip; hut 
tae for thy lait have pain unending.' Nay, if death it tlumber, grievt 
natfor the dead. gtn~gtt. 


328 LUCRETIUS [III. 894- 

Sm^ Cf. the Btanzx of Gtaft ' Elegy ' 1 — 

Or busr hoosewiffi ply ho fvciutie can ; 
Ho thfldnn nui la Ibp Ihdr ■ire'* nlim, 
Ot dinib U* knat^ Ihc enviEd kiiB la Bhue." 

Edd. here compare also Geo^. t, 523-4 Inttna dtUca pmdtHt circnm 
aicula nati ; Casla pudidtiam servat dotnus, 8gG. praeripere 1 ihe 
infinitive, expresslng porpose, is sametimes found after a vetb of mo- 
tion in Plautus, Terence, and Lucretius, and rarely in the Augastan 
poets. Sgy. faclia flor. : 'prosjwroua doings.' 898. misera 
tnisere : miserti is drawn trom its natiiral pgsilion near Itbi, for the 
sake of the assonance, of which Lucr. is so fond. Cf. nn. to 666, 779. 
899. dies: i.c.,mar/is. ^ 900. illud: scen.toi,So. 906. cinefac- 
tum: ' tumed to oshes ' according to Nonius, a signiGcation which Lach- 
mann decidea cannot be correct. Munro renders ' turn to an ashen 
bue ' ; the meaning seems to be that the bereaved stood weeping near 
the funeral pyre and gazed on the body as it was gradually consumed. 
taldng on Ihe cotor of ashes. — busto : the funeral pyre; connected 
with com-iu-rir. Bustum, saya Feslus, freprie dicitur locut iu rpio 
morfims tsl combustus it sepultus. 908. dies : see n. to I, 133, 

909. hoc: the wecping relative or friend who has just spoken. — 
amari : from amarus. 

( 5 ) Mm at tktir cupt cry But, ' hriif it Ihis pltasure, enjoy it ert it 
goes beyond rtcall' ; as if thirst nr any deiire coidd fallmo thtm iit dealk. 
In sleep thertis no tkeught ef telf or life; so tvt» mort in deatA,iHwkich 
thtrt ii a mert tkwough scatttring ef the matltr of mt. 911-930. 

gia. discubuere : i.K.,inceinirBiii. 913. inum.ora: chapletB of 
leaves and flowers were wom at the drinking-bouts as an antidote 
against intoxication ; ora, ' brows.' 914. bomullia : with the 

diminutive is associated the idea oC ' insignificanl," oC no account.' 
The thought is, ' enjoyment is bricf, hence lake advantage of it ' ; like 
" eat, drink, and be merry, for to-morrow we die," the molto o£ most 
Epicureans- Thia docCrine Lucretius, true to Ihe old Roman philos- 
ophy of life, visits wjth stern cenaure. Herein he stands in marked 
contrast with Horace, who would fill each day with pleasure ; see Od. 
1, 9and 11 j 3, igetc. ; Martha ' L.ucrice,' p. i^getseg.; alsoMunro's 
n. 915. iamfuerit: ' presently it will have been.' gt6. cttm 


927-] NOTES 329 

primis: »een. toi, 130, 917. toire»: thefetn.btoundonly here; 
tarrii tnaac is coiamon. Tr. ' dryness.' giS. aliae : fem. gen., 

a raie forni. — rei: scanned as one syllabte; so ilso 4, SS^. Cf. 
nn. to 1, 6S8 j j, lox. 1)19. requirit : ' feela Che want of.' 931, 

per tios: idiomatic, •tar all we care'; cf. Cic. Ad. Fain. 7, 32 Tra- 
AaHtur fernu ftdibui emnei Tti. 913, et tatneni see n. to i, 1050. 
]^fr-7. Deatfa is less to us than sleep, if there can be a less than 
nothing. The Epicureans thought ihat in sleep a portion of the soul 
left Ihe body. Literature b full of passages baaed upon the likeness 
of death to sleep. The conception of sieep, as the brother o£ death, 
goes back aa far as Homer ; see 11- 16, 682 ; Shelley, ' Queen Mab,' 
ist stanza ; I-essing, ' How the Ancients represenled Death.' Cf. 
Cic. De Sen. 12, 80 iam iiero videtis nihit esse morti tam limile quatii 
samnuiH ; Id. Tusc Disp, I, 38, 92 guid curel aulem, qtii ne stnlit qui- 
dem f habes semnum imaginem mortis eamqut cctidie induis, et duUtas 
quin sensus in mirrte nullus sit, cum in eius simulaero videas esse nuHum 
stHsum f Both Ijicietiua and Cicero seem to have been thinking o£ 
the heavy, dreamless sleep, and wew not troubled witb the apprehen- 
sioiis tbat vexed Hamlet : — 





■]«[> r pmh 


■T, ih 


r in tluil >lnp 







Cf. the ' Systime de la Nature,' part i, ch. 13 : " But does not a 
profound sleep help to give him a Iruc idea of this nothing ? Does 
not that deprive him of evcrything ? Does it not appear to annihilate 
Ihe nniverse to him, and him to the univerac P Is death anjlhing 
more more than a profotmd, a permanent sleep ? " 

(6) What cauid vx say, tavi that her caase is Just, i/ Nature should 
thusaddrissus: 'Why, O martal^griene that tkmimust diet I/aglad 
li/e has been thy hl, mhy not deparl eontcnt f i/ li/e is irhsome, aky tvit 
end it f Shouldst tkou iiever die thcre is nolking nea in store/or Ihee' 
I/ an eld man should meum at death, iBOald she nffi rightly chidc? — 
' Hen^e tiiith thy lears, trifier! Thau hasl iet thy li/e slip away a /aiture, 
the /aullis thine owti; makt^roam /or olheri.' To nani is li/e gioen in 
/erpetuity. As the past was be/ore our Hrlh, sa shaU Ike/uture ie a/ter 
'^•^- 93I-977- 


330 LUCRETIUS [III. 931- 

931. rerum natura : see n. to t, 11. For i ■imilaT disconTse of 
Nature, suggested probably by the present pasaage, see the ' Systime 
de la Nature,' the Ust chapter; also Lange, ' Hist. of Haterialisro,' 
ii. III-3. 931. mltUt: see n. to i, 572. 936. peTtusam in 

vas : the daughters of Danaus for the killing of their liuabands were 
said to have been allotted in Hades the punishuent id pouring water 
forever intojar^fuUof holes; see Ov. Her. 14; Hor. Od-j, 11, 25; 
Tib. I, 3, 79. Hence a proverb seenis to have been derived, cmgrrere 
(ingerere) in pertunmt dolium {vat), C£. PlaoL Ps. i, 3, 135. 938-9. 
Ct Hor. Sal. i, i, 117-9. 

iai» 6x ul nre qui M vixiiK beaCDiB 

ced« uti CODvin utu*, npetin qiKanmi. 

940. qtiBe . , . cumque : tniesis. Fmi, like /imgi and coropounds 
(siO pcrjuntlui 956 below), in prae^iceronian writeis b sometimcs con- 
■trued witli the acc 943. Supply w. Cf. n. to 81. 944-5- Cf, 

Cic. De Sen, 23, S5 nam Aalief nattira, u/ aiianim otunium rerum, lie 
vivciidi madum ; Id. ib. 21, 76 imiiino . . , rerum omnium naieiat viUit 
faeit laiietstem ; Eccles. 1,9: " The thing that hath been, it is tbat 
which shall be ; and that which is done is that which shall bc done ; 
and there is no new thing under the sun " ; M, Aurel. Ant. Med. 7, l. 
Juvenal, wilh difCerent underlying thought, exclaims, — 

pofltcritu: cadcm cdpJent faciFntque minmfifl. 

948. Mccla : see n. to i, loi. 9S0-r- The form of expresaion is 

taken f rom the law ; intenJire lilem is ' to bring in a charge ' against 
one ; eausam is like our " case." 956. perfunctus : see n. to 940, 
959. nee : = nm, as in the legal phrase rei nee mancipi, itec maaf- 
festiim, neg-olinm, negli^e etc 961. aliend tua aetate : ' unsuited 
to thy timc of life"; for the abl. cf. Cic de Off. I, 13,41 heminealie- 
niisimum. Lucr.has a/iVn»; also wilh the gen. [3, 8zi; 6,69; 6, io6|;), 
and once wilh the dat. (6, 1119). gBa, «gedum ; an early correc- 

tion, adopted also by Lachmann and Berrays, for agendiim of MSS. — 
tnagnus: for magnii of nss. ; Lachmann reads dignis; Bemayi 
gnatis. The reading mai^uj is at best awkward ; the mcaning is ' in 
a mannet befitting a great-souled person,' 'with dignity.' 984-5. 

Cf. 1, 163-4 and n. g66. nec qulsq^oni : the matter of which a 


99S-J NOTES 331 

tnan is composed does not perish, but " h osed for the growth of 
other Ihings," as Munro eiplains. 907. opus est : cf. i, ioji and 
n. sjo. alid : see n. to i, 263. 971. mancipio : manc. and tau 
are both legal terms. Mamipivm (maHui-^afiie) was the nante of the 
formal process by which, in the presence ot witnessei, the absolule 
ownership of certain kinda of property was transferred from one 
Romin dtizen lo another. It was somewhat like the livery of seizin 
of the feudal and English law, giving the right which in the case 
of landed propcrty corresponded lo the English 'fee-simple.' l/au 
denoted the right of one person to enjoy the products >nd increase of 
pruperly the ownership of which remained in the hands of anolher. 
It limited the possessor, however, to the enjoyment of ihe Ibir^s 
necessary to life ; while the usufructui assigned to him all fruits, bolh 
natural and civil. Munro suggests thal uiu is " put with poetical 
brevity for ujufructu." Tr. ' usnfruct.' See Mackenzie, ' Roman 
Law,' Part t, ch. z and 6. mane. and um are of course dalives ; for 
the fonn of bjw see n. to 5. 101. y]i.ttseq. Ci. ' Lettcrs on the 
Laws of Man's Nalore and Developmenl,' by Mr. Atkinson and Miss 
Martineau, quoted by Flint, ' Anti-Theistic Theories,' p. loi : "We 
ought to be content Ihat in deatb the lease of personality shall pass 
away, and that we shall be as we were befoce we were — in a sieep 
foreTermorc." See also,Zeller, 'Stoics, £p. and 5cep.'ch. 17, c, (z). 

(7) Htllvnlh ils terrvrt it a myth ; but allits woes and puMiskments 
arefound in thtfreienl lifi. 978-10S3. 

978. Achemnte : Acherutu was in early nriters a favorite spelling, 
though /*cA^i»i isnearertheGreek('Ax^()«r). gSl. Tantalus: he 
was said to be placed in the midst of a lake with branches laden wilh 
the most inviting fruits just ovcr his head ; hut tormented with Ihirst 
and hunger forever, — for water and fniit withdrew whenever he tried 
to reach them, and 3 rock threatened every moment to fali and crush 
him. 984. Tityon ; a giant, punished in Tarlarus for insult to 

Artemis ; his form atretched orer nine iugera, ind Iwo vulturea 
preyed on hia liver. gSS. qui : concessive. 989. optineat ; see 
n. to I, 79. 991. nobls : see n. to i, 673 tiM. 993. volucres : 

t.e.. atiffor and curat. 994- cuppcdine : see n. to I, I082. 995- 

Siayphns : he was compelled to roU up a mountain a vast rock 
which taxed all his strenglh ; and which, as soon as it reached ihe 


332 LUCRETIUS [III. 996- 

top, rolled back again. ggfr-tooi. No age and ntlion ever prc- 
sented more sad or striking examples cif disappointcd politicai ambi- 
tions Ihan Rome in ihe lifetime of Lucretius and a couple of decades 
lalet. looi. Tusum: acchaic toi rurtuia, rariui. 1003. aequora: 
see n. to 892. 1005- circ. cum red. 1 edd. notice Ihc similaiiif of 

llte expression lo the Homeiic rtptir\oiiJiiw inamir. lenB-j). See 
n.10936. loia poieatur: seen. to I, 1045. loii. egestas: 

Laclimann has igrmts, the common reading of the old editions, against 
the Mss. After 101 1 Munro supposes some Tcrses have been lost, 
and maiks a hiatuji in his tcil. loij- inaiEnis: agrees with >i<nw,- 
forlhe paronomisia see n. lo 666. — Inella: seen. 101,39. The word 
is found onljr here. loiS. suto : traitors and false Eweaiers were 

huiled from the Tarpeian Rock. Cf. Hol. SaL 1, 6, 39. 1017. 
robur : the inner dungeon of the carccr, or state prison. The ratur 
Tullianum, so named bccause tradiiion ascribes the buildin^ of it to 
Servius Tullius, formed Ihe lowest vault of the Mameitinc prison at 
Kome, and still remains. Saliust Cat. 55 thos desciiljes it: ist in 
carcere Ixui, guod TuUiamim appcliatur, eirciicr Jnoiiaiiii pedes humi 
depresius. eum muiiiUHl undiquc parietei alqac intuper camera lapidtu 
/omici/nts vincta ; scd inctUta tcmbris adore fieda atquc terribilis dia 
Jaeici cst. — piz : slaves weie sometimes punished by pouiing boiling 
pitch on them. This, peihaps, is the historical antecedenl of Ihe 
barbarous custom of tarring and featheiing. — lamniina : i.e., lam- 
minae ardtnta, the hot plalcs of metal used to tortuie slaves. 
1018. factiB : dat. with cantcia ; tians. as if /actorum. loai. &iu« : 
see n. to i, 107. loaa. baec : proleptic; cf. i, 950 and n. 

(8) nta maycst thou console Ikysd/ ahant deaik : tkt gved, tkc 
^'S^fyt "'"i '*' «''" ktnie passcd away ; laiU thim dread to die, vikose 
li/e goei on toaveririg in the midsl o/fiars and carett IO34-I052. 

1015. The line b liroin the Annale* of Ennius, tjo Fostquam 
lumina sis eeulii bomu Ancut reliqmt (VaUen). Cf. Shirley, " Death 
lays his icy hand on kings." Edd. compare 111. * 107 ■^Tfar* «■) 
n^rfnirAoi 1 Tffi ir/a nXAiv i^Iiwr. — Bis: sidi ; the u of tlie stem in 
tuus and suus nas sometimes omitted ; hence Hs {tuis), ses (suoi) and 
thc like. See Neuc ' Foimenlehre,' ii. 189. — Ancua : i.e, Ancus 
Martius, the fouith king of Rome ; his virtues were often extolled. 
loae. improbe : explained by Munio as ^iSift, immodeiate In ez- 


10(58.] NOTES 333 

pectatioii. loaS. occidernat ; see n. to i, 40& loig. iHet 

Xerxe». Cf. Juv. Sat. 10, 173-184. and Mayor*3 n. 1031. Iticil- 

nas : so in Mss. o£ Laci. here and €, 53S and 552, instead of laainiu. 
1034. Scipiftdu: ferthe form see n. to i, z6 AfemmiaJaj; Roby, 475 
ff). The reference is lo P. Comelius Scipio Afrlcanus Maior, the con- 
queror of Hannibal ; though thc eipression Cart^ogjnis horror would 
Buit aleo P. Comdius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus Minor who ended 
the third Punic war. Cf. Verg. Aen. 6, 844 gfniinoi, dua ftdmina 
biili, Sdpiadas, cladem L&iyat. IO35. proinde t&: = tamqtiam. 

1037. Helicoiiiadiun : the muses, so called from MC. Hclicon in 
Boeotia ; see n. ta i, 118. — MomeniB : uniforiDly considcred in 
antiquitj the prince of poets. To-day it is thought by inapy that this 
distinclion belongs to Shalcspere alone. 1038. sceptra : the acc 

with potiri is rare in classical writers. — aliis : dal. after eadtm ; the 
same constr. is found also 2, 919 and 4, 1174. Boby (1143, 6} givea 
threc other instances of this rare usage. 1040. memoics : see ti. 

to S59. 1041. sponte Bua etc. : thcre are conflictii^ statements aa 
to the manrier of Democritus' death. Diogenes Lacrtius gives ns to 
understand that he died of natural causes at the age of a hundred 
and nine (9, 43) ; and the asseition that he put an end to his life is 
by no means established,'^ See Zcller, ' Prae-Soc. Phil.' ii. 214, n. 
1040. obit : = obiit. — decurso lumine vitae : a striking mizture of 
metapbors. 1043-4. Cf. n. to 3, 3. 1045. Cf. Shirley, 'The Last 
Conqaeror ' : " Death calls ye 10 ihe ciond of common men." 1048. 
■omnia: 'visions.' 1049. soUicitam : cf. n. to i, 343. 

(9) If men eould hut ae thc eauie af the burdtnt and carei of life as 
eUarly ai ihty feei theie, they would not be coiislaniiy trying by ckange 
of tcene lo maie Hfe happy ; Ihey would devote Ihemielvet to the sludy of 
Nature, to tee what is lohe their staie not for an hour bul for ail timt. 

locum ; cf. Hor. Od. 2, 16, 17-8 : — 

loSs. maitiioa : small horses from Gaul, used principally for 
pleasure.driving. lofifi. at quem etc: 'hut self ftom whom, as 

is commonly the case, he cannot escipe, clings to him in his own 


334 LUCRETIUS [III. 1070-1089 

despite.' Cf. Hor. utsuf. \gfatriae qms txul Se quequtfiigiit also 
Sen. De Tranquil. Animi z, 14. 107^ motbi etc; cf. n. to 1, 112; 
also tbe ' SyBt^me dc ]a Nature,' Part i, cfa. 13: 'Thefears sA. death 
are vain iUusions, tliat must diaappear as soon as we leant to contem- 
plate the necesiaiy event from its true point of view." 1071. 

rebna : i.e., rtbta atiia ommbut, aa Lambinus eiploiiu. 1073. Cf. 

the T«a. of Verg. quoted in n. to 37. 1075. quM . . . cnmqne : 

ttnetis ; see also n. to t, 104.3. 

(10) Wiy,iH the midst cf illt and dangrrs.dawt se yeamfor Hfef 
Die m muit, and lioing Img ean bring ui nc nem pUamrt ; but it it 
uneerlain wiat lot may come. In cemfariioH teUk the etemal deatk 
befare ut, it maltert nt^ ■whelhtr cw die t»B* ar UUe. I076-IOM- 

1080-1. Cf. 944*5 ^nd n. In the Epicurean view there was no nse 
in living when life no longer had any pleasures. 1083. aliut : see 
D. to 1, 469. 10B4. hiantie : supply not. 10B7. nec . . . hUum : 

see n. to aaa io8g. pcrempti : 'ia Che condiiion of the dead.' 


Introductohy, 1-90. 

I. Landation of Epicurus. 1-54. 

HtD can praise right •Btortkily Ihtsi diieiTueriei of tme rtaien f He 
was a god thal faund and shawed Ihc ivay of life. Nought Is comfare 
Viitk this bcett hat becn htstmied an men by otheri, — tiol by Ceres gwer 
ef gram, nor by Bacchta diseovertr ofwitut no, not by Herctdts, for tke 
mmtiters ilain by him toere far off and tould be thunned. Bul hi vihe 
kas suidued and cast forth from fke soul itt cares and ftars, jeke hat 
rei/eaied lo us even ihe nature ef the immortal deities, is he not in Irutk 
agodf 1-54- 

I. pectore ; 'thoaght'; cf. i, 413, and see n. to 3, 140. 3. pro 
tnai.: after dignum, an infrequent constr — repertis : see n. to i, 
136. 4. eius : Kpicunis. For the spiril and signilicance of the 

psBaage see n. to 3, 3 i^. B- nemo : i.e., 110 one able ta do that just 
spolieii of. 8. deus ille : cf. the words of the Epicurean, Cic. 

N. D. I, 16, 43 ea yui censideret quam inconsvlte at tentere dicantur, 
venerari Efacurum et in earum ipsorum (i.e. dtorum) numere, de quibtit 
Aaee qtiaestio eit, habere debtat ; also Tusc. Diap. i, 21, 48 quae quidtm 
eogitana telee satft mirarinon nullorum insolentiam philesophorvm, gut 
ttaturae eogniliettem admiranlur tiuique itrvenlori et ptineipi gratiat 
exttiilantes aguttt eumqtie (Epicurum) vetterantur ut deum ; liberalos 
enim se pereum dicunl graBissimis deminis, terrere sempitemo el diume 
et nadumo metu ; cf. Lact 3, 14. — inclyte : see n. to l, 40 ; cf. 2, 
1080. ThB spelling inclutus is more common. — Memmi : see n. to 
I, a6. g. princepsi^/nmnj; scp n. to i, 94.— vitae r«t. . . . 
sapientia : it was the prxctical, elhical aspect of philosopliy that 



appealed to Ibe Ronians. Speculatioi 
encourageinent among them. Cf. i, 
compare Enn. Ann. (Vablen} 227 ; 

where as in 10 and Hor. Od. i, 34, 2 safiifntia ia used for phUBttpkia. 
II. For the amngement of words cf. i, 11-3 and n. 14. Notice 

the double aHilerition in fer. fru. and Lib. liq.; see n. to i, 14. — 
LibcT ; Eometimes called by ihe Greeks fAprr^t h^^witjiv. 15. vi- 

tigeni : cf. ft, 1072 vitigtm laiicei ; vi/igi/ius is Lucretian for vili- 
giniHs. — instituisse : ambiguous ; "is it merel; 'introduced and 
set up,' as Cic ad Fam. 13, 4S «i j!^ instituert fttat siquanlur alii; or 
does it imply the planting also of the vine and sowing of the corn, as 
Cic. de Lege Agr. X, bj iugera CCC, ubi iHititmi viiuae foisuia?" 
Munro inquires. The former interpretation seems to me more in 
harmony with the conteit 17. gentia : on the form see n. to l, 7. 
Lambinus refers to Diodorus Siculus lib. 5 foi an account of some 
peoples ignorant of grain and wine. Consnlt Morgan, 'Andent 
Society,' Part i, ch. z. ao. per magnoB etc.: Epicurcanism be- 
came widely disseminated, especialty in Italy, at a comparativelj 
eariy dale. A chief reason assigned £or iis popularity is, that ita 
doclrmcs could be readily understood ; but doubtless the fact that it 
madc pleaaurc thc standaid of action appealed to many. Cf. Cic 
De Fin. 1, 7, 25 qtiatritur satpe cur lain mHlli liat E^curei ; tnnl aiiat 
quoque tautae, ted mullitudijurn katc maxime adlictl, gmd ila pultatt 
dici at illc, recte et hotusla quac itnt, ta/aierc ipsa per st laeliliam, id ett 
vduplalem ; also Id. Tqsc. Disp. 4, 3, 7 {Epicurei) Italiam tolam eccu- 
poBtrunl, quodque maximum argtimentum esi non dici illa subtililer, 
guod d lam facile ediscantur el ab indoctis probttOur, id illijirmamtntum 
etsi diiciplinae putanl. Cf. n. to 336-7. 

93. Herculea : bere follons a comparison between the victories 
of Hcrcules and those of Epicurus. Eight of the labors of Hercules 
are referred to, the slaying of the Nemaean lion, Ihe capture of the 
Erymanthian boar, the bringing of tbe Cretan bull to Eiysthcus, the 
destruction of the Lernean hydra, the fetcbing of the oxen of Geryon. 
the driving anay of the Slymphalian birds, the taldng of the flesb- 
ealing mares of Ibe Thracian Diomedc to Mycenae, the finding and 
"Tying o£f of the golden apples o£ tbe Hesperides. For a full ac- 


51.] NOTES 337 

count of these labors consult tbe various mytholi^es, and Simtb'8 
'Dict of Biog. and Myth.' article "Heraclea," witb the original ao- 
thorities there cited. — antiGtare: \,e., attlisiart fiieiis Epkuri. 14. 
Nemaeua : nom. where the gen. with leenii might bave been ez-' 
pected ; see n. to i, 771. 35. Arcadius : so called because the 

£rymanthian mountains, wbich the boar haunted, wcre in Arcadia. 
Anolher tradition, however, places Ihe scene of the hunt in Thessaly. 
rj. posset : see n. to I, 586. aS. tripectora ; found only here. 

— Qeryonai: see n. on i, 29 militial. There are two forms of tbe 
nom , Geryon yA decl. and Gayona ist decl. ; the fomicr is moie 
Gommon. After sS a verae lias doubtless fallen out ; Munro suggests 

quid volucres pennis aeratis invia stagna, 

and traosposes 29-30 of che mss. 39. colentes : construe with 
vobicres o{ the line supplied by Munro. Lachmann tries to mcnd the 
constr. by reading tl avis in place o£ n<^is, and transposing 3O-31. 
31. Thracis: gen., with ZliDmii/ir. — propter: postpositive, aaoften; 
cf. n, on I, 66 amtra. 33. «cerba tuens : cf. Verg. Buc. 3, 8 

Iransvtrsa Iventibtis hircis ; Macrobius (Sat. 6, i, 30) compares Vei^. 
Aen. 9, 794 aspir Oitrba tuiHS, rttre redil ; cf. also Aen. 6, 467 term 
tKtnlem, the Homeric iiriSpa liAy, as Conington suggests. Wilh the 
constr. of aceria cf. 5, iioo mutna ; the neu. pl. acc. of adjectivcs is 
sometimcs used adverbially. 35. pelage : Greek pl., found only 

herc and 6, 619. Lucr, has also mele aa p1. of melos 3, 412 and 505. — 
sonora : Lachmann with several early edd. for severa, which to me 
seems a good and forciWe reading. 36. quiaquam : substantive, 
as generally. Cf. 1, 1077 and n. — audet : supply adire from adit. 
37. cet. de gen. hoc : a favorite eipression of Lucr., imilated by 
Hor. Sat. 1, i, 13. For gtntrt cf. n. to i, 160 gmus. 38. sei : aee 1,1114. 39. ita: 'asltis.' — ferarum: gcn. iritii tcatil, like 

5, 1 162 araruBi complmtrit ,- so 6, 890 fons, dulcii aqtad qta acatit. 
40. acatit : icaffre is an anteclassical fonn of scalere. 43, pui^a- 

tuinst: see n. to l, iq patefaclasl. — proelia: for constr. see n. to i, 
iii patnat. 45, cuppedinis : see n. to 1, loSz, 48. desidiae : the 
pl. of abstract nouns is ofteu used to denoie ' instances ' or ' Idnds ' of 
the quality; A, 75, c; G, 195 Rem. 5; H. 130, i; trans, 'forms 
o( sloth.' 51. divam : see n. to l, l. For the' thought cf. Cic. 

N. D. quoted in n. to 8. — dignariei: for l4ie form see 1,207, 


338 LUCRETIUS [V. $3- 

53. immortBlibu' : see n. to l, 159 omitiiu'. — de divis eCc : notice 
the alliteration. Epicurus left a work on Che Nature of the Gods 
eniitled, according to Dioge»es Laertiua (ic^ 17), XupAtuuai, f 
Iltpl 9iAr. His doctrine is fully set forth Cic. N. D. i, 16. 42 etteg. — 
Su<!Tit: see n. to I, Z15. 54. rei 

2, Subject and purpose of the Book. 55-90. 

/n kis fiottbpt foSiniiing, viiiU I tcach Iki Jixtd laws e/ heing and 
Aave tkotm tkat the soul is morlal, •aihence loo those tmagej eome in sleep 
Ihal maie ui think Ihe dtad stitl live ; ninv I mutt expiain kow Ihat the 
•uiorld had a beginntng and is doomed to ferish ; in Tnkal my, toe, Iht 
gathtring of ma/ter formed eartk, sky, sea, stars, sun, and moon ; hevi 
living Ihingt came into bting; hoai speeth arest ; how fear of the godt 
ttole inlo thi kearts of men ; and hma nature gutdes tke on-going of tkt 
lun and mopn, Ikat w may nol think tke gods kaot a^gkt to do viiih tkit, 
and bmi in dread before tkem. 55-90. 

55. cuins: refers of course to Epicurus. 56-S. See n. to i, 586. 
5g-6t. See book 3. Si. mvoid: see n. to I, 549. 89-3. See 4, 

34-41; 749-776; 907-1036. Wlth 63 cf. i, 133. 6«. quod 8U- 

peTCSt ; cf. I, 50 and n. G5. moitali . . . nBtivom : see n. to l, 

754. The list of topics given in 65-77 is not taken up in regular 
order; and several subjecta are Created that are not mentioned here. 
See the analysis of the book given in the Introd. 6j. •nimantes : 
see nn. to 3, 573; i, 4. 71. loquells: abl. aftet tiesci wilh the 
meanii^ 'to make use of.' For Che spelling see n. to l, 39. 73. 
iDsinusrit : see n. to i, 113. 77. natura gubemaiis : the fonn of 
expression is taken from navigation. For the personification of Nii. 
tura cf. I, 56, 318 and nn. 79. libera spoote sua : ' o( their own 

free will ' ; see n. to 523. 8(. Cf. Epicurus in Diog. Laert. 10, 76 

'moreover, in the case of the heavenly phenomena, we are not lo sup- 
pose that the mation and tumings, eclipses, rising, setting, and the 
like take place through any being having charge of ihem, regulating 
them, OT about to regulate thera, and at the saine tiiue hiving peifect 
happinesB with immortaliCy.' 83-go. = 6, 58-^. Munro remarks 
of Che whole paragraph, 55-90, Chat in character and manner it " much 
resembles 6, 26-S9 ; 1,54-61; 1,127-135; 4, 26-52, and some others : 
these are all introductiotis to wlut (oUows, and have an awkward. 


I02.J NOTE5 339 

con3tra.ined, and anfinished style about them, as if written againat ihe 
grain in order t» complete for the time nhat was wanting. In our 
passage o( six and thirty lines the first sne and twentj fonn a single 
long, loose, ill-assoned, il1<:onsliucted sentence; the last nine are 
word for word repeated elsewhere. AIl this is another proof that tbe 
author le(t his work in an unfinislied sCate." 8a. CC Hor. Sat. 

■,S.ioi-3i- ^ .,j™jai,i^™, „™„ 

tristci tx allo cidi ijeiaitten lecto. 

Cf. n. to 3, i8. 83. </ ifj. Thus a severe thundei-stom for the 

tijne being frightened all the Epicureanism ouc of Horace i see Od. 
I, 34. 84. quaeque ; see n. to i, 129. 85. aupera : see n. to 

1, 439. 87. dominoB acris elc : edd. compare the «ords of the 

Epicurean speaker in Cic. N. D. ), zo, 54 Uague infosuislh in armci- 
bia ttoitrit scmpitemum demimtm, qurm dies it noctit timeremus ; quii 
enm non timeat omnia prmiideniem et lOgitatUem et animadverlentem et 
emnia ad se fertitiere fulantem, luriosum el fltnum negelii deum t — 
potae ; see n. to I, 586. 8S-go. Cf. i, 75-77 and nn. 


TS^ world ii doomed la destmction. 90-109. 

gi. ne te etc. : cf. 6, 245. ga. maria etc. : the threefold 

division of the world, so often met wilh in Lucr. See n. to 1, 6. 
gC Cf Luc. Phars. i, 79 iotaque discors Mackina drmdsi turtabil foedera 
mundi. 97. animi : cf. 1, 136 and n. 100. ubi . . . adportes : 

Cf. n. to 3, 854. loi. visu : the dat. in u of the fourth decl. is 

occasionally found in writers of all periods ; Neue, ' Pormenlehre,' j. 
356-7 has a large collection of examples. Cf. 3, 971 usu, 101. 

indu: see n. to i, 82. — vla munita ; see n. to 3,498. Miuito notes 
that the poet here Iranslales from Empedocles, 356 : 

— fidri:>A;like rfi, z, iii and 548; see n. to 1, 6S8. Intheearlier 
writera, and sometimes in the poets (e.g. Hor. and Of.),fidi is some- 


340 LUCRETIUS [V. 107- 

titUM found u gcn. ivj. Horace also iavokes the goddesi of 

Fortune, who, to both him and our poct, seems to have been mereljr 
a, personi&cation of the natural order of things, " aX the 6axat time 
chance and iDciorable neceuitjr." 

SevtH riatom art given viiy tht morlJ muit 
inivilaily periih: 

1. JVo divine paatr pmidtd estr itt Jorpiatimt, or ean stay iti 
dettructiaH, 110-234. 

( 1 ) Tke viorld and its parts an nol themithies divine, can eonlam 
ne ananating and laaiirvii^ leul ; fgr mind cannet txiel apart 
Jrom its particuiar flace in a iraing, suitabie iody. 1 10-145. 

II0> Cf. 6| 979-9S0. The whole passage, 110-234, secms out of 
place, and is hence bracketed; it does not lic in well with the conieit, 
and shows evidence of not having received a final revision by ihe 
poet, especially in the repetition of many lines fiom other parts of the 
poem. iii-iia. Repeated from i, 738-9, where see nn. 114. 

reli{[iane ; see n. to i, 932. 116. corpoie divino : the poet hcre 

ia doubtless combating the Stoic docliine of the woild^ul, the doc- 
Hine, as ezpressed by Pope, that 


Cf. Cic N. D. I, 14, 36 Zeno ralimem quandam per emntnt naturam 

rerum perlinentem vi divina esst adfectam pulal ; Id. z, 17, 4j . . . lu/ 
hane praesensimem nolionemqut nostram nihil vides quod potiui accBm- 
modem quam ut primum hune ipsum mundum ; quo nihil exeelletitius 
fieri potest, animanlem esse /t deum iudicem. Consull Zeller, ' Stoics, 
£p. and Scep.' ch. 6, b and c. In conlroverling the philosophy of 
the Stoics Luci. never does them the honor to call them by nanie. 
117. par esse : see n. to i, iSg. — ritu Gigantuin : a common 
compaiison; cf. Cic. De Scn. 2, 5 qtiid esl enim aliud Giganhim 
modo bellare cum dii nisi nalurae repugnaret which goes to sustain 
the lemark of Munro, that ihe Stoica, "who allegorized everything," 
doubtless gxve the same tum Ihat Luci. does " to the wars of ihe 
^anlB and TJtans with the gods." ilS- amiiis : goea with eos. 


IS6.] NOTES 341 

iig. qo! etc.: i.e., nch as Epknirus and Lacr. himsetf. — moenia 
mundi : see n. to i, 73. lai. inmort. mortali ; for thc parono- 

masia cf. 3, 666 and n.— notanteB: 'branding,' as with the nola 
cinsoria. lu. quae: 'though these things.' laj. videri: 

an infin. after an adj., a constr. imitatcd from the Grcek, is found also 
1145. ^MS- '^he sun, sky, earth, and the other parls of the world 
[uriiiih rather examples of what a devoid of life and seuse. laC. 

cn-.^feUsl. 138-141. Repeated with elight changes from 3, 

784-797, where see nn. 144, caUBtant : i.e^fiaTftt mititdi, 145. 
vitaliter : found only here. 

(a) nU godt danll anisule the loerld; it3 meUter ir ftw cffarie and 
dmse frr Ihiir iubtlt tuturr. And tkty dtd net maie the 
world, — /or whal mativi could kaoe led Ikem, rtier Messtd in 
rtfest, l<t /rotiiie themalots wilh creating t or iciAat hart kad it 
bttn if VK had not been iom l or vheiice could thty havt drawit 
tht idta ef man te make him l Nay, il is merely from coniur- 
rence of moving aloms, •ujithout dirtcting povfer, that thii iBorld 
is ferttttd and sustasned, 146-194. 

146. sedes : theae were in the apaces hetween the worlds. Cf. 
Cic. De Div. S, 17, 40 deos enim ipsos iocandi causa induxit Epieuna 
pcrlucidos tt perfiabUis et habitaniis tamquam inler duos iucos stc in/er 
duBS mundas propler metum ruinarum ; tesqut liabere fiutal eadem 
membra, qtiae nes, nec tisum ullum habere membrorum. Sec n. to 3, 
iS. 149. snimi mente: see n. to 3, 61 J; videlur is of course 

passive. For the thought d. the words of Ibe Epicureau in Cic. 
N. D. I, 18, 49 . . . hominis esse speeie deos canfitendum est. nec lamtn 
ea species corpus est, sed quasi carpui, nec haiel sanguinem, sed quasi 
sanguinem ; also N. D. i, 25, 71 and 16, 74 ; a, 23, 59 Efieurus mone- 
grammes dtoi tt nihil agmtis eommenlui est ; l, 37, 105 nc enim 
dicebas, sptcitm dti percipi cogilntione, nen sensu. 150. snffugfil : 

pcrhaps the force of thc perfect is, ' as far as human eiperience 
Tcaches, this has' elc. 151. [ea] debel contingtrt nil qued nobis tac- 

tilt tit. For the force of debet see n. to l, 232. 154. tenues etc. : 

Lachmann reads ienutil si cerpu' dtorum. — de ■. = secundum 'after the 
model ot,' ' in conformity with,' says Munro, and refera to Loreoi, 
Plaut. Most. 760. 155. Lucr. nowhere discusses at length tbe 

nature of tbe gods or tbeir babilations. i jS. porro : see n. to i. 


342 LUCRETIUS [V. 160- 

184; with volniist supply los refeiring to detim above. iSo. nec 

fas elc : ' and tVax it U impious to shake from its ftnn sealB that 
«hich in old time by the forethought of the gods was baaed on ever- 
lastirg foundations ' (Ijt. ' never-ending time ') ete. Thc reference is to 
the great fabiic of superstition. ^Os-?. For the thoDght ct Cic 

N. D. 1, 9, 13 a» haec, ui firl didtis, hnmimtm eauia a dee anuHlmUi 
lUHt f lapitnliuMtie f propter paueet igitur tanta est rtnitn facUi molilia, 
an itultarvm T atfrimum cauta nimfidt, cur di inprabis inu mererctur. 
168. quietoa etc. : explained by the Brst o( the k^iw S^u (DIc^. 
I^ert. 10, 139, li) 'whatever ia happy and immortal neither has tronble 
itself nor causes trouble to another ' ; cf. Cic. N. D. i, 17, 45 and 19, 51. 
171. aeKri: d. 3, 832 and n. 174. credo: sarcastic, but at best 

an awkward reading; Munro proposes crepira. — vlta: i.e., divam. 
With Ihe thonght of 171-J cf. Cic. N. D. i, 9, 11 oi utraque (Ihe Stoic 
and the Platonist) autim scisdtor, cnr mtmdi aedificatarei repente extli- 
ttrint, initumerabilia saecla dormierint ; i, 9, 31 isUi igilur tam inmento 
tpatie, quaero, BaHe ( Stoic) cur rpimta oestra cesiaveril. laberemque 
fitgiebat t .-. quid autem rrat quod concupiseeret dcus mundum signit et 
luminibus tamquam aedUii orHoret si,ut deui ipie melius kabilaret,antea 
videlicel tempere infimta iit tettebrii tamquam iu gurgustio kabitaverat. 
176. creatiB : attracled from the acc. to agree with ruiHs. CE, Hor. 
Sat. I, I, 19 atqui licet {lis) eise beatis. 177. Enim quicumque natas 

eit, dcbet etc. Cf. 3, loSi and n. 180. numero : i.e., vrventiutn, 

183 notitiea ; used by Lucr., as Monro explains, to express the 
wpiXtrtiii of Epicurus, a preconccption or notion of the mind iaid up, 
" thal is to say, a recoilection of what has repeatedly appeared from 
withoul." What modei or form of man (exemp/um) could the gods 
ever see, that they could stor* np in mind a conception or notion 
[notities) to worlc from ? Ov. Met. i, 83 says that man was made 
>'n effigiem moderantum cuneta deorum. 184. prjncipiorum : see 

n. to I, 55. 185. poBsent : see n. to t, jS6. 187-igi ^ 

4Z3-6. 188. plagis : see n. to i, jzS. iga-4. Cf. I, ioi6-S. 

194. haec rer. sumin« : see n. to I, 235. 

(3) Even i/ / knew iwt tie Jirttiegiitmttgs ef things, I ikeuld be ctr- 

tain that tke geds did not makc this vierldfor man, becauie tkere 
is so muck in it all awry and bad. By far the larger parl of 
the earlh cannol be dwelt on, whilt bramiJes, drougkls, fioeds, 
fiosts, and galei itrive to make of no aziatl tkt farmer'1 teiL 


208.] NOTES 343 

Wimet, Ue, &t wUd Uaili,/aei U mat t whtHee teasom cfsUh- 
ntHt ottd tmtimely death i Jlfark, tce, tke hilpltss itt/artt, vtkost 
fitsl simtid it a ay of mw, vihile the jfimrfg of iitites art stret^ 
attd haiie no ttttd ef tare. i95-z}4. 

IB5~IW- C^- ^j 177-181- igS. ntlonibns: ' arrangeittents,' 

'operations.' igp. tanta st«t etc : this doctrine of the fauttiness 

of the preseDt order of ttalngs staods In marked contraft «ith thc 
teaching of thc Stolcs that the world is perfect ; cf. Cic N. D. i, 14 
37 scite eitim Ckrysipptu, u( elipei causa imiiduerum, vaginam autem gla- 
dii, lic pratter mMubmt eetera auiitia a/iontm cauia tsse generaia, ut eas 
/rugei atfut fruetus, guat ierra gigttit, animatiHum eauia, attimantis au- 
lem hominuin, ut equum vthendi causa, arandi bm/im, iieitandi et cuita- 
dieitdi taneM ; • • . sed muitdus, quoniam omnia camplixm tst ntfue elt 
qtticquam gtiad noM iHsit.iM eo, per/eelui tim^fne est. The existence of 
natural and raoral evil has always vexed the minds of Ihe thoughtful ; 
thns the Preacher exclaims [Eccl. i. 14-15), ' I have seen all the works 
that are dooe nnder the sun ; and, behold, atl is vanity and vexation 
of ipirit. That wMch is croaked cannot Ix made siraigbt, and that 
which is wanting cannot b« nunibered." Expiessions in tbe same 
spirit are common In all liter^ures. Modern mateiialists and pes- 
rimista make much use of the same aiguments tbat Lucr. here so 
forcibly statea. Cf. e^ Haeckel, ' Nat. Hiat. of Creation,' i. 19-10: 
consult Lange, 'Hiat. of Matetialiam,' iii. 338 et leg. ; Flinl, 'Anti- 
Theistic Tbeories,' pp. 290-334 ; Janet, ' Final Causes,' p. 421 et stq. ; 
' Le Syslima de U Natnrc,' Ft. 2, ch. i. ; Schopenhaoer, ' The Miseiy 
of Ufe.' soo. prineiplo; corresponds to aen parro, iiS prae. 

terea, 122 perro. — quantum : i.e., mundt, the whole expression being 
equivalent to oriem terraruia. — impetus : 'eipanse,' seems bere 
merely to denole size, as Mnnro remarks in n. to 4, 416 inpeie, a signi- 
fication detived from the primary meaning o£ force and vehemence ; 
there seems to lie no allusion here to the revolution of the heaveas, 
thongh that is usuallj involved in the ezpression impetus caeli. 
•01. Inde: 'of It,' a meaning that survives in the Frencb en. — 
«Tldei : iat avidam at mss. ; Lachmann has aiiquam, Bemays avide. 
Vox the form see n. to 1, 230. aoa. tenent : Rapply partem. aoS. 
bidenti: a kitul of heavy hoe, difiering from the common boe [ras- 
Imm) in having two prongs. It was used sometimes inslead of a 
ptow foi breaking up the ground, as well as for ciushing clods and 


344 LUCRETIUS [V. 209- 

tearing sodt to pleces. 909. pRSsI* aratrisr 'b; presriDg down 

thc plow,' a veiy importanl operatioa in ancient plowing on account 
of the rude Btnicture of the tooi, and hence often referred to in char- 
acterizing the toil of the farmer. aio-ii. Cf.i,zii-i. aii. ei- 
mus : supply w. 313. et (amen : lee n. to i, 1050. aifi. imbriB : 
nom. pl. aao. morbos: the ancient Uke the modem Romans 

had good reason to dreod the fevers that come with the changes of 
spring aod autumn. aaj. infans : adj. 336-7. With the 

thought cf. Plin. N. H. 7, 1, hominnn tantum nudtim tt in nuda 
hiima naiali dit abiclt advagitut itaiim et flaraium, nuilumgue tot ani- 
malium aliud ad laerimai el hai prgtiiaa liitat pttndpie ; also Job, ch. 
3; edd. compare Lactantius 3, where 317 is quoted and the thought 
enlarged upon ; Munro quotes Shakespere, ' Lear ' 4, 6 : 
' Tboa kiKnnit, ttia fint tim* tbit we niall tlx air 

TolhBgrejit nage of fools-'* 

Kant remarks ('Anthrop. II. E., Mart. viii. 6p) "that no creatare 
except modem man has the habit of entering upon life tiith a cry. 
He belleVes that cven in man this betraying and cncmy.attracting C17 
cannot otiginally have occurred, — that it belongs to domeatic life, 
without our knowing through whaC co-operaling causes such a devel- 
opment has taken place." See Lange, ' Hist. of Materialism,' iii. 96 
(ooi-note II. 238, pecudeBctc.: see n. to i, 163. 130. in- 

fiacta : i.e., in baby-talk. 333. qui: old abl. = ^xihif. — onm. 

omnia: see n. to 3, 666. 334. daedala : seen. to 1,7, andcf.4, 

551 verlxmtm daedala lingua. 

2. EartA, water, air, audjire^efvihich the nan eflha^ ii made up, 
«re iuhjttttathange,mimart^t te muit tie wkBtt be. 135*305. 

335 et lef. See n. to 1 10 ; princi^ haa no logical relatioti vnth the 
preceding, but without the intervening passage would join on well after 
■09. 335-^'' Cf. n,to I, 6 ivu/i. In this mention of earth, air, and 

fire he often eipresses himaelf with poetic tautoli^. For animae «c 
n. toi, 715; for iu/^<v, n. to 1,491. 337. videtni: Beeii.toi, 

7 z6. 346. ptincipiale : f ound only here ; pr. aliq. tem. ' some time 

of beginning.' — cladem: i.e., tempui eladit. With the thotight cf. 


Cic. N. D. 1, 8, 20 guae est enim ceagmtntatiQ nm ditselubilis f tmt pdd 
esl, tuiui priHcipium aliquad sit, Hihii est extremum f Thc argument 
of this paragraph \% pi-edsely Ihe same u Ihal of Epicurus.who "aays 
that the worlds arc pcrishable becausc thcir parts undergo changc " 
(firra^aXAJrroH' Tmr lufmr) ; sce Diog. Laert. 10, 74. 

( 1 ) Earlh ii morial ; some of it, farcked fy the sutt and troddin by 

thefett, is scatterid by the ■wind; smne is worH away by slreams. 
It is the mother and at the samt time the cffmmoa tamb of all 
Ihingt. Z47-260. 

(2) Water,too, is ferishable ; the sea, streami, and springs are aiways 

ffverflinsing ■urith neui supplies, while the sum is ever the same ; 
for wind and sun tahe attiay a fari, and a fiart through tht 
tarthjiiids its way back to tht imrcts cf rrners. 261-27«. 

(3) 7Sf air, likewise, is hourly cAanging ; for into it goes whata/er 

passts offfrom things, and unless it gqvt back matter to Ihings 
they niould all de turned into air. 273-280. 

(4) Andflre alee ; for Ihe sun is ahiiays semiingforlh neto light, and 

that lahich fimis from il periskes.aswhtn a cloud comes bttwttn 
U and us the lighi btlaw disapftars ; so lampi are constanlly sup- 
plyingtheplaceofoldlightviithnew; the same mmt be thought 
true of the heaveuly bedies. 2S1-30J. 

«47. IHud etc. : see n. to 1, 82. 149. dubitgLVi : ' doobl,' a rare 

meaning of dutitare wiih acc. and infin. fbllowing. 257. alid : 

eeen.ta 1,163. »S8- «dditur: 'is replcnished.'— duUo pracnl: 1,811. as9. omnipuena: see nn. to i, 250-1. 063. opns 
ert: Bupply &riwa« from declarai. — ^cttnw. down-flowing; rf. 
946) I, 283. 364. 'But whatever waler Is on the surface is 

taken ofF, and it happens thaC on Ihe whole water does not overllow.' 
366. The andents had no clear idea o£ tlK proceas of evaporation. 
aCg. virus : aee n. 10 i, 719. With the thoaght of 261-72 cf. Eccles. 
i. 7 ; ** All the rivers nin into the sea ; yet the sea in not fuil ; unlo 
the place from whenco Ihe rivers come, thither they retum again." 
071. Edd. tompare Enn. Ann. (Vahl.) 177 quod fer amotnam urbem 
lenifluitagminefiumen; an6'Vttg.Aen.l,jStlcniJluilagmiHe Tibrii; 
with 272, Hor. Ep. 16, 48 levis crtpaHte lymfka desililptdt. 

374. privas : see n. 10 3, 723. 375 el seq. No paasa(;e in the 

poem reveais more ctearly than this the ulter ignorance of the poet. 


34fi LUCRETIUS [V. 275- 

and ihe andents tn geoenl, as regardi the nitnre of chemlcal chai^cs. 
Still, 275-7 taken IoomI]' embody an important fact, Ihat innomerable 
inviaible bodies are preient in tbe atmosphere, constantly p>uh^ oS 
from things or coming into relaiion with them; the error, of conrse, 
lies In suppasing thai thexe can become air. »j6. eoatz» : see n. 

lo I, 66; hcre, of coursc, in a logical sense. aSo. reccideiei see 

n. to I, iz8. 384. prim. qulcq. etc. : ' every precedtng emission of 
brightness is quite lost to it, whcrever it fatts.' 085. binc : refers 

to what follows, aa indicaied by the punctuation. 387. inter 

qu. mmpere : tmesis. iSS. inferior; I.e, beneath the cloud. 

sBg. qua : goe» with twH^. agg. Ijrchlni; Mudto, toi fycUru ; 

Lachmann writes lythni, the common fonn o{ the word; bnt Hnnro 
thinks Lucr.knew onty the trisyllablc fonn, " whether he ¥rroie lyihhri 
or luchini or licAini ; or even one of the stitl older forms ludni or 
licini." The /endittiet iyciini weic lamps suspended by chains from 
Ihe ceiling. With this linecf.Verg.Aen. 1,^26 depentlcnt lycknilagut- 
ariiuiaureii; »ee Macrotnus, Sat 6, i, 18. ag0. taedae •■ slipsof 
pine, used for IJght in processions, and for going into dark placea; 
somelimcs also for torture; cf. 3, 1017, They correspond to the 
' pine knots ' so much used in the South and in frontier settlements. 
agg-301. The place o( ihe periahing light is so quickly and continii- 
ously supplied by new ligtit Ihat no change is noticed. 

3, Sacti anJthe most endunng Uructvra fiaaily yield to iime, and 
t^y- 3ofr-3'7- 

4. Tiie ettvtliipii^ ktaven, i/, at tmne lay, it iegeti all thingt Jrtm 
ilteif and receivei them batlt agaiit, tiui ever thanging muit ie mofioL 

30^ta IionicaL Cf. 2, 1100-4. 3H>- nMnrM loedeim: 

•ee n. to i, 586. 319. sene: Munro, far eumque. Lachmann 

reads the line guaefore fr o fare vetittanque teneieere eredai, in which 
there seems (o be unnecessary cbange ; tene, i.e. le-ne, not from itntx. 
Trans. * Ask for themselves as well whether yoa 'd believe that t h e y 
decay withyearsF' 313. silices; see n. to i, 571. 3iS.qiime: 
=^ li ea. 318. boc: i.e., caeluni. Cf. n. to i, xyt /ater aether. 

330. quidam : PacuTins and Ihe like. Edd. quote a passage of Pac. 


!J6.] NOTES 347 

Uic vide drcto Ripnqae qaid cempian) cdntinM 

tdJisque exorta apoigir dadontDt occud D^gret, 
M quod nomri otluin mcaionni, Giil pcihlbeiil aJIhuB : 
quJdquid cflt hoc,«^iiiipiii miiiiDat, ^rmat, alit, u^^ crut, 
■Ip^it Rcipilque in hq oiniu, dioniiuBqufl ideia ^ pattr, 
lndideiiiqiie ead^n quu oriunlur, dc latecro iwqae aoileiD dccidlint 

which tt is thoughc Lucr. folloired. 313. deminui : i.c, eut» ret 

augit alitquf. With the thought of 312-3, cf. 3, 517-8. 

J. Hadtkt TBorld txatid frem Oemity, thepeeti Temdd smg ef dadt 
baekfar heymd tht taUt e/ Thibes and Tray. Dost tkink that, thim^ 
Ihe morld hai aiaays been, heat, earthquakis, er fioeds deslreyed the rtut 
tfment Titea nmeh the more is thi werld proved inertal ; fsr a 
mere petettt eatae migit have ■arte^d the iverld iiself. 324-350. 

336. Bupera: s«e n. to i, 4:9. — funercTriMaa: see n. to i, 464. 
330. BummA: i.e,, JfVf/UMina rKrum, synonyinotis wilh iXHniA'. Scc 
n. to I, 335. 33>-5- Guyau find* in Lucr. the poet of progress ; 
cf. 'Hoiale d'£picure et «es rapporta avec les doctrines contempo- 
raines,' p, 1591 ' Without doubt alreidy Ihere hive been found in 
Lucretiui a large number of modern ideas, u those of evolution and 
of natural selection ; but thal of huoun progresa, tnoral, intellectutit, 
and indnstrial progress, irhich be has so cleuly expreascd, haa up to 
the pTcsent hardlybeen noticed. Still, Che fifth book of Lucretius has 
the most *triking analogy with the "Esqaisse des progris de 1'esprit 
humain," drawn in our day by Condorcet.' 336. cum pTimls ; 
see n. to l, 130. 336-7. Previous to Lncr., homver, C. Ama- 
finius had treated in bad prose the physical docCrines of Epicurus ; 
Zeller ftom Cic Tusc. Disp. 4, 3. 6 (ixes his daCe " not long afCer tbe 
philoBophic embassy of 156 B. c." C(. Cic. Acad. I, l, 5 viJ^s autem 
. . . ne* posse nos Amafinii aui Rabirii similis eae, qtii nuUa arte adhi- 
tita dt rtbta anlt eculos pasitis volgari strmone disfiitant ; niAU defiHiunt, 
Mihil partiunlHr, niAil apta interrogatieme eeneludunt, nuJIam denigue 
arttm eiii nte dieendi nec disstrendi putanl. Perh.ip3 it was on ac- 
counC of Cheir style CbaC Lucr. passes over in conlempt the services of 
Amafinius and Rabirius (or Kabinos) in popularizing the Epicurea» 
philoBophy; at any rate, tbeir books were much read, as is evidcnl 
from Cic Tusc. Disp. 4, 3, 6 euius (Amafiaii) libris tdilis cemmiOa muS- 
titude coHtulil se ad eam pstissimum disciplinam, live gued .dr^' "'" 


348 LUCRETIUS [V. 336- 

perfxdlit, ihx qusd ittvitaiatilur inltctbrit Uandis ^uplatit, live eHaM, 
fuia miii erat firelatum tneliut, illud, quod eral, lenrbant. See Ritter, 
'HUt. of Phil.'iv. 81-3; Zeller, ' Stoics, Ep., and Scep." ch. 15. C; 
Reid's 'Acidemici,' Inttod. pp. 26-7; cL nn. to 20, andi, 25; 1,9:8- 
93O' 339> saecla. see nn. to i, 20 and 202. — vapore: see n. to 

1,491- 34"- vexamine : found only hcre. 343. cooperu- 

iase : pronounccd aa i[ cdptruiiu ; cf. 6, 491 cSperiunl, for eooptriunl. 
So 3, S61 detrrarunt; 1, 711 derratse ; see n. to l, 43. 343. ne- 

Ceaieat : aee n. to i, 270. 345 et aq. A similar ai^ment is used 

3, 592- tt seg. to siiow tiiat the soul perishcs with the body ; cf. espe- 
ciollf 346-7 witb 3, 602. 345. perictis : Epicurus held that aU 

the innumenible worlds would be destroyed, some in one way, some 
in another. Cf. Diog. I^ert. 10, 73 ' A11 (the worlds) must be ^ain 
dissolved, some more rapidly, some more slowly, and some from 
one cause, some from another.' Cf. FluL Plac 3, 4. 350. atqnc : 

•ee n. to I, >8t. 

6. Wialevtr it imperishabli muit rilher pessest a nahat una^eted 
iy blaiet, sr must KHf he txpmtd ts blevts, or must Aaae ne surrounding 
vaid iitla whick it can bt disidved. Tlie antrlj meeli nane sf ihett condi- 
Hons, ktnce is difomid. Ifenct, teo, nv inimi il kad a btgianing; for, be- 
iHg peritkailt, U could nal Aave tumived /mm au infinile fait. 351- 

35S. cum: see n. to 1,347. — ictu»: see n. to i, 5:8. 355. «nte! 
I, 483 et stg. 3 j8, neque . . . bilnm : see n. to 3. 120. — fnngl- 

tnr; see n. to i, 441. 359. lod: u in i, 482, where see n. 

360. qno : s in qnem. jGt. BummoTum anmma : the oni- 

verse ; tumma rtrum is nsed with the same signitication ; cf. n. to i, 
*35. With 361-3 cf. 2, 303-7, 3fla. qui: = aliqui; as Munro 

remarks, " you would ezpect ullm (or juisjuam), just as in 359 nulla 
leei ft cepia." 3G4. nti docni : i, 329 el teq. — mundi: the 

universe is impctlshable, but the world is not. 3S7. ex inSnito : 

refers to space; d. n. to i, lool. Epicuius taught that the spice 
between the worlds (furati itla^m (uiimiM or fuTuArfuoi') was 
not abaolutely void, bul contained more or less stray matter. See 
Diog. Laert 10, 89. How his goda managed to pass an undisturbed 
and ever-blessed existence there, it is hard to iinaiine. 373- leti 


397.1 NOTES 349 

7. Tie xm-ld'i members, hetfy Taarriag, art nata kclii in chtct by hal- 
anct nffiirets ; iu/ mmttimt heal may conqiier maislure, er moislure Aeat. 
Once,ilit tiUd,firt praiaiUd,and once-aiiiter i the likt mayhappen again 
toilh deitrticlum mare far-reaching. 380-415. 

. : four members are mentioned 235-6 ) but the poet 

herc speaka on!y of the strife between fire and water. In Ihe last 
paragraph the extenul causes of destruction were discassed ; he now 
talce? up the causes that may lurk within the world itself. — pfo nc- 
quaquom : because of their relationahip. 381, oUis ; see n. to 

I, 671. 383. vel cum etc.: another vel would be cxpected, as 

Munro observcs, to conlplete the conslr. ; hut at 3S6 the poct gives a 
different tum to the thought, and changes the form of the sentence. 
Instances of a lilce chai^e of constr. are not uncommon. With this 
■trife between fire and water I^mhinus compares the famous ttir 
inixi' "'' contest between Apollo and Neptune, in Homer. Anaximan- 
der held thal the tea would sometime dry up ; this must lead to the 
burning up of the earth, as thc elements of beat and fire woald then 
preponderate. Heraclitus taught that the present order of things 
would come to an end in a great conflagration ; see n. to l, 63S. Cer- 
tain of Ihe Stoics believed that the world is sometimes destroyed by 
lire and sometimes by doods, a new world always coming into exist- 
encc aftcr a Gred pcriod. To the last point Boethius made the apt 
ohjection that if thc world burned up, the fire after a time must needs 
go out for lack of fuel, and there wouid "be nothing left to make a new 
world out of. Xenophanes, too, seems to have taught the periodical 
viaitation of the earth hf floods. 387. dUuviare : noPfound else- 

whcre. The thougbt of 386-7 is explained by 269-372. 383-9. Cf. 
366-7. 3M- cum : conceisive. 394 ii explained below 396-405 ; . 

395, 411-2. 396. Buperat : = inperanit ; see n. on i, 70 inrital. 

397. PIwetbDnta : the poet interprcls tbe myth of Pbaeton after the 
manner of the Stoica, supposii^ it to have a basis of fact in some vast 
and destnictive conflagrajion. For a similar expianation of the story 
see Keightley's ' Mythology.' I^mbinus compares Flato's interpreta- 
lion Hm. 21 c : ' Now tliis has the form of a myth, but realty signi- 
fies a declinalion of the bodies moTing around ihe earth and in the 
heavens, and a great conflagration of things upan the carth recurring 
at long intervala of time ; when this happens, those who live upon the 
mnunUina aad in dry and lofty places are more liable to doBtractioll 


350 LUCRETIUS [V. 399- 

than those who dwell by riTcrs »n<i the seashore.' Jowett"» trans. 
3gg. at etc. : MDnro notes that atpater BmHipotetis also in Verg. Aen. 
ft, 591 and Ov. Het. i, 304 "begins the description of Jupiter strilung 
a man with ligbtning; " in Aen. 7, 770 and Or. Het. I, 154. tnm ^tr 
oatnipatem is osed in a similar manner. 400. ma^Bnimuin : 

Ovid «pplles this epithet to Phaethon, Het. 2, iii. His prolix but 
apirited account of Fhaethan (Met. I, 1.-400) In severat ptaces shonrs 
the influence of the present passage. Ovid was one of the few promi- 
nent literary raen of his time th»t adralred Lacrctios, and were not 
ir af raid to own it. Cf.Amorum i, 1^*3-4: — 

409. «eterawD etc, : inconsistent with the very point that is being 
provedi but, as Uunro suggcsts, Lucr. is here spealcing as a poet. 
405. veteraa etc. ; cf. i, 630. 409. ratione : see n. to i, iia. 

411. umor etc: the reference is to the Sood which Deucalion and 
Pflrba alone survived. See Ov. Het. I, 260-451. 415. Notice 

the chiaatic arrangement. 

ii. Thb Forhatioi) or the World. 
t. Tbe cvolation of the world. 416-^. 

Naw, hngyoa galhirins pf matterfermid earlk, sky,sea,the slatand 
maati, I ihall lel forlh. Frr not wilk guiding reasan nnu tke ■amrld 
hmlt ; butfrem infinill time alems <f every kind clasking tried allformt 
of uniaH till iarlA,Ma, sky, and tiving tkings resullej. 416-431. 

41O et seq. The poet has proved that the world mnst periah, and 
atso that tt had a beginning ; he now proceeds to show ctf what sort 
tbat l)eginnlng was ; how, from a clond of falllng atoms clathing in 
spaM, the present order of thingi hsa come abont and condnoes in 
existence. 410. materiai ; see n. to l, 5; primardia, Bj Ihe 

cBnieetus maleriai the poet mcans the atoow fallii^ in the Toid before 
tbe world was) see t,to et se^. 419-4«* ^ t, 10ZI-4, whers 

see nn. 413-4. =» 187-191. 408. Repeated trom i, 1016. 

4*9-431. Cf. 2, 1061-3. Munro £nds in tbe repetition of line* and 


«3-] NOTES 35' 

ttTclcM Btnictnre ot thii introdnctaTy paBsage, additional eridenca 
that the poem wu left in an iDCumplete statc. The poaiiioD of Lucr. 
in th«se lines U eiactly thal of modern materUtistic erolntiou. Cf. 
Flint, ' Anti-Theistic Theorie»,' p. 69; "The development tbeorr 
has been Ingeniously iniproved at numy particular pomu ia recent 
times, bdt it has not been widened in ranfe. It wu jint m compre- 
beii3i*e in Uie hands of Lucretius as it is in those o( Herbert Spen- 
cer. Its alm and method are still the •ame; iia problemi are the 
sanie | its prloclples of solation are tbe same ; the solutions thent- 
selves are ofteo tbe same "; also an able uticle t^Prof, Mfiie;, ' Her- 
bcrt Spencer in tbe Light of History," in the Baptiat Quarlerly 
Review, toI. 5, no. 19 (1883); Tyndall, 'The Belfast Address' (in 
' Fragmeots ihF Science ') ; l^nge, ' Hist. of MalerialiBm,' ii. 340 
// sef. ; Spencer, ' Prin. of Psychology,' i. 465, a. ; Hacckcl, ' Nat. HisL 
of Creation,' 1. 35 : " Scientific materialism positively rejects every 
belief in the miraculous, and every conception, in wbatever fbrm It 
appears, of aupematuTal processes." CL also nn. to 1, 150; 1, 443; 
■> Sz}-€| and Introd. 

Btfore tht ■untrld wai Steri ■axu discardintt amcourse of atemi. l^en 
tlamly eamr a gathering into farts ; rff liy iecame tepartue Jrem eartA, 
teafrtm land, furt atlhcrfrpm ihe air. 432-448. 

431. Mdla n>ta : d. 564. For ihe thoughi o( 431 tf «y. d. Ov. 
Met. I, 6-30, parCicularly 6-11 : — 

IH11 bene iunctaruin diicordii keniLDa Ttimm. 
suUiu adhuc inBndo [vubetat lumina Tiao, 
■CG Don Emcmdo rcpjinbat coniu Pboebc 

433. mnndli — eaeli. 437. pcDua : d. o. to 3, 22i ; so owm 

genia'ot everr kind ' ia often used by Lncr. — principiiB : see n. to 
•■ 55- 43*-»- See nn. to i, 633-4 «id 685. 443- tnotui etc. : 

cf. I, 1030. 443. locl; gcn. dep. on iiut,' 'after that.' For eimi- 

lar use of /«firderrlng to time seeRoby,indez under^'; cf.H-397, 
4. — pare« etc.i cf. Cic De Sen. 3, 7 fiares aittem velere pravirUa 
enm fef&io fittiUiwse eai^regaii^. That the proverb was tui old one 


352 LUCRETIUS [V. 443- 

even in the tinieof Lucr.andCicero is evident from Hom. Od. 17,218 
ht mitl rir AfiolM' St« <tt> At rir ifmar, and P)at. Phaedr. 240 c. Fot 
the thaught of 443 it uq. d. the account df world^ormation byEpicu- 
rns in Us ietter to Pythoctea, Diog. I.acrt. 10, 89-90: 'suiiable 
■ecds {rwtpttirmr, i.e., 'atoins '} flowing fTom one worid, or from sev- 
eral, ot from the spaces betwecn «orlds, little b; little fonn a collec- 
tion, an organiied whole, which undcrgoes changes perchance, and 
Teceives increase until there has been produced a complete and 
enduring combination, to which successLre additions may be made,' 
etc. 446. Cf. Ov. Met. i, 21-3: — 

II is worthj of note that Ovid, in his account of the evolution of the 
world fram chaos, uses the WDTd amlvcri. Cf, Uacr. 6, 4, 14. 447. 
■OTBum : see ti. to 3, 631. 448. aetheris : by aether Ldct. BomC' 

times means the sky (see i, 250 and n.),sometimes the enveioping fire- 
belt (cf. n. to I, 73) ; this last he identifies with the pure upper air, 
which, in tbe popular beliefi as well as in several of ihe philosophic 
systems, was recognized aa a fourth part of the wotld or universe and 
a fourth element. Generally. however, Lucr. holds to the three-fold 
division of the world, which he mentions and emphasizes again and 
again. See n. to i, 6-8. 

Then tht parHelei ef earih caUeetin^ selSed in Ihe lamest filaee ; from 

tht heaoier masi thus fermed the lighter elemetUs-wert fbreed out; theie 
gathering eack viilh ils kindformed sea, air, aether, and Ihe heavenly bod- 
ies. 449-508- 

451. imaB : cf. i, 1052 el seq., and nn. 453. perplexa : tbe atoms 
got 'entai^led ' because of their irregular shapes,forwhich see s, 333 
etseq.; explained by Cic N. D. 1, 10, 54 . . . atemortim guae interiecte 
inani cokaereieHmt lamen inter se et aliae alias adprehendenles centimian' 
hir ; rx fuc ejlciuntur eae rerum formae et figurae, guas vos effici sine 
fpl/ibui et incudiius non pntatis. 453. expreBaere etc: this ac- 

count of the differentiation o( chaos into the distinct parts of the 
world in certain respects much tesembles that by Empedodcs and 


49!) NOTES 3S3 

that by Anu>go»s, for which consult Zeller. * Prae-Soc. Phil.' ii. 
IS4-8 and 354-7. It bears striking analogy also to the modeni nebu- 
lar hypothesis. 455. nitundts: see n. to 3, t86. 456. ele- 

mentis: used fay poetic tautolf^ as «ynonym of tanitabiu, which is 
itself used ior firimertiiis, jost M Epicurus has nifiiam m the passage 
quoted in n. to 442. 458. enunpeiu etc. : Ovid imitatts this, 

Met. 1,26-71 — 

iguea CDBvexi Yit tX fine pcmAcrt caeli 

Hilton, ' Par. Lost,' 3, 7 16 rf teq. 
461. gemmantis etc. : cf. Milton, ' 

iDpurii oa emrf ]ul uid CTCiy fiower, 

4S5. qnae: Ix., torfera umeris. 4BJ. diSuBilis : 'ezpansive'; 

fuund oldy here. 468. circ. . . . flezit: 'swepl around and 

arched itself on all sidea.* 471. ezordia: 'beginning$,"rudi. 

ments.'- 47». interutTaaque : adv., meanlrg 'between both,' re- 
ferring here to earth and acther. Lachmann leads inltmtraqut ; but 
Hunro (nn. to 2, 51S) well defends intcrutraiqut. 474. fuenmt : 

«ee n. to i, 406. 475. labler: see n. to i, 207. 476. et ta- 

men: see n. to i. 1050. — viva: here, as in 401 aflemam lampada 
mundi and in 514 tuUmi sidtra mundi, Munro remarks, Lucr. is using 
poetic, not philosophic, languoge. 479. ea: \.e.,aJia [tntmira). 

482. fosaas: 'faollows.' Cf. Ov. Met i, 29-31 : — 

dCDBior his leltua elen>enuq« grandia hadl, 

483. Terberlbus: see n. to i, JiS. — in artum: 'into close mass'; 
for partim ; Lachmann has tt iimini ' farli. exlrema ad limina re- 
fers to "thewhole outer suiface" beaten by the rays. 489. elabsa: 
see n. to i, 79. 441. denaebant : see n. to i, 395. For temfla see 
n. to I, 120. 403-4. So geologiats affirm that tTie unequal den- 
sity and hardness of the earth's crust. as it gndually contracts, ac- 
count in great measure for the unevenness of its surFace. 41)3. 
teiTM pondus: Ov.Met. i,^2-'^\iaAfmdertltTrat»,aApondiaajtiae. 



3S4 LUCRETIUS [V. 501- 

501. «l^ias «uru: tes n. to i, 771. 503. Iwec : U, below. 

50S. Impete: foTUK/Wx; *o««Teral dinesin Lucr. With onr paet's 
description of theMlliercf.thatoftheStoicinCic.N.D. 1,40, 101 ulti- 
mttt rt a demidlm naltrii aJHaimu omnia cingcru it coerctni eaeli cem- 
fleiait, fui idtm attka- vKatur, txtrema ora tt dettrminatio mundi, m 
pu eum admiraiilitate maxima igiuaefi>rmuu curtut erdinatat definiuHt. 
The Sttncs tielieved that the heavenly bodies arc in the «ether, tbe 
Epicureaiu ihat they arc mostly betwcen Ihe aether and tbe earth, 
in thc air. 507. Pontoa : i.e., Fontus Euxinus. Tbe Black Sea, 

with its carrent moving steadily on, indicates how it Is posaible for the 
■ether to pieserve », continuous aud uniform movemeiiL 


Tlufeet takti up /» erder tSe metimi e/ tke start, llu relalien ef tlu 
earth te tkt morld, the tite o/ tAi htavtnly bodits, the nature of tke iwt, 
the alterruUien and variatiott in lcngtk of day and nigkl, Iht amrce oftkt 
moon't ligAt, and tht catue of ecliptei. 

( 1 ) Tke motiont 0/ tht start art cauitd ijl currenli 0/ air, er iy tijtl 
e/ atlktr, er perchanet hy starch forfood. 509-533. 

509-533. Havlng shown in a general way how from a concoiirse <f 
■toma the world was fonned, the poet proceeds to eiplain thoae phe- 
nomeoa of Ihe beavens whicb are most mysterious and impressive, 
and are thonght topoint to tbe guiding and staying power of a deitjr. 
Tfais first part about the stars, however, is evidently not in close con- 
neclion witb what precedes and follows ; for this rcason it is bracketed 
by both t,achinann aod Munro. It furnishes additional evidence 
of tbe incomplete state in «hich the poem was lefl by its aulhor. 
jii et seg. 'We must saythat an air presses on the pole at eacb 
eitremity, and oa Ihe outside holds it in and closes it ia at both 
ends; then that a third air streams above and flows in the samc di- 
rection in which ihe stars of the eternal world go, shining u tbejr 
roll ; or else tbat the thiid air streams below, in order to carry up tbe 
tphere in the cootrary direction,' etc. 511. poluin : bere seems 

to niean the aiis of tbe heivens, aboul whicb tbey revolve. Against 
the ends of Ihis two air.curreQts, steadily blowing, keep the beavens 


«■] NOTES 355 

tn piace ; then 1 third alr-ciirrent caQMs the revolution of the 
beavens by blowing either orer the sphere or under ; in the last case 
the motion is produced just as the current of a stream tums a 
«ater-wheel. — aHra : the air-current holds a moat imporCant place in 
thc ciplanatiDn of phenomena both celesiial and tenestrial t^ the 
ancients. It was employed by Anazimander to eiplain the move- 
mcnt of the hcavenly bodies ; by Anaximenes, to acconnt for the drcn- 
lar tona of their orbits ; by Empedocles, to show the reason for the 
indination of tbe earth^s axis toward the path of the sun ; b^ Arche- 
laua (fcdlower of Anaiagoras) and others lo accoant for the stcadj 
poaition of the earth in thc world ; by DetnocritoB, Metrodorus, and 
the Epicureans, to explain the cause of earthquakes (cf. 6, 535~^>07)- 
Cf. also tlie Stoic doctrine that " all attributes by means of which one 
objccC is distinguisbed £rom another are produced by the exisCeDc* 
of certain air-curtents, which emanate from the centre o£ an object, 
diffuse tbemselves to its outer liuiils, and haring leached the suiface, 
retum ^un to the centre to consCitute the inward unity ; " by eome, 
moreover, air-cnrrents were given no small significance in the expla- 
nation of the soul. In maDf cases it seems as if the andent philos- 
opbera, when they liad come across a great mjrstery and wished to 
faced the dictum eipresscd in Horace's wc t/aa iitteriit, took refuge 
in an air-current, instead of a god, as unscen causc. 514. aeleml : 
•een. to476. 515, snpter: see n. to 1,79. 516, taauslra : 

explained by Munio after Nonios p. 13 and Vitmv. to, 5 (to) as 
"scoops orbasins attached to the wbeel lolift uptbe running water;" 
tiana, ' water-scoops.* 531. Sutnniatiia : taitoA oniy hcre ; the mss. 
give tbis form, wbich is generally taken as a wrong reading or an 
eqntvalenl of inmania. It is Iwtter explained, howcvcr, as derived 
from Summatms., the name of an ancient divinity who was thought 
10 preside over the noctumat sky and to wield the iighCnings that 
appear in the night; Chere was a lemple for liis worship near the 
Circus Maximus, and in tbe pediment of Ihe temple of the Capitoline 
Jupiler ihere was a leprcsentation of him. Summanla ttntplOt ihen, 
as Munro interprets, refers to the nightly Bky ; trans. ' heaven's Sum. 
manlan quarters.' 533. slve etc : ag^n Lucr. is using poetic 

language, which strictly interpreted would be inconsistent with his 
aystem. The tbought is, that the heavenly bodiea, gathering 10 iheni- 
■elTes matter to repair waste, nalurally movc whithecsoever tiie atonra 
adapted to thcBi are found in greatcst abundauce ; for lo different 


356 LUCRETIUS [V. J23- 

tfaings difierent shapes of atoms aic suited [see i, 190-1 and d.). Id 
speaking of the stars *» livbg things, however, ihe poet ms conform- 
ing to the Language of taaaf ot his pliilasophic predecessors and con- 
temporaries as well as to thit of common life ; for their diviiw nature 
«as deeply rooted in ancient thought. Aoaximander and Anaximenes 
geem to have considered the stars as created gods ; thc Pyth^oreans 
belicvcd in their divinity ; Plato and Aristotlc taught that the; are 
liviog, rational beinga i and Ihe Stoics tbought that they are peimeated 
with thc divine spirit, posseased of souU. 519. eorum: i.e.,axrmH 
eauiartnn. 517. poisit ; iiQppIy_j&n. — omne ^ ri i-ar ; see n. to 

I, 74. 5*8. mundis ; infinite in number. See n. lo 1, 73, adfin. ; 

Cic. N. D. t, 14, 67 std ubi ttt verilai ! in mundis, credo, innum^roH- 
531. inhoc: i.e. t» kec munde. — causa etc : the position of Lucr. 
heie is ezactly lliat of Epicuius, who in eiplaining naturat phenomena 
made it his piindple to assign seveial canses, any one of irhich might 
be tiue of this noild, and all of wbich might opeiate in one or an- 
other of the infiuite numbei of woilds. Thus he dedaies that the 
motion of thc stars may be due to the morementof theentire heaven; 
or tliat (hey may move while the heaven remains stationarf, either 
from an impulse given thcm wheo they were formed and conCinued by 
thcir hcat, 01 Irom the attiaction of material suitable to tbeir natore, 
etc. ; see Uiog. Laert. 10, 25, 87 et seq.; 10, 25, 111-4. Consult 
Lange, ' Hist. of Materialism,' i. 1 50 ^ seq. ; paiticutally n. 74 : " It 
is inlcresting ihat lecently a Fienchman (A. Blanqui, ' L'dcriiit^ par 
les Asties, Hypoth^ astionomique,' Paris, 1S7Z) has cairied out 
again, quitc seriously, the idea that eveiytlving possibte is somcwheie 
and at somc time realized in tbe universe ; and, in fact, has oftcn 
been reatized, aiid that too aa an inevitable consequence, on the one 
hind, of Ihe atuolute infinity of Ihe universe, but on tl>e other of the 
finite and everywhere constant numtiei of the elements wfaose possibte 
combinations mtist also be finite." Cf. Luci. 2, 480-521. 

(2) Tlte eoTik rests in peise, in Ihe middle ef Ike wrrld; ils weigkt 
gradually lessens beltno, and undernealk is a nature clasely connected tnitk 
it and wilh tke air aiaul it. Ifitk Ikis il iai exisled, fermil^ viith it a 
vkBle,from tke begianing tf tke werld ; neilkrr ts burdened by the atker, 
any more tkan a mait ii iurdened by iit eivn limbs, 534-563. 


579-] NOTES 357 

534. med. mundl ng.: cf. i, 1052 et seq. and nn. The nniverse 
has no centre, bnt the wurld bas. Lucr. nonrhcTe gives a hint as to his 
idea of the earth'» shape. Froa his rejeciion of the belief in the 
antipodes, howevcr, and froiD what is said here of a nature beneath 
supportjng it,we maysnppose thathe conccivedof it asflat. Epicunis 
(Dii^. Laert 10, 74) says that 'we are not to suppose that the world* 
of nccessity have one and the same sliape.' According to Diog. 
Laert. he tanght that some are spherical, some elliptical, and others 
of other sbapes. Regarding the shape oE the eaitli, however, no defi- 
niie statement of his bas come down to us ; he merely says ttiat it 
rests suspended on the air (d)>--)^r ry Upt ^nxiiirftu). Tbis ia sug- 
gcstive tii the view of Anaximenes, that the carth is broad and flat, 
and is snpported by the air. Lencippus and Democritus BuppOBcd it 
to be "an eiceedingty flat cylinder, which suppoits itself on the air 
by means ot its bteadtb." 537. uniter : seen. to 3, 839. 53^ vi- 
vit : truiy a strange word for a tborough.going materialist 10 apply to 
Ibe earth. Ancient thooght was penueated with hylozoistic and pan- 
theistic ideas ; cL n. to 514 ^trni. 544. per multo : should be 

fermulta. 545. quid etc : 'what function each Ihing has to per- 

fbmi.' 5GB. potis : see n. to i, 451. Fof the thought d. 3. 161 

(3) Thenm,themeoH,andtke3iariariefaii>atl&4tai7UiiuthattAty 
uem tomiBbe- 564-591 . 

5fi4-5. Cf. the statement of Epicutus, Diog, Laert. 16, 91 ' In rc- 
gard to the size of boih Ihe sun and Ihe other heavenly bodies, it is 
indeed, as f ar as pertaina lo ns, such as it appears to bc.' This doc- 
trine eeems to have been peculiar to Epicurus and his followera. 
Leucippas and Democritus held that the sun is much larger thao the 
earth, and Chat the shadows o( mountains can be traced on the 
nioon's Eurface. Cf. Cic. De Fin. 1, 6, 30; Acad. i, «6, 8a; Plnt. 
Plac. 2, zi, 4; Sen. N. Q. i, 3, 10. 564. solis rota: cf. 433. 

560. quibna . . , cumque : tmcsis. 568. UIb: apalia. 571. loca: 
\.e., corponim noilronim. 57». filum : ' siie.' 575. notho : 'not 
gcnuine,'i.c., 'not her own," borrowed.' Whether the moon sbines 
with her own or with borrowed ligbt cannot be known, and makes no 
difference; the size is not greater than itappearstobe. Cf. ja$et sef. 
and nn. 578. quam : supply^^m. 379. prius : with 581 fuam. 


358 LUCRETIUS [V. 583- 

The statement l> not tni«. 3B3. nl . > . cumque : tmesis; 'it 

musl be «een by us on high from the earth {iiiie) precisely such 
as il is in the outline which defines it, and ot the size it actually is.' 
584. qnaiit«i quanta. : ^ qutmlatumqtu, tui ante-dassical usage. 
585- liinc: 'from the earth,' a» ^'win 584; IhelineBhould be taJten 
In cloBe conncction with J90-1 ; 536-{h introducing a comparisoB, are 
parentheticaL 589. alleram etc : provided tbe flickeritig of a 

fire is scen clearl j and its heat perceived, the aize seems to Tatj tcij 
llttle,— inappearing eitherlarger or smaller, — whethMoae be near 
at hand or far ofi, in prop<Htion to the distance. The compaiison is 
copicd frocn EpicoruB ; see Diog. Laert 10, 91 ' Bat taken I^ itselt, the 
sun may be a Itttle lat^et or a little smaller than it appean^ or of th« 
same uze that it seems to be ; for just so it is with fires among us, 
which are seen at a distance and perceived (diiectly) by tbe senses.' 

(4) The emijiien nf se much ligAt and kiaf from the tuM, Usdf m 
tmail, may ie cansid by Ihi leiKKrrenie ef ftery partielet, or by Ihe ium- 
ittg of the air arouHil it,orbylhe eiisteme near il of a narf taisem fir* 
(592-613). The sun gotnrorr in ayear Ihe samt epace tf the Aeaneiuie- 
tuieen Ihe eigni Ihat the minm traveriei in a maitlh, beiaiae tht sfetd ef 
Ihe hcanenly bodies is Itst Ihe nearer they are le the larlh ; the moai ii 
nearer than Ike sun, tke sua tkan Ihe ttars, ahich Iherifore in Iheir steifi 
onvjard coarse first pass thc moon, and thcn the sun ; hince Ihe moon 
setms logafaster than the sun. Or ferchance cnrretits of air may heef 
drivinglhe tuHattdmoonfrem summer lo viinter lolstice and back again. 

595. vapore : see n. to I, 491. 596. hlnc ; i.e., ex eale. 597. 
•catere; see n.to40. — enunpen: genendly inUaositiTe inwritera 
of the classical peiiod. Cf. 4, 1115 le erufil. B05. percipiat; 

trans. literally ; foi the foice of po" see n. to 1,3 per le. Cvj. 

ardoribaa : strokes or blows of heat ; ietui ii a pirticiple. CoS. 

geaua : see n. to 3, aai. flii. " Tyndall," says Munro, " quotes 

what he calls 'thi« temarkable pass^e ' before his essay on ndialion, 
Frag. of Science,' p. 1 70 ; and in the course of the essay shows tbat 
the sun's inTisibte lays far transcend (he visible ia heating power; 
and that about 98 per cent. of the whole radiatioB from oor £res 
consists of invisible rays." 614. ralio; ' cxplanatioD.' 615. 

aegocerotis : ^ aly«»ipimt, gctL. of ao^eipvi, the Gieek for O^ri- 


648.] NOTES 359 

tomui. SiS. lunaqne : the fue is slightly adversative, ' and yet.' 

— menBibns : i.e., every month. — Bpatium: Le., between the tropic 
of Capricom and the tropic o£ Cancer. vidtatur is passive. 619. 
cursu : pleonaslic, yet adding to the clearness of the statement. 
611. vel; intensive. 633. Cf. 3, 371 and n. 624, caeli tur- 

bine : assumcd in Ihe first explanation of the moTements o£ the stars, 
5loabove. 635, evaucsccre : dieil Democritus. Cf, 535. — illius: 
eaili iurbinit. 638. fervida signa : wiongly explained by Zel- 

ler, ' Prae-Soc. Phil.' ii. 250, n. 3 as " the signs of the Zodiac in which 
tbe sun is in summer." They are rather, as Munro otiserves, those 
signs o( the Zodiac mhich are higher, and hence are carried on in 
more rapid revolution. 629-31. The nearer the moon's course is 

to the earth the tess able it is to keep up with the awifter-moving 
signs above it C35-6, The signs in Cheir swifter revolution come up 
to the moon and pass by it (praittrquc firuntur). Now Ihey com- 
pleic their circuit and overtake it again, and so onj the moon in 
consequence appears to be travelling faster than they in an oppo- 
sife direcCion ; it seems to be hastening to meet the 'signs, when in 
reality they are going much faster in the same directton, and continu- 
ally overtaking it. 637. Bi!r : Cbe poeC has in mind two air- 

currents, as indicated by aJier in 638 : the one blows the san from the 
sommer signs lo those o£ winter ; the other blows it from the winter 
signs to those o£ summer. C£. n. to 51 1 aira. 638. altemis : 

see nn. to i, 524 and 767. 643. fervida signa : here, as the con- 

nectiou sbows, the signs of Che Zodiac that the sun visiCs in the 
summer. 644. magnos annos : i,e,, the vast periods o£ tlie 

steltar revolutions; see n. to i, 1029, But c£. Diod, Sic, z, 46 \4yfTii, 
H nil rhr ttir Si' ir&r ivytatmiiiiiii Kirtitvrmi tU 'H)' riiso». ir olt 
jrol ai Tuy itrTptar tiroKaTatrrifrtti iit\ ri^ot iyoyrat. frol Srck tovto 
rhv trvtaKaittKa.tTTi xfirov {nih Tir 'EAA^vi»' fiiyar iviavThv 
ovo/iif.ireai. The line is imitaled from Cicero'3 Aratea; see n. to 1, 
162. Iii his n. to 619 annua Munro gives a numbcr of passages that 
show the influence of tbe Aratea. 646, diversis etc. : 'wich 

winiis blowing from opposite quarCers tbe clouds go in opposile di- 
rections, tbe lowcr in a way contrary to the upper,' 648. qui: 

see n, to l, i63, Epicurus assigns four possible causes for the mo- 
tions of the sun and moon, Diog, Laert. 10, 93 'The movements of 
fhe Bun and moon between Ihe Iropics may be due eilher to the ob- 
liquity impressed by faCe on the heaven at certain epochs, or to the 



Tesistance of the air, or to Ihe f act that being on fire they hive need ot 
suitable inatteT,-and tbat this gives out, or lastly to the fact that in the 
beginning they received an impulse Ihat compels them to move describ- 
ing a kind of spiral figure.' As regards the causes of the movements 
o£ Ihe sun and moon, the anciests were not a.t all agreed. 

(S) ^W*' ^twfj- eilier became thifires qf Ike sun are burntd <mt or 
btcause U tumi ili c<mru umier l&e earlh (650-5). Day folleiwi, Tokett 
the sun rehimijrim under tke earth lo ils course above, cr beeause iiaa 
/ires at a fixed Hme htrve galhtrid ; for many things kappat at reguiar 
intirvals (656-679), Oays and nigkts vary in lengtk tilher for tkt rca- 
son Ihal Ihe lun runs above and belovi the earlh in unegual cmrsei, or 
tkal Ihe air in some quarlers is more dense, kindering its progress, ar Ihat 
at certain teasons the seeds offire collect mare slmoly (6S0-704). 

653. itere: old abl. of iler, whlch had also a nom. iliner. Neae 
(' Formenlehre ') gives but two other instances of the use of ilere. 
The theoiy in 651-3 was held by Xenophanes and Heraclitus. On the 
Other hand, the Pythagoreans taught that the sun is an opaque body 
of a glassy nature, reflecting light and heat from the central fire; 
night comes when the earth is on the opposlte side of the central fire 
from the sun, and presenls to it the side opposite to ns. Similar was 
the view of Empedocles, that the sun concentrates heat from the 
bright hemisphere which is Dver us by day. The olher eartier physi- 
cistsfor the most part made out that the sun is a fierybody or mass of 
flames confined, and that nlght is caused by the dlp of the sun in ils 
circular orbit under the eaith. Anajiimenes, howevei, sald that night 
results from the golng o£ the sun behind Ihe northem moUQtains. 
With the alternatives proposed by Lucr. cf, Epicurus, Diog. I-aert. 
10, 92 'The rlsings and settings of the sun, the moon, and the oiher 
heavcnly bodies, may lake place on account of their being kindled, 
and dying out ; and in other ways they may be produced, as In the 
cases previously mentioned, for the appearances manlfcst to the senses 
in no way contradict this. They may happen, too, from the passlng 
of the heaventy bodies aljove and betow the earth ; for this also is in 
no wise inconsistent with appearances.' 655. orbem : the sun'3 

disk. 65G. Matuta: i.e., Mater Matuta. The Roman goddess oE 

the dawn. She is not, however, to be Identified with the Greek 
Aurora; and it Is likety ttiat Ihe name is only a titte o£ Juno. Ttie 


708.3 NOTES 361 

Romaiia thetBselves someltmes idcntified MatuCa witli Leucixbei, ilie 
daughler of Cadmos. 664. dispersoa etc. ; edfl. relcr to Diod. 

Siculus, 17, 36, where this plienomenon is described at lenglb; cf. 
also Id. 3, 47. It was doubtteas due to refraction. In some regiona 
the sun often appears of irregular stiape. 66g. certo etc. : the poct 
here, as often, appeats to the observed fact of the uniformity of na- 
ture and the regutarity ot natural processea. Cf. u '74 <' '^l- and n. - 
to I, 586. 671. arbuHta: aee n. lo i, 187. 677. fuerunt ; see 

n. to I, 406- 679. consequBisee nn. to 1,215 and S^o. Consi- 

qiie quoqui iatn rideant 13 Lachmann's emend. for censtquiat qnoqiie 
iam rertm. 63l. lucea: for ditt, as often. 682. aut: thc 

correlatives are below, 696 and 701. — idera: 'the same' sun as 
oppoaed to Ibe notion in 701^3 of a fresh sun every morning. 
084. orbem ; ' orbit.' 685 et seq. In running couraes of un- 

equal length alx>ve and I>elow the earth, the sun adds just as much to 
tlic one part as is talcen from the other ; the tonger that part of his 
course above the earth is, just so much the shorler that part betow the 
carth witl l>e, and vice iieria. The inequatity witt continue tilt the sun 
reaches the equinoxes (uRni nodm), at wtiich tlie day and the niglit are 
cquat in length. 6B1). cursu : f or cursu solis. — Satus : gen. af (er 

wralfl 'midway lietween.' 690. metas : usually explained as Ihe 

two Itopica. Munro, with good reason; makes it refer to tbe points 
where the sim rises and aets ; " the heaven kecps his two goals at an 
«qual distance from north and south, i.e., speatdng toughty the sun 
rises and scts due cast and west ; " and thia is so ' on account of the 
posiiion of the whole starry circle.' 695. notarunt : ' mapped out.' 
701. sic ; i.c, aere craisiore. 703. certa piirte ; " a particular 

quarter, which varies every day throughout thc year," Munro cx- 
ptaina. After 704 a verse has fallcn out, Munro thinks, something 
like juifaciuni solis nova semper lumina gigni ; otherwise 704 is well- 
nigh meaningtess where it standa ; Lachmann altaches it to 703, and 
tnakcs no cliange, but nith extreme violence to the senae. 

(6) 77ie mmm may inrrvw its Ughtfrom the lun, ar shini ■with its own 
ligii, or bt tnade anfw every day. 705-7 50, 

•jlrj. speciem : ' sight ' ; so 724 ; 4, 236 and 24«. 708. donique ; 

oldformof i&Bfi", found alao 723, 997; 2, 1116; donicum also is some- 
tiines met witb in theolderwritera. See Neue, ' Formentelire,' ii.So^; 


362 LUCRETIUS [V. 709- 

cf. t, 2(). 709. super: adv.; aee n. ta i, 66 cimlra, 710. ez 
etc: 'trom a difEcrenC quaiter through the circle of the signs.' 714. 
cursua: depends on viatn ; pleonastrc. 71G. TOlvier: see n. to 

I, 207. 717. corpus etd: on the aupposilion that the moon 

shines with its oirn light, Ihe complete or partia.! withdrawal of ils 
brightness at times may be accounted for in two ways : either a dark 
bodj in a Tegular course through the heavens partly 01 entirely hides 
itfroni ns (717-9); or it may be bright oniy on one side, and, being 
Bpherical, in the course of its revolulians may present to us first the 
light and then ihe daik side, with vaiying phascs (720-730). 730. 

potest: i.e., iuna. — globus pil«i; 'spherical ball.' — si forte : = 
fortasse, t\ Tiixoi, Munro remarfcs, and serves as a connecting particle 
in passing to a new hypothesis, being about the same as est Hiam iil 
versari fiossii, ul gli>ius tXi:. 733. quaecumque r scc n. to I, IO43; 

eant /artem, of course, refei* to the bright side uf the moon. 736. 
glomer. «tque pilai: = giatui filai abave. -jvj. ChaldBenm : 

see n. to l, l divom; it depends, of course, on doelrina. Berosus oE 
Babylon (lived in tbe first half of the third century B.c.) and his fol- 
lowers taught that thc moon is a sphere, half bright and half dark. 
738. astrologorum : nol ' astiologers,' hut * astronomers,' though both 
significations are met with in classical writera. The rcference is to 
tbose who beld that thc moon's Itght is derived from the sun, as most 
of the Greeks who did not personify (he sun and moon taught. 
Tbisvieiv is said to have been first set forth by Anaximenes (see Zel- 
ler, ' Prae-Soc. Fhil.' i. 275 for ref. to orlginal aulhoritiea) ; Ihe 
Pythagoteans, however, believed that the moon, like thc sun, is a 
glassy sphere, which leflects light and heat back to the eartb from the 
central fire ; Anuagoras and Democritus agreed that both sun and 
moon are bodies of earthy nalure, heated by the moCion of the sky ; 
and Xenophanes said that the moon bums out and is kindled afresh 
This lasl view has been atlrilmted 10 Heraclitus also, but on msufii- 
cient authorily. — contra : aa in i, 66 where see n. ; here for cni-. 
tra hos. 739. uterque : Chaldaeus et asfrologus. 730. hoc : 

obj. of ampl/ctier; 'this view.' 

731 el seq. Cf, the same argument regarding the aun, 660-679. To 
this last view the poet himself most inclines ; it is, in fact, the most 
consistent with his system. Wiih the alternatives proposed here by 
Lucr. cf. Epicurus, Diog. Laeit. 10, 94-5 : ' Tbe waxings and waning 
of the moon may be caused by its revolutions, or by the differcnt 


749-] NOTES 3^3 

shapea it may assume, like air, or by inlerpositions of another body, 
or in any of ihe ways in which we speak of similar phenometia hap- 
pening before our eyes ; with Ihis condition, however, ihal one do not 
devoCe himself Co any one opinion, rejecCing the others inconsider- 
ately, and, being ignorant of nhat it is possible, what impossible, to 
explain, on Chis account become desirous of explaining things that 
cannoC be known. Perhaps Ihe moon sblnes by her own light, 
perhaps she geCs il from the sun ; (or among us one sees niany things 
having lighl of Cheir own, and many shining by leflectlon. . . . The 
appearance of a face in the moon may be due to a transposition o( 
parts, or to the inCerposition of some body ; or to any oCher causes of 
euch characCer ihal Chey are able to account for appeaiances of this 
kind.' 733. privoa: see n. to 3, 723. 734. pBrte; 'room,' a 

significalion of fiars found nowhere else, according Co Manro. 737. 
Venus; see n. to i, 1. Edd. nollce the su^esllon in the following 
linesof aprocession.or, asMunroslylesit, "a pantomunic representa- 
tion"of the fourseasons. — praenuntius : lo whom does this referf 
The connectlon suggesis Zephyrus ; because the west wind is a marked 
feaCure of the aoutb Italian spring, and the winds were rcpresented aa 
winged (pinnalus). N. P. Howard, followcd by Munro, quoCes 4, 1057 
tuimqui voluptatem fraesagit muta cupida, and thinks Ihe reference is 
to Cupid, — a well-chosen inCerpretation ; Flora foilows ** on Ihe sleps 
of Zephyr, in advance of Sprlng, Venus, and Cupid, and strews their 
path wllh flowers." 73^. viai cuncta : sec n. to l, S£. 741. 

Indelocl; seen, 10443. l^- etesiaflabra: cf. 6, 716. During 
|une, July, and Augusl in Central and Soothem Ilaly winds blow £rom 
the north and northeast with great regularlly ; they were hence called 
ttitiat (frijffioj) because of their annual recnrrence. CE. Cic. N. D. 2, 
53, 131 quam salutaris nen medo hominum sed tttam ptcudtim gtntri, tii 
dtnique omnihus quat oriuntur e ttrra, vtntos Eteiiatl qinrrum ftaiu 
mmii timfieranlur calorts ; ai isdtm etiam maritimi cursus ctlerts et Ctrli 
dirigutttur. 745. Voltumua; supply vtntut. 746. bruma: tbe 
severesl part of winter comes after the shortest day; hence hiemf* 
ttquitur htmt etc 749. rusus: see b. Io 3, looi. 

(7) T^ tciipitt gf tie lun may ie tauied ty the mom or by tome dark 
iedy passing bttweat il and the earih, or by Ihe dying eut sf iti fires ; 
Iholt o/ the moon, by tise earth cultitig off the light receivtd from ikt stm, 


3^4 LUCRETIUS [V. ?S3- 

w hy sMHt cfagiit bedy paising ielwein H and tht earth or ietaieen it 
and llu lUH, orbylhe langmshitig c/iSs evm brightniss. 751-770. 

753. cur luna etc. : the commoneat, and as it happens the cor- 
rect view, is mentioned first. The Egyptians and Ihe Chinese 
calculated eclipses centuries before the Greeks began to speculate. 
754. a terri» : 'onlhe side toward the earth.' See n, to 1, 693. — ei; 
i.e., soli or lumini lolis. 756. aliut : see n. to i, 469. Por the 

theoiy cf. 717-9. — facere id : see n. to l, 667. 7S7-76I- corre- 

spond to 660 ^ j^;. 763. Buper: 'besides.' 764. coni: ihe 

cxpression must lefer to the cone-line shadow cast by the earth, 
through which the moon passes ; menslrua agrees with the subjcct of 
ptriabilm; refetring to luna. But where docs Lucr. get his cone-like 
shadow f He conceives of the earth as f!at ; in this passage, then, 
he muat stand convicted of a bold inconsistency, having idopted 
an aslroninnical notion that does not harmonize with his syslem. 
765-7. Correspond to 717-9- If this dark body comes below the 
moon it shuts the moon's light off from Ihe earth ; if it passes abovc 
the sun's orb, it culs the sun'5 light off from the moon, making it 
invisible. 768. et tainen ; see n. to i, 1050. 768-770 cor- 

respond to 731 ef sef. With the whole passagc cf, Epicurus, Diog. 
Laert. 10, 96 ' Eclipses of the sun and moon may be caused by their 
being eitinguished, just as we scc happening in regard to things on 
earth, or from Ihe interposition of other bodies, the earlh or the sky 
or something of thc kind. Thus we must set side by side the diSer- 
ent ways in which phenomena may talte place, and bear in mind Ihat 
it is nol impossible £or several causes to concur. Now in the twelfth 
book on Natuie Epicurus says these ihings, and says further that tbe 
sun suffers ecllpse when it passes into thc shadow of the moon ; the 
moon, when the shadow of the earth falls upon it, both sun and moon 
quiclcly withdrawing from the shade.' The error of Lucr. then (n, to 
764) was that of his master also. From the same passage we leam 
that it was shared byDiogenes ihe Epicutean. 770. per; with 

iii. The Origin of Life on the Eakth. 771-924. 

Since I hme revealed Ihe eauses of all thatgoei on in the Mue dipthi 
ofkeaiien, naai I must tell Bflhe nra> earih, vihal life itftrst broughl into 
being. 771-78». 


7«.J NOTES 365 

771 el teq. The poet, having described the evolDtion of the world 
and explained tbe phenomena. of Ihe heavens, now comea to the 
origiii of life. In this passage, which ia introductorjt to the reat of the 
book, he mabes no mention of the developinent of man in dviiization 
and the origin of superstition, topics that tak« np the reniainder of 
the book afler 924. 772. quicquid : see n to 3, 787. 777. 

neque opinantis : = mc opituintii ; see n. to 3, 959. 778. coui- 

vent ; used of an eclipse only here. 781. arva ; properly so 

called, Ijecause the eaith'9 aurface had not become hardened by time, 
■nd hadnot beencovercdwilhyegetation. — inlum. oras: thisphrase 
twice occars in the fragments of Ennius (n8 and 165, Vahlen), from 
«Fhom perhaps Lucr. took it. See n. to i, 3i. 781. crerint : in 

the sense of dtcrtvtrita, 'concluded,' 'resolved.' 

First thl earlh putfortk herbi and treit ; thm birds anJ animals -aiert 
produced : and lait of all, from eavitUs near iti surface infanti creft, 
to vihom wilh balmy air the neio larth gave milk and ivarmlh and 
dmony beds of grass (783-820). Sighlly, licn, ii earth namtd mather, 
tince fram herielf sht brmtght forth all life. But nma, wearied ■uiith age, 
iht hai ceaied to bear ; for tht tarth, likt a!l things else, il ckanging, and 
grows old (821-836). 

7S8-<|. pluinB etc : pluma of course corresponds to fennifattntum, 
pili and taetat to quadripedum ; for the arrai^ement cf. Lowell, ' Sir 
Launrel': — 

WhethFT wc lcuk, or whcther n IlMen, 
Wc bear lilc mimniir, or He il glinen. 

79t. inde locl; see n. to 443 — mort. Baecla; same as anitnalia 
lielow. 79a. multa modis multis: see n. to i, 341. 793. 

neque etc ; so Epicunia expreftily states, Diog. Laert. 10, 741 * We 
are not to snppose Ihat animals are derived from the infinite ; for no 
one can ezplain how the germs from which animals and plants and 
the other (hings (hat we see are produced, could be brought from 
outside into a world like this, nor why such a world as this would 
not be able to creale (hem in and of itselE. Thus also in it tbey 
would be nonrished ; in Ihis light, especially, we are to think of the 
earth.' AII this is to rcfute the common notion that life is kindled 
from the sky (cf. n. to ), 250), and the philosophic doctrine profeaaed 


366 LUCBETIUS [V. 793- 

fay the Pythagoreans, Stoics, and many others, that the life of aninials 
is a part of the great universal life, — a fragment, as it were, ol (he 
world-soul. The Epicureans were espedally hostiie to the belief that 
man has any spark of the divine in him, — 

illfl DpifH rrnim, mundL meliDTifl angD, 

■ive jecenfl telLui udijcuqDE HDper ■}> ihA 

mMlMR, «sniUi RliiKbat Hraiai aetL (Ov. llM. i, Tl-Sr.) 

CL a, 1154-5- 794- «ec ter. etc: in opposition to the view of 

Anaximander, that the first life was geneiated by the heat of the sun 
in the primal slime as the earth nas beconijng dry; and that"the 
land animals. induding man, had at first becn fishes, and afteiwards, 
when they were able to develop thcmselves under their new shape, 
they had come on shore and thronn off theii scales." See Zetler, 
'Ptae-Soc. Phi].' i. 255-6. The laneiful theory of the idealiit, Olten, 
is strikingly siniiUr; see his ' Physio-Fhilosophy,' trans. by Tulk, 
S 900 ttiej. : "Every organic has issued out of miicus ; the piimary 
mucus, out of which every organic has been cieated, Is ihe sea- 
mucus. The sea-mucus was odginally geneiatcd thiough the influ- 
ence of light. . . . Light shines upon the earth-element and it is salted. 
Light shines upon Ihe satted sea and it tives." Diod. Sic. (3, i) 
says that the first men formed were the Ethiopians, because as the 
moist eaith dried off ' it was natuial that ihe spot nearest Ihe san 
should be the first to pioducc animate natures' {ijiifnt iitifiix»^)- 
795. maternum nomen : see nn. to i, 350-1. Into the popular no- 
tion the poel piojects a deep philosophic stgnificance. 797-8- 

Cf. 1, 871-3 and n. to 3, 713, 801. aUtuum = = aiitMit ; length- 

ened to suit the dactylic measure; so 1039, 1078; l, 928; 6, 1ZI& 
Soa. ova : bow the eggs were produced the poet doea not explain. 

804. lincunt: see n. to 3, 553. — sponte sua etc. : throughout the 
passage the Implication is that the living things spontaneously pro- 
duced by the earth came foith fully farmed and adapled to the condi- 
tionsof existence. This is in opposition tothe teaching of Empedocles, 
that the different parts of animals and men grew up separately out of 
the earth, being at length united into beings Ihrough Love. Cf. n. 
to I, 716. Luci. agrees wilh Empedocles, however, in supposing that 
plants came into existence before animals. Diogenes of Apotlonia, 
Paimenides and Democritus believcd that antmal llfe was lirst pio- 


836] NOTES 367 

duced by the action of Ihe Bun'a tieat upon tbe moist earth, the " pri- 
mai sliine,"as Zeller callsit. St. Augustine accounted for tbe Bppaient 
spontaneous generation of minute living things by declaiing Ihat at 
the beginning of the woild, when God created man and the other ani- 
mals, he madc also an infinite numbei of invisible seeds, which are 
piesent in all the elements and develop into life under Ihe right 
conditions of heat and moisture. 805. tibi : see n. to i, 673. — 

mortalia taecla : here limiled to men, as ehe contejit shows- 8oft 
Bpti : from apisci ; see n. to 1, 448. 8o(^ aestuB: ' iraimth.* 

Sia infantum : for the fonn see n. lo i, 4. B16. pueris : as in 1, 

255 wheie see n. 81K-830. The youth-time o£ Ibe woild with its 

eteinal spiing, its rivers uf milli and honey, its ciops spiinging with- 
out toit, and (he fresh jc^ousness of new lifc, wai a favorite themc of 
the ancienl poets. Cf. 933 ; i,-iii&it ug.; Tib. 1,3,33-48; Verg. 
Geotg. 2, 3315-345; Hoi. Ep. I, z, z; Ov. Met. 1,88-112. 883. 

fudlt : sec n. to i, 351. 825. aErias vol- : see n. 10 i, 12. 836-7. 
The modein advocates of materialistic evolution have found it difh- 
cult to explain why al ihe beginning the lowest foims of life weie 
Spontaneously produced fiom the earth and to-day similai foims ate 
not still produced (foi there is not a parlicle of evidcnce to showthat 
spontaneous generalion is goingon at present) ; andwhythose lowest 
furms have not all woiked up to a higher plane of eiistence, instead 
of showing no essential changc of type in the vast periods of timc 
thal have elapsed since remains of life began to be fossilizcd in the 
rocks. To the lirst question no one has offered a solulion more satis- 
factory than that proposed by oui poct in tbese two lines. 839. 

debet; see n. to 1, 233. 830. omnia ctc. : suggestivc of tlie 

famous doctrine of Meraclitus, irdrra ^11, Yet in tbis ceaseless 
change it is the same old lale over again, Ihere is nolhing new. See 
3, 945 and n. S33. aliut : see n. to i, 469. S33. contemp- 

tibus : Bee n. to 3, 65. 836. potuit ; supply ffrre, as also witb 

«ti/uil and fosttt; befoie fossit supply tit; inteipiet ii 
with I, 364 and n. 

Misshapm memitri, tee, the earth bett itt her primt ; iui that di^ 
eff, unjUttd te livt er cenlinm tktir Idud (837-854), and ef wtU-formtd 
aiamals brood eit hroed ftrished ; for oniy tht fttest te turvivt stirvitied. 


368 LUCRETIUS [V. 837- 

837. portenta etc, : Empedoclea wis the first to teach ttiat the 
earth produced at) Borts of monstiosities ; these perished because of 
their irregularity of atructure caused by the chance grouping o£ mem- 
bers; cf. n. to 804. He, however, imagined beings of all kinds o£ 
impossible shapes, £ormed by the getting togetber of parts of differ- 
ent animals, or o£ parts of animals and of men. But Lucr. with his 
clearer conception of thc unformity of nature and the reign of law 
seems to have thoi^hl that the majority of living things created were 
regularly formcd, He has in mind here only abnormal variationa 
from regular types; cf, his reasoning 87B et srq. That such should 
appear in great numbers is perfectly consistent with the rest oE his 
theory. 839. interutraBque : see n. to 472 ; it refers, as utmm 

and tilrimque, to man and woman, 840. manuum : after viduala, 

a rarc constr. Cf. z, 843 itcrtta ttporis and n. to l, 194, For Ihe 
thought, cf. Cudworth ' Intellectual System,' ii. 595-8. 843. ad- 

haesu: see n. to 3, 381. 849. debere : the verse has one syllable 
too many, the only case of the kind in Lucr., tliough eiamples are 
common enoagh in the olher poets. 853. habere etc : [uirumqvc\ 
kabtre {partes) qui { =guibus) etc. For gui cf. n. to 1, 168. 854. 

mutent: Bcmays, for metutnt. 855. animantum: i.e., the ani- 

mals of perfect orgatiization. 857. vesci etc. : imitated by Verg. 

Aen. 3, 339 vescitur aura and clsewhere. 86a, acre etc. : cf. 3. 

74T-Z. S64. levisomna : this expressive compound is foand only 

here. 867. Hemmi: see n. to i, 26. 871. c^in = quiius. 

876. indupedila: see n. to i, Sz. 877. ad interitum etc, : thus 

closes a spirited and remaikable statement in outline of the doctrine 
known to modem scienlists as " Ihe slruggle for existence " and " thc 
survival of the fittest." Consult Damin, ' Origin of Species ' ; Huxley, 
' Origin of Species,' ch. 6 ; Haeckel, 'Nat. Hist. of Creation,' ch. 7; 
Zeller, ' Prae-Soc. Phil.' ii. 160 ; Lange, ' Hist. of Materialism,' iii. 34 
tt seq.\ Elam, ' Winds of DoctHne,' p. \zz tt stq, 

But not rvcn then wert then Centaurs, S/yllas. and the liie ; fvr mch 
unions sf dissimilar natures could ntvtr be. Many viimderful things Ihe 
fiejii earth preduced, but nime like Ihese. 878-924. 

878, fuerunt : see n. to t, 406. 879. bino; the singnlar of 

blni is very rare. 8S0. alienigenia : ' heteiogeneous ' ; cf. i, 865 

and n. 881. potissit : ita poHs sit, =pBssit; potisit is also found. 


924.] NOTES 369 

Cf. t, 665 jMWj/ and n. ; see Nene, ' FonncnlehTe,* ii. 601-2. 88a. 
coTde : ' underslanding.' See n. lo 3, 140 ftctart. 884. ecus : see 
n. (o I, 477. There followa a comparison between the ages of acUvity, 
niaturjly, and decline in the case of a horse and 3 raan, fihowing that 
the two could by no mean» exist together in one form, as in the Cen- 
taur of fabie. S86. senectH : see n. to 3, 773, SS8. iUi : 

weakened demonstrative, ' tbe.' 693. Scyllaa ; the p1. is of course 
rare, as there was hut one monster Scylla. Sgj. Cf. 3:a 897. 

unis : see n. to 3, 616. goi tt siq. Flame burns animals ; (hen 

how could such a being as the fire-breathing Chimaera exist P 903. 
visceris : see n. to i, S37. 9°5~6- ^d. remark the trans. of Hom. 
II, Z, 181-2 : — 

Cf. Hes. Theog. 313. The myth of the Chimaera wa» in later titnes 
explained aa originating in a volcano of that name in Lycia. 905. 

ipsa: supply Chimatra, i.e., x'/'<"P<' in the primary sense of 'she- 
goat.' The Chimaera at the end of the tine refers to the monstel as 
awhole. 009. nov. nom. : i.e., ' newness,' being but a name, not a 
power in itself. 913, snlisBe : see nn. to i, 60 and 216. 913. 

impete : see n. to 505. 914-5- cf- i, igcj-ioT and nn. 933. 

compltxa : paseive, as in the frag. of Cic, iitvidiosa fortuna eomptKti. 
913-4. Peibaps Luci. would apply this principle to the non-variability 
of types. He nowhere seems to recognize the possibility of improve- 
ment or change of species by "naiural selection"; theanimals remain 
as they were a( the first, Mcept that the weaker and moie useless 
kinds have been ciushed out. Herein he stands in marked contrast 
with modem evolutionists. See Introd. 

iv. The Development of Man ih Civilization. 

t. The Condition of Frimitive Man. 925-1010. 

At first the race of men tvai lite the bnites. Barify and strimg of 
timh, they lived OH the offirings sf the untilled earth, herries and acoms, 
• guencheJ tketr Ihtrst in the rippting braots. Fire they knem ml, nar 
tociat tife nor marriage. And yet they did nol dread tke coming of the 
night, tised te tke darkness from their earlitst days ; ralher ihty feared 


3;o LUCRETIUS [V. 925- 

Iht fvild btaits tkat m the nigkl eft drove them IrtmMing/rvm their Itaf- 

slrevm btds. 925-987, 

935 tt teq. Hav[ng explained (he beginnings of Itfe on the new 
earth the poet proceeda at once to trace (he course of the hiiman 
race. In showiiig bon it developed, in a natural way and from purely 
natural causcs, from brute-like savagcry to civilization, he tacitly 
overtbrows the popular notions tA bis time about the reign of Saturn 
on ear(h, and about (he aid of the gods in bestowing on mankind 
inventiong and the means of progress; as Promelbeos was fabled to 
have brought down fire from heaven, Ceres to have taught the raising 
of grain, Bacchus the making of wine. By thus ignoring the gods he 
effectually doea away wilh their power and influence as factors in the 
growth of instttutions as wetl is in the anielioration ol thc conditions 
of the individual life. At the same time he traces with care the 
growth of superstitions, unfolding minutely the causes, and revealing 
the results in the blind bondage of man under groundless fears. The 
lattcr part of book 5 contains some of tbe fincst passages of the poem. 
In connection with it read Heibert Spenccr, ' Principles ot Sociology,' 
Part I. Consult Morgan, ' Ancient Society,' Pt. i ; Darwin, ' Descent 
of Man,' Part I. ; Mitchell, ' The Past in tlic Present,' Pt. 1 ; Sir J. 
Lubliock, ' Origin of Civilization ' j Royer, 'Origine de rhomme.' 
g^G. durlua : ' more bardy,* Le.. than to-day ; qusd is a relative. Ovid 
Gnds the cause of our hardiness in our origin, ttie stones cast by 
Deucalion and Pyrrha (MeL l, 414-5} : 

Cf. also Verg, Geoi^. i, 63 undi (i.e. tx lapidAus) homines naH, dnnm 
genus. FoT a scientific discussion of the relative cndurance and power 
of man in the primitive and man in the present condition see Spenccr 
ut tup. ch. 5. S)a9-930, An allusion to Ihe fact early noliced that 

man is the only animaJ adapted to lifc in the eitremea of eilhcr heat 
or cold, and on all kinds of food. 933 et siq. Similar exprcssions 

were often employed in describing the Golden Age ; cf, n. to 830 and 
ref. Vei^il and Ovid arc both indebted to this passage. st34- 

scibat : the shortened form itibant also is found 949, 953, 959. 
941. orbita: arbiita\& the common spelling. Munro says that "at (he 
present day, in December, you may see large tiacts of the Pelopon- 


1002.] NOTES $71 

acM covered with the arbute trees laden with their bright ecarlet 
fiuit." They areno longer so common in Italyas in Horace's time. — 
pnnlceo : 'scarlet.' 944. dura : ■ rough,' 'coarse.' 947. 

cluu'citBt: Forbiger, for f/ar(n(af of Hss. ; l/iQhmaaa hia e!arigiiiU, 
aform, fonnd nowhere elge, which he derivea from elarigv. The adj. 
refew to the aound, os i, 97. 951. scatere : see n. to 40. 053 

tt leg. CL Aes. From. Vina. 448 el seq. 957. For the allitera- 

tion cf. 9<)3. 95^^. The more savage the stale of man the more 

isolalive, is a fundamcntal doctrine of Ihe social compact theoiy, a 
cmde Eorm of which Lucr. held. Cf. 1 145 et stq. gSr. sibi va- 

lere : i.e., to be his own master. 963, quamque : feminam. 

969. NoCice the cbiasmus; aee n. to 1, zl-z. 970. subu': the futl 

form tnibus is less coinmon than the syncopateA See the examples 
coltected by Neue ' Formenlehre,' 1, 1S8. 973, ncc plangore elc : 
i.e., as they might have been expecled to do; the implication is tbat 
when there was no religion or superstition men were not troubled 
wilh groundless fears, but only with reaj dangers, such as the coming 
of wild beasts. Interprel in connection witb the oft-recurring simtle, 
Nam ■vdtUi piuri trcpidant atqui amtiia caicii In ttnebrii nuluuiti, sic 
KBJ in liKi timemus cICt a, 55-7 et al. 977. a parvis 1 le., frora 

childhood, a common expression. 979, erat ut eCc: cE. 3, 715 

and n. In 979-981 the poet appeala as often to the uniformity ot 
nature. gSo. dJfBdere ne etc, : perhaps nowhere else diffUere is 

followed by a KMJauae. 9M. intetnpettiva nocte : ' in tbe dead 

of night.' 

Yrl iu that early Sme Ihe dtath-rate was not greater tian tiatv. Afen 
were kitled by ■wHd beaHs, indeeil, bul ■iiihole armies viere uot raiept off iii 
one day, and Ihe sea had as yet no spoil. TAtn want tlew, but mnn 
luxury; and peitondoes itswerk notato/yore bya4cident,but &y design. 

gSS. mon. ■aeda: as in S05, where see note. 993. Thls line 

is sometimes quoted as showing the force of alliteration, and as a 
marlced illustration of the adapCation of sound to sense. There is 
sometbing dismal and weird in ihe veiy succesaion of sounds. — 
buato : ' tomb,' ' grave.' See n. to 3, 906. 997. donique : see n. 

to 708. looa. bic: *al this time,' i.e. 'ihen,' — temere : 'aim- 

lesily,' while iniaisum ]» 'uselessly' ix^tfrustra 'vainly.' Lucr. i» 


373 LUCRETIUS [V. 1004- 

fond ot emphastiing an idea by tbe use ol several sfBonyiBons terms. 
C(. 1430; 2, 1060. 1004. Nolice the alliteratian. There is a 

fine adaptalion oi sound to sense in these lines refening to the sea. 
1005. ridentibus uixlis ; cf. I,S ; z, 33 j z, 559; 5, 1395 ; the poel; is 
fond of the metaphorical use of ritUre. Cf. Catullus 64, 271 (undarumy 
leni miimuU flangere axihinni ; Aes. From. Vinct. 89 •wwrimv t* 
KVt^ttHi iripiBiuir yiXaaiia. Munro thinJts there is no raference here 
to the " ringing npple " or plash of the «ater, but only to the bright, 
smiling aspect of the surface. 1006. iinproba etc. : the tenden- 

cies of andent life were local, not national or cosmopolitan. The sea. 
was looked upon as a natural barrier, that ought not to be crossed. 
Cf. Hor. Od. I, 3, 21-6; Ov. Met. 1, 94-6. Navigation and commerce 
were held in low esteem. In their descriptiona of the Golden Age 
the poets never fail (o mention that there were no ships. Even 
Cicero thought commerce diHhonorable unless its eamings were in- 
vesced in cslatcs ; and then, aa soon as possibte, one mnst withdraw 
from it, See De OfE. i, 42, 1 51. looS. nunc etc. : in Lucrelius'- 

time the infiuence of eastern luxury was already being feit at Rome j 
earnest and patriotic citizens viewed the spread of it with disfavor 
atid apprehcnsion. In these few lines the keen satiric power of (he 
poet is well shown. . 1010. nunii etc. : see n. to 3, 73 ; d. Juv. 
Sat. 14, J20 ilalam iam crtde tatram, si limina ■vestra Moriifira eum 
dnte sidnl, thus expl^ned by Mayor : " ¥our son's wife, if she bring a 
portion, that makes jt worCh liis «hile to take her life, is as good as 
dead and buried from the instant she crosses tbe threshold." Cf. Ov. 
Met. I, 147-8. 

2. The Beginnings of Ci vilization. 1011-1027. 

Tktn men fiuilf hult, made clolking sf tkins, leamed ike ute of fire 
atid tke relation of marriage. Hencc mannert began to soften ; tkehittk 
temper of parenis -aas mellmoed by the coaxing of children; neigktors 
agreed nat to karm ane another, to hmie regard for th* wemen andtke 
weaJi, a fact oiserved by most, not all. loi 1-1027. 

TOii. ignem : the Epicureans chought that the ' iirst and most im- 
portant step in 3 social direction was the discovery of fire." Cf. Dar- 
win, ' Descent of Mar,' i. 132 : " Hc Iprimitive raan) has discoveied 
the art of making &re, by which liard and strong roots can l>e made , 


I028] NOTES 373 

digesrible, and poisanous roots or berba innocuous. This last dts- 
cover^, probably the gieatest, excepting language, madc by man, 
dates frolO' befoie the dawn of histoiy." On the signilicance of the 
use of iire see Lange, ' Ilist. of Materialism,' iii. 96. loia. The 

break in construction is probably caused by the dropping out of a 
verse, whicli Munro thus snpplies: 

hospitium, ac lecti socia,1ia iura duobus. 

Lachmann reads conubium, Bemays amiugium, for co/ptila stint, wilh- 
out further change. Lucr. knows of no intennediale polygamy aiid 
polyandry preceding monogamy. See Morgan, 'Ancient Society'; 
Daiwin, 'Descent of Man,' ii. 345. Notwithstanding the beneficial 
effects ascribed to matriage heie, the Epicurema professed not to 
believe in it ; c£. Diog. Laert. 10, 1 18-9 ' Marriage, ihey say, is nevcr 
any good to a man ; one ought to be conlent if it does no harm; 
moreover Ihe wise roan will never marry or beget children, as Epicurus 
declares in his " Doubts " and in his " On Nature." ' 1015. cura- 
vit: 'brought it about.' 101^1013. See n. to 1145. 

3. The Origin of Language. 1028-1090. 

Sfeeck arosefrom Ihe impttUe ofnaturi amifrom use,just as children 
whe eatmot sfeak Ittrn to viaiitig geslures. Eaeh living Ihirig is im- 
ftUed to ttse thi power it has; cahies, cubs, and the yaung of birds v:e 
tkeir miaas ef deftnce lang ere Ihese are futly grintm. Tathinkone man 
invented speech it stuftd ; how should one find it aut earlitr than etliers, 
VT make olhers ieam from him f Nay, viluil vnmder Ihat mert marttd 
different feelitigs vuth dijferent sottndi of Ihe voiee f Even dogs and 
korses, gullt <md crows, ean Ihus txfress iiarying moods and passims. 

loaS et seq. To language as marking a step in Ihe progress of Ihe 
race Lucr. attaches grcat importance. With the view here ptesented 
d. Epicurus Diog. Laert. 10, 75 'Words in the beginning did not 
originate by eipress agreement; but the veiy natures of men in the 
ca»e o£ each people experiencing peculiir feelings and having peculiar 
ideas espelled the air accordingiy, thus expressing differenl feelings 
and ideas difCerently, just as the people differed in location and sur- 


374 LUCRETIUS [V. 1028- 

rounilings. . . . Later, in each nation particular lerms werc inTcnted 

and put into usage by authority, that relations might be less ambigu- 
OUS ajni flpeech morc concise. The wise, loo, bringing into experience 
things not spprehended by thc senses made sounds to eipress them ; 
and these terms came inlo use partly of necessily in tlie casc of men 
desiring to express the same ideas, parlly thiough those who follow- 
ing reasou employed them \a thc sanie sense.' Moat writers on the 
origtn of Language agree with Lucr- in putting il aftcr the first steps 
of progreas. C(. Haeckel, ' Nat. Hist. of Crcaiion," ii. 300 ; " Tho 
origin of articulate language must be looked upon as only a later, and 
the most imporlant, stage in the process of the development of Man." 
Thc question whether language was in its orjgin natural or conven- 
tional was much discussed in antiquity; cf. Aal. Gel. 10, 4. Most 
of the philosophers held the view of Luci., which is essentially that 
most widely adopted to-day, having as its champions Darwin (' Descent 
of Man,' i. 52-60), as well as many philologisla. 1039. cxpiessit 

IMKnina : Epicurus says rbr i/pa Jn-^^mr. 1031. infantia : 

'speechtessness,' 'inaMlity to speak'; qL iij in/ans, 1033. vim : 

for the acc. see n. to 3, 956. — abuti: in agood sense, = u/i; gtHKtd, 
'howfar.' 1035. aiis; \je..,fratitibui ; ihe hotns are not yet grown, 
but the natural impuise to use ihem is fcli. J039. alituum : see 

n- lo Soi. 1040. auxlUatum : found only here. 1041. inde : 

'from hinl.' Iinfi. quoquc : i.e., as well as himself. IO47. 

unde etc. : the rcasoning is like that in iSt et seq., where sec nn. 
1053. quid facto : an expression rarc outside of comedy. For the 
conatr. see n. to i, 1051. 1056-8. The possession of a capacity 

impels to the use and development of it. Having the capacily to 
speak, man learned to speak. loGa. apertis : c(. n. to l, 915. 

1063 et seq. Darwin in discussiug Ihe nalural origin of language 
uses the eame illu-stration for thc samc purpoac as Lucr. ; 'Descent 
of Man,' i. 5! : " Although barking 13 a new art, no doubt the wild 
spedcs, the parcnts of the dog, expresaed their feeltngs by cries of 
various kinds, With the domesticaled dug ne have the bark of eager- 
ness, as in the chase ; that of anger ; ihe yelping or howling bark of 
deapair, as when shut up ; that of joy, aa when starting on a walk 
with his master ; and Ihe veiy distinct one of demand 01 supplication, 
as when wishing for a door or window to be opened." 1066. et : 

'than' 1071. baubanturr found only here; the mcaning is dear 

from Ihe contezt. 1085. corvarum: for the mjths aod beliefs 


about the raven see 'Popuiar Science Monthly,' vol. l8, pp.43-56; 
" A Flock of Mjtbological Crows." The ancienta ascribed to it pro- 
pbetic powera, whcnce it was leckoned sacred to Apollo. 

4. The Discoverj o£ Fite. 1091-1104. 

Firc toas discc/vtrtd lilktr hy Ihe tightning siriking and igniHng, er 
hy the ruiUng logilher ef the boughs of Irees lill flame was produced; 
tht useof it in preparing food men leamid from Ihe sun, which coeks 
and changes things by heat. 1091-II04, 

1093 et seq. Lachm3.nn has well shown that 1O91-1160 are OUt of 
connection with what precedes and follows ; that they are probabl)f 
an addition by thc poeC after the rest of the poem was finished. He 
epeaka here of the origin of fire, though its use was referred to ia 
lOM \ and there aie other noticeable inconsiatencies. 1095. ftll' 

gere : fulglre ; fnigil and other forma of the third conj. are occaaion- 
ally mel with in older writera. With 1095-1100 cf. 1, 897-906. The 
Stoics interpreted Ihe rayth of the hurling of Hephaestus from 
heaven {as relaled e.g. by Homer) to mean "that in andeot tiineg 
men iighted their fires by lightning from heaven and the rays of the 
son." Cf. Plin. N. H. i, 2, 39. 

5. The Beginning of Political Life. 1105-1160. 

Day by day came changes fer the hetter, urged m by those ■wiser and 
hetter than Iheir fellims. Kings built cities ; calUe and lands were divided 
Kp accarding lo meril. But gold ■wai disccniered, vihich sapplanted all 
other means of infiutnce, and ambiUan led mtn mt oniy lo dash thtnt 
from its ditay htights. Then let mtn toil, if they wll, aieng amhitian's 
patk, sinci they tuill not he wiie. 1 105-1 135. 

I106. benigiii: has the force of an adv. 1107. corde ; synony- 
mous with ingenio; ' undeistanding ' j see n. lo 3, 140. On the 
function of leadership in priniitive society cf. Spencer, 'Piin. of 
Sodology/ iL 311; tn " an unorganiied horde . . . the assembled indi- 
viduals will fall, more or less dearly, into two divisions. The elder, 
the stronger, and those whose sagacity and courage have been proved 
hy experience, will form the smaller part, who carry on the discus- 
sion ; while the larger part, formed of the young, the weak, and the 


376 LUCRETIUS £V. 1107- 

tmdistingiiislieii, will be listeners, who asnally do no mcire tlian ex- 
press from time to time assent or dissent." Spencer goes on to show 
how in each group usualty Ihcre would be some one superior to all 
the rest, who would have "more than an Individual sharc" of influ- 
ence. Such would corieapond perhaps to Lucretius' reges. Iiio, 

Notice ihat Lucr. conceives o£ property as at first held in common ; 
and Ihat the fonn he mentions first is slock. Did he assume a pas- 
loral state intcrmediate between the agricultural and utter savagery f 
The Romans themselves recognized Ihe derivation of fecunia from 
ftau; cf. Varro X. L. 5, 95 picw, a qus piaaaa unhierta, qu0dinpe~ 
core fecimia tam cmsislebai fasleridui. iiii. facie: cf. 1114/H/- 

chris ; iiit puIcAro corpere t refers to the entire appearance id a man. 
Modern writera on the developfcent of dvilization attribute great im- 
portance to physioal prowesa and superior ability, but less to mere 
appearance thaa oar poet. Darwin, however, djscusses fully the bear- 
ing of beauty on tbe progress of the race through its influencing the 
seleclion o£ parlners in marriage: see 'Descont of Man,' ii. 326-338. 
1113. Tcs : 'wealth.' The ancient poets often Inveighed a^ainst goid 
as the " root of alJ e»il." Cf. Ov. Met. 1, 135 et teq. .■ — 

aiso Ver^. Aen. 3, 55 quid ne>i merialia peclora esgis, Auri sacra/amei. 
1:117 '^ "?■ Ethical reilections like these, interspersed throughout 
the poem, testify to the poet's earnestness of purpose. With 1117-9 
d. 2, 20-33 i Epicarus, Diog. Laert. 10, 130 'And we think conlent- 
ment a great good, not that we may alti^ethei put up with a little, 
but that if we have not much we may use the little, being futly per- 
* suaded that those most enjoy abundance who wonld the least feel the 
laclt of it ; and that while everything that is natural is easy lo get, 
whalever is useless is hard to procurc,' etc; cC. also Id. lo, 144 and 
14& Contentment with a littlc was a favorite theme of Horace ; the 
wise man, the Epicurean said, could livc happily on bread and water. 
The luxurioos tendencies of later Epicureans arose from emphasiiing 
the doctrine of pleasore inculcated by their mastei above that of self- 
control and lationat enjoyment 1119. penuria parvi : a tilll* 


II4S-] NOTES 377 

ia almys to be had. iim el leq. In this viirid portraydl of Ihe 

influence ind dangers of ambition, we notice again tlie effect of his 
BoiToundings on the poet. See n. to 3, 59. 1124. iter viai : 

pleoniatic ; cf. a, 626 1135. et tamen : aee n. to l, 1050. 

1127, BumniB : ' the liighcat places.' iiaS. quae . . . cumque. 

tmeais. 1139-30. Thc Epicureans did not npprove of public life; 

for it \a mach more disturbed than private life, and thus defcats the 
chief end, — ■wisdom and happiness. CL the first of the icupCai Jiffai, 
quoted in n. to 168. 1139. Mtius: 'better,"prefeiablc.' 1133. 
«lienD etc ; i.e., following the common opinion that wealth and posi- 
tion bring happiness. 1134. sensibus : Epicureanism forsooth 

is a ' comman<sense ' philosophy. Trans. lentibui ' feelings.' 

7^ kmgJ znere mierthnnim, anarcky reigned aifreme. ThtH meii 
ngretd fdr peace to hirve laais aml magistrales ; for violeace hemt in the 
virong^ieer, latd afprehensioi tem/rs wreci his happinas. 11 36-1 160. 

1136 it sig. In the poUtical changes here descril>ed Lucr. seems lo 
have had in mind the course of the Greelc states. 1138. sntnmi : 
' highest,' i.e., BQvcreign ; «iw^fiM refcrs, of course, to the crown ; cm- 
entum, 'stained with gore.' 1141. 'And so the state was going 

back into the hands of the iowest and the disorderly' is the com- 
mon tnterpretation ) tietlcr that of Muiiro, ' And so in the end 
mattcrs would come to the lees of uttermost disorder.' 1143. 

summatum : found oniy hcrc. 1143. partim: see n. to 3, 78; 

"some.' Supply homiius as aubject acc. to creare. 1145. Herc 

tn a nutahell is the doctrine of the sociai contract, which in mod- 
ern Europe lias »truggled for the maslery with the tlieory of the 
divine right of klnga, and which played so imporlant a part in Ihe 
French Revolution; it even linds a partlal expression In the proem 
to the Ainerican Declaralion of Independence. With 1145-6 cf. 
Hobbes, 'Leviathan,' ch. i, u: "The natura! state of men, before 
they enlered into society, was a merc war, and that not siniply, but 
of war of all men against all men ; " Id, ch. iz : " In the nature of 
man we find three causes of quarrel : first, competition; secondly, 
diffidence ; thirdly, gloiy." Consiilt also Id. ch. 13 " On the Primitive 
Condition of Mankind as concerning their Felicityand Miseryi" Rous- 
■eau, ' Le Conliat Social ' ; Hallam, ' literatute of Europe,* see index ; 
Guyau, ' Morale d'fipicure'etc., 4,1, aj Wines, 'Lawsof the Ancient 



Hebrews,' Introd. ThU doctrine of tbe social pact conld be consist- 
entljrheld hy Lucr., who thought thatmen wereformed independentljr, 
did iiot aiise in groups from a lowcr order. It is, of course, discarded 
by modern evolutionists, who trace Ibe origin of gnveinmcnt to " the 
inheiited natures of its members, regulated by the ideas transmttted 
from the past, Guidance by custom is the sole conceivable guidance at 
the ontset " (Spcncer, ' Prin. of Sociologj,' ii. 513). ii49> legibiM 
aequis: in thus founding civil sociely and jusiice on "a contract en- 
tered intofor puiposcs of mutual security" Lucr. was closelyfoUowing 
his master. Cf. Diog. Laert. 10, 150 ' Justice is not something enst- 
ing byitse[f,but has iis origin inmutual contracis; ii is foDnd wherever 
there is a mutual agrGElnent not to do hurt or sufler hurt to be done ; ' 
Id. 151 'Tn general. justice is Che samc for every one ; foi there would 
be some advantage in mutual society. But slill in particular cases dif- 
ferences of place and other conditions make justice not Ihe same for 
all.' 'Injustice is not in itself bad. but only seeras so because there is 
involved with it a fear of not escaping those appointed to chastise those 
who do unjnst things.' 1150. quemque : i.e., eveiy one that 

engages in violence and wrong-doing. Cf. Epicnnis, Diog. Laert. 10, 
151 'It is not possible f or one who doesanything contraryto the terms 
of ibe compact nol to do hurt or siiffer it to be done, to be confident 
that he will escape notice, even if already he shall have escaped notice 
len thousand times ; foi until death it is not cerlain that he will not 
be found out." 1153. unde : = a quo; sce n. to i, 56. The thought 
suggests the homely proverb " crows always come hoine to roost.' 
1156- Thc poet maltes use of a common expression ; of course in hi* 
belief no ciiminal had anything to fear from Ihe gods. Cf, 3, 978-1023, 
1155. protraze ; see n. to 1, J33. For the thought cf. 4, 1018-9. 

& The Origin of Religion. 1161-1240. 

T^e ilh ef supersHHon r^ii farHy fnmfviaom in-ahkk hiings largtr 
Ihatt lift, radiant and tver-bUssed, siemed to be fresent ,- and partly from 
Ihe ■aondering atae viUk which men gated vptm the on-going of things itt 
Ihe heaveni ; not knmoing the trut eauset of Ikese, they assigmd them t» 
geds ihoeUing there. 1161-1193. 

1161 et seq. The notlons abont the gods and the fear of them origl- 
nated, according to Lucr., in visions, both waking (1170 animo vigi- 


1194-] NOTES 379 

lanle) and sleeping (1171 m sommt), and in Ihe reflectioos of men 
before the mjsteries o£ natural phenomena. It must be borne in 
mind that the Epicurcans thought of the gods as really existing, 
blessed and immortal ; it is only thc groundless fear of them and the 
worship based thereon that Lucr. objects to. Cf. S; rt seq. and n. to 3, 
■7. With the view of Lucr. cf. Hobbes(ed.MoIe$worlh, jii. 9S): "In 
tbese fonr things, opinions of ghosts, ignorance of second causes, 
devotion toirards what men fear, and taking of things casual for prog- 
nostics, consisteth the natural seed of reltgion " ; also Id. ' Levia- 
than,' ch. 12; the'Systime de laNature,' ii., Pt. 2; Darwin, 'Descent 
of Man,' i. 62-6; Hume, 'The Natural History of Religion'; Cud- 
worth, ' Intellectual System of the Universe,' ch. 5; but especially 
Spenccr^s carcful analysis of primitive religious ideas and thelr out- 
come, in his ' Prin. of Sociology,' Pt. I, ch. lO-iS, and Lubbock, ' Ori- 
gin of Civilizalion,' ch. 4. itCa. araruni : see n. to 5, 39. 1173. Cf. 
4,453-6; 4,78S-93i \,&^T ttseq. For a discussion f rom the Epicurean 
standpoint of the ortgin of our notion of the gods, with the dislinction 
between what should and should not be accepted, see Cic N. D. 1, 16, 
^^elieq. 1177. et tamen ; 1,1050. ttSietieg. C£. Epicu- 
rus, Diog. Laert. 10, 142-3 'I£ apprehensions regarding thinga in the 
heavens and death did not disturb us, providcd we still had any cour- 
age to think about the limits of pains and desires, we should not have 
any need of studies in physical science.' 'It is of no use lo secure 
safety, as f ai as men are concemed, if one has apprehensions about 
the thii^s above and those under the earth, and in biief those ia 
the infinite.' 

O misemiie raee efmen, thaiby attributing tuek deeds and passiens io 
tke gods hatk Annjgkt us iBitei l ' Tis «crf trta plety le obseroe religieus 
rites, but to lioe viilh soul unlrouMed. Many a kearl is vexed witk ■aion- 
deritig vihetker Ike werld is raerlal; men tremblein tkepresence 0/ ligkl- 
nings, storm, <md eartkquake. Wkal ■wonder, since some unseen pooier 
teems to make sperl of kianan efforlst 1194-1:40. 

-ii^et seq. Cf. Hobbes. 'Hum. Nat.' ch. 3: "If this superstitious 
fear of spirits were taken away, and nith it prognostics from dreams, 
false prophecies, and many other thinga dependlng thereon, by which 
crafty and ambitious people abuse the simple people, men would be 
much more £ited than they are for civil govemment." CE. n. to i, 62. 


38o LUCRETIUS [V. 119S- 

ligS. velatum : Ihe Romana prayed with the head cavered, (ho 
Greeks with it uncovcred. 1199. vertier: in Ihe use of thU term 

Munro finds a reference to " another habit of Roman worahip 1 Ihe 
suppliant appioached in such a way as to havc the statue al the god 
on his right, and then aftei piaying wheelcd to the light so as to fiont 
i(, and then prostrated himself." — lapidem : may refer to a slatue 
made of stonc, 01 to Ihe rough blocks of stone like the Urmiai, at 
which the passer-by paused to oflcr worship. 1303. mage: 

rarei foim of magii, found also 4, 81 and 756. The Epicuieana main- 
taincd that the gods should bc woishipped, bat only on accOwit of 
their exalted and ioimoiUI nalure. Cf. Cic N. D. 1, 17, 45 nam Hprae- 
itaiu deBrum nalura hominum piitati coltretur, cunt ct aettnui ttstt tt 
itatisiima — kabtt inim ■itentrationcm iustam quicquid exctilit — tt mt- 
tut omnii a vi algue ira dcarum pidius esset etc. laoO. viarum : 

the espiession venire in mentem is consideied as equiTilenl to a veib 
of lemembeiing, and is hcnce used with thc gen. ; ' we Ibink of the 
couraes'etc. Cf. Cic. Fm. 5, l,ivenitmiki Platonis iytmenten,. H. 
406, tll. n. 1109. see n. to l, 75-7. 1314. BoUicitl: Bentley, 

iot tltaciti, adopted atso by Lachmann and Bernays. See n. to l, 343. 
i3iC. Cf. t, 1004. i3iS-ai. 5o wilh Horace ; cf. n. to 83. 1335. 
poenarum : attractcd from its natural constr. in the acc. to Ihe case 
of solvcndi. 13x7. indupeiatorem : >=^ impcraterem. See n. to 

I, Sz. 1330. Marked o& by I^chmann aa spurious or out of place, 

nam vtntorttm paccs inepiissime suhiciunttir divam paci, qaa 
sigiiiJUaliir facata dtorum sedts. — paces: the pl. is rare. — animBB: 
cf. n. to t, 715. 1133- vis abdita quaedam : what Lucr. meant 

by this it is difficult to say ; probably he was thinking of the nnseeo 
way in which (he laws of nature, themselvcs unchangeable, operate. 
1334. fascis etc. : the conciete for the abstract, implying the atlain- 
ment of the highest powei and the greatesi glory Ihat man could 
gain. 1339. potcstatis : pl. — relinqunt; sometimes found for 

rcliiicunl. See n. to 3, 553. 

7. Thc Discoveiy of the Metals. 1241-izSa 

73« mdais tnert /ouitd out Hrintgi /it lurning of /ortats, by wUch 
tht vtins 0/ oreiocrt melltd and ^fiawed to Iht surface. Al first cepper wai 
preferrtd, and goid slighltd /ram ils uselcssness ; bul ttow gold is rated 
most kighly. Thus changes come with time. 1341-1280. 


1294.] NOTES 381 

i«4i. aea ; 'copper'; thc word Diore commonly denotts an aHoy 
ot copper and tin, a ktnd of bronze. 134S. erfo : see n. to 3, 78. 

IS48. paacua etc. : i .e., to nuke the woodlands pastuie-lands by burn- 
ing oB tbe timber. Notice the alliteratian o( the line. iiS3 '' 

Kq. Muoro quotes Hilton's imilation of these lines, ' Par. Lost,' 

*^ wbo. ml Ibe fOTiifl 

LabounQK, two ma»} doda 0' iron aod brw 

HadDielLcd,(nhelher lomidAtwrc casualfirB 

Had wasJed woods on mountain or ia vale, 

DowD la Ihe Teins of «nh i Ihtnce gliding hot 

To KKne cave'> moDlh ; or whelhcr watbed by sneani 

Fmm ludHKioiiDd ;)" elc 

1361. atquc : after s Jmili ; the masses of cooling metal ran into 
shapes according to the forms of the cavities in which they collected. 
1168. terehr^e : ' drill ; ' pirtuniUri, 'pierce;' pirforare, 'bore.' 
TI73-4. Certain tribes of American Indiaiis wben fir&t discovcredare 
said to have valued iron more highly than gold. Tacitus (Germ. 5) 
lelates the same thingof the early Germans. Cf. n. to 1113. 1176 

it ug. Cf. 830-6 and nn. 

8. The Methods of early Warfare. 1281-1349. 

7Sf utei ef irim vieri diictmercd by mcit trying to find the hcH armt 
fm- mar. At firit fer ali purposes eopper was empleyed, beeaust mort 
eommeitt and eaiier to viark. Iit battlc, toa, they learned te maie usc of 
chariots and clcphanfs. 1281-I307. 

1184. silv. fra^ina: i.e., 'broken from trees.' laSg. aete 

etc. : edd. notice the resembiance lo Hesiod, 'Works and Days,' 
150-1: — 

TOij 8' ^y x^"" /■*" Tf^x™. X^i"»' '^ T» 0^0«, 
XaA*¥ y ttpyiC'"'' tti\ai t' otiK toKt oltTipvt. 

lagi. oUis: see n. to t, 672. 1394. versa etc. : this may re- 

fer, as Bentley and Munro observe, to the use of ihe braiea sickle 
"inmagical and unlawful ritcs ; " cf. Verg. Aen, 4, $l3faUiiuset mcs- 
_ saead lunam quaeruntur acnis Puhcntes herhae ; Ov. Met. 7, 22^ partint 
suecidit curvamine faliis acnac. " But Lucr. may merely mean 'vrent 


38« LUCRETiUS [V. 1296- 

out of fashton,' 'fett into disgrace.'" iigC. ezaeqaata : i.c, by 

tbe usc of tlie same kind of wcapons on both sides. 1300. bis 

binos : qiiadrHugos. 1301. fBlciferos cuttub : used tjji tlie Asiatic 
nations, f rom the cajliest times. 1302. boves lucas : ' elephants ' ; 
called ' Lucanian cattte ' because Che firat elephuiis tbe Romans ever 
sanwerein Lucania,in the army o£ Pyrrhus. See Plin. N. H, 8, § 16; 
Var. L. L. 7, g 39. >303' snEaimaiiuB : found also 2. 537, and ai 

course applied otily to the eleptiant. Edd. quote Cic. N. D. 2, 47, 122 
matmt iHam data elephanle isl, qtiia prapter magidtndinem torporis diffi- 
cilit aditui haieliat ad paitmii. 1305. alid : see n. to i, 263. 

Balls, loe, and inari and limt viere med in a<sr, but emJyfor a tane ; 
^, frenBtd, they deslroyed /riend and foe alike in rutkiets slaugkter. 
Jt ii tikely they were tried only hy thi defeaUd in last resort. 130S- 

tgio. paKlm : see n. to 3, 78. 1311. his : moderari ia more 

commonly constTued with Ihe acc. 1315. Cf. 2, 632. 1330. nec : 
(lee n. to 3, 959. 1331. deplezae : found only here ; 'fastenii^ 

themselvea upon them.' 1334. hauribuM : =kaurie6ant; cf.934 

seibal and n. — suptcr : see nn. to 1, 79 and 66 contra. 1315. me- 

IWDt : sce n. to I, 272. 1328. fracta elc. : nottce the powerful 

effect of the repetitions. 1330-1. ' For the lame tieasts would try 

to avoid by shying to one side ihe cruel push of the lusli, or would rear 
up and paw the winds.' 1333. ab : refers, as oftcn, to the place or 

part concerned, 1335, in rebus a^undis : 'in thc heat of action.' 

For the torm of the gerundive see n. to i, 59. 1337. redducere: 

■ee n. to i, 228, I339- mactae : according to Munro, from ma- 

tfre, ' to beat,' ' strike,' ' hack about.' 1340-1346. Tbe last ttu^ee 

of these vss. are rejected l^y Lachmann, and the whote six by Munro. 
" as the work of an interpolator." Lach. reads sie tor si in 1341, wilh 
a period after/icfTvnf, and Iransposes 1342-3. 1345 is the same 

9. The Invention of Weaving. 1350-1360. 

T»e ari af weaving leas faund out after the diseimery af irett,frem 
which the maehiaery of it is made. At frst men moDe, thtn ■aiemtn. 


1378.] NOTES 383 

1350. Nesilia vestis : a skin or piece of bark tied on to tbe bodj. 
I3S3- insUia ttc. : paits of the toom ; iiailia (not found elsewhere), 
' heddles,' often mistrmslateii * treadles ' ; /uii, 'spitidles'; radii, 
'shuttles'; icqpi, 'yam-beanis.' See Smith'3 'Dict. of Antiq/ p. 
11:199, and Munro'B n. 1354. Herodotus says that, xllhough the 

, Egyplian weaving was done by Ihe meit (z, 35 ir raTiTi al iiir yarmKU 
iiyaviii(a<iai ciil «iritAi^iiirf ol H irSpts, kbt' oficovi iirrti J^^aJniHri), 
as early as the age of Homer the Greck women wove. '355'^ 

uam etc : " In out own day, when the induslry of women, step by 
Etep, — sometimes even with A leap, — is forcing its way iuto voca- 
tions devised and hitherto exclusively pursued by men, this thought is 
much more pertinent than in the timca of Epicurus and Lucretius, 
when sucb transferences of whole professions, so fai os we know, did 
not occuT." Lange, ' Hist. of Matcrialism,' i. 153--4- In his estimate 
ot the inferiority of woman^s ability Lucr. leflecta ihe general opinion 
of antiqoity. 1357. vitio etc. : the hard-working husbandmen so 

cried ahame opon Ihe malc weavers that thcse gladly gave tbe art 
over into the hands of the women, and engaged in more laborioiu 

PlaitHng and grafling naturt hcrjtlf taugkt ; afltr that mtn disam- 
endaiKbranek nf kuibandry aflir anelher. 1361-1378. 

1364. pnllonim: 'shoota.' 136S. terrain ; obj. of the ger- 

unds. 1374. caemla : the 'light-green,"greyish-green' olive 

orchards are 3 marked feature of the Ualian landscape. — inter 
plasa cur.: tmeais. 137B. arbustis ; here in its ordinary senae, 

'orchaida'; cf. n. to i, 187. 

it. The Invention ot Music. I379-U3S- 

Sottg mat learrud frem hirds ; tkt breeze tliming through rteds gotie 
tiem thtfirst netioH ef tht pipe, inhick they impreved upon with Hmt. 
With its limple mutic they viere pleaied at mirth-makingi, svlated in 
tmes Bf tpotehing, pltasedas mutk as vu lo^y imth finer strains. Fer 
mttt like ■what tkey havt if they have Anoain ttothing better ; and «mo 


384 LUCRETIUS [V. 1381- 

^eaple iavt tMoHed ff/tkai nntple foriy lifi, lud, igttfrant d/ Irue fileai- 
tere, muil needs revel in luxnry, vtxed vHtA idle eares. 1 379~I435- 

13S1. concclebrare : cf, n. to i, 4. 1383. zephyti : gen. 

1385. = 4, 585. 1386. repena : with Hiia. 1387. otia dla : 

i.e., an absolute and unrufiled calni, like the peace of the gods. The 
ptaces in the poet's mind are probably the higher mouatain lands, 
with their infrequent floclcs and sbepherds. . 1388-9 are the 

same as 14S4-5, and here inlerrupt the thought, hence are omitteA 
1391. tum etc. : when man's physical needs arc satisfied he takes de- 
■ light in liigher things. — cordi : ' agreeable.' Roby gives a £uU list o£ 
like datives, ' Gr.' ii. pref. ixv-lvi. 1393-6. Cf. 2, 29-33. '399- 
1400. CL 3, 912-3 and n. 1403. duriter ; ' awkwardly.' Notice 

the £ne adaptation of sound to sense. 1407. supera : see n. to 

I, 429. Cf. 4, 533. 140S. vigiles : public watchmen. 1409. 

recens : adv., as in 2, 416. 1414- " Wakefield gives us tbe choice 

oE two constructions ; illa mclior res posterior reperta perdil seiisus, 
wbich he prefers ; and poiterior res meiior perdil illa reperla; but 
there is a third course open to •11&, poslerior rei melior repcrta perdil 
illa [priera); and Ihat I doubt not is what Lucr. meant; he is suffi- 
cienlly indifferent to sucb ambigulties." Thus says Munro, and his 
interpretation is the most salisfactoiy, as it expliins pristina ; at best 
the sentence is puuling. 1415. Bensua ad : ' the Eeelings in regard 
to.' 1417- CE. 987. 1419-30. So great a novelly was the Grst 

garment o£ skins, and so great jcalousy it excited thal the man who 
wore it perished at the hands of his fcllows. i^ar. et tamen : 

' and (though they had disposed of the wearer) yet ' elc. ; see n. to l, 
lojo. 1433. see n. to 1113. 1418. signis : figuTes woven in 

the clolh, often with gold thread and of fine execution. ^430. 

frustra: see n. to 1002. i43>-3. See nn. to 3, 15 and i, ii3. 

1434. See n. to 1006. 

12. Progress in Knowledge and the Arts. .1436-1457. 

Tie ehatiges o/seasons atidtht/ixed Ioto o/tfieir saecesaon men leamed 
/rom Ihe courses c/thc sun and moon. 1436-1439. 

1436. mundl : as in 443 wheresee n. — templum : see n. toi,i20. 
1437. lustrantes etc. : MunrocomparesCic. Arat. tyj quattuor aetemo 
tttstratiUs lumine mundttm Orbes stelligrri etc. 



T%encamifi!rtifiedcUits,ditnsumBflands,tiaDigitim, Ireatia bttwent 
tlalti, litters, andpoiitry. 1440-1447. 

1441. See n. to itio. 1443. pappibus: see n. to i, 355. 

1445. elementa : i.e , Utterae, tbe alphabet ; cf. Snet Caes. 56 guar- 
tam tltmtntortan liittrcan, 1446-7. Cl.yi&ilteq. 

TAut tht arts, uitfid and artiaiitenlal aliii, koBe /oll^mid oni after 
ihi other in gradna! pragrets, vnlil vit hmit nvni reachid tht highest 
f9iia. 1448-1457. 

1451. <1»«i)al« ugna: 'skiUuUy wtouglit stUiiea.' '45^' 

C£. 1, 1115^7. 

Vniraiily Pm : John Witson & Son, Canibri<](C